计算机专业英语
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计算机专业英语 Computer English. 高等学校精品规划教材 主编:支丽平 出版社:中国水利水电出版社. 任课教师:张 弛. 湖南城市学院计算机科学系. 教学目标 教学内容. Unit 4 Network Technique. 了解计算机网络的发展史 理解网络安全的相关理论 了解虚拟化技术 掌握电子商务的相关技术 了解目前已经广泛使用的局域网技术. 教学目标. Text 1 Evolution of computer networks Text 2 Network Security

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Computer english

计算机专业英语

Computer English

高等学校精品规划教材

主编:支丽平 出版社:中国水利水电出版社

任课教师:张 弛

湖南城市学院计算机科学系


Computer english

教学目标

教学内容

Unit 4 Network Technique


Computer english

了解计算机网络的发展史

理解网络安全的相关理论

了解虚拟化技术

掌握电子商务的相关技术

了解目前已经广泛使用的局域网技术

教学目标


Computer english

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks

Text 2 Network Security

Text 3 Virtualization Technology

Text 4 Electronic Commerce

Text 5 LAN-Cruising

教学内容


Text 1 evolution of computer networks

Main Contents

Words and Expressions

Exercises

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks1

The term network can mean many different things. It can imply an interconnection of railway tracks for the rail network; highways and streets for transportation networks; telephone lines and switching centers for the phone network; coaxial lines for the cable television network; fiber lines for cable communications networks; or the interconnection of service centers, businesses, and so on to form a network. All of these configurations refer to the means to tie together various resources so that they may operate as a group, realizing the benefits of numbers, sharing, and communications in such a group.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks2

In computer systems terminology of a network is a combination of interconnected computing equipment and programs used for moving information (and computations) between points (nodes) in the network where it may be generated, processed, stored, or used in whatever manner is deemed appropriate. The interconnection may take on many forms, such as dedicated links, shared links, telephone lines, microwave links, and satellite links. Networks in this sense form a loose coalition of devices that share information. This was one of the first uses of a network, although it was not the last. Users found that the network could offer more than just information sharing; it could offer other services for remote job execution and ultimately distributed computing.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks3

The earliest concept of a network was of a loose binding together of devices or resources for sharing. An early computer network that exhibited these traits was the ARPANET. ARPANET was first brought on-line in 1969 as a research tool to investigate long-haul network issues and to provide a tool for research and development solutions. It has evolved into the Internet, connecting millions of computers over local area networks, metropolitan area networks, and other wide area networks. ARPANET provided the vehicle for early research into communications protocols dealing with congestion, control, routing, addressing, remote invocation, distributed computing, distributed operating systems and services, and many other areas.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks4

The reasons for using networks such as ARPANET were to provide greater availability and access to a wider range of devices. Early applications of computers dealt with performing engineering tasks and major data processing functions. As the technology of computers changed, and as researchers and users alike added more and more applications, information access and manipulation took on greater emphasis.

Earlier networks provided the necessary information exchange services but were limited to basically just this service. The information availability stimulated more imaginative uses of this information. As this occurred and the technology of networks improved, new applications arose. These new applications not only used information exchange but also remote job execution. It began simply as sending a batch job down the link to a less busy host, having the job completed there, and then shipping the results back to the originator.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks5

This sufficed for a while, but it still did not provide the real-time or interactive environments that users were beginning to become accustomed to, including more advanced protocols and network operating systems to provide further services for remote job invocation and synchronization. The era of the local area network was coming. The wide area networks' biggest shortfall was in throughput or turnaround time for jobs and interprocessor communications. Because of the wide distances, delays of seconds were commonplace and caused added overhead in performing otherwise simple tasks. Network designers saw the need to provide another link in the network: the local area network.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks6

Local area networks began showing up on the networking landscape in the early to mid 1970s as mostly research activities in universities and government laboratories. It was not until Ethernet was released in the mid 1970s that LANs became more widely available. Since that time, numerous LAN designs have been produced to fit an extremely wide spectrum of user requirements-for example, the fiber ring. Additionally, standards have evolved, providing basic LAN topologies and their services to a greater number of users.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks7

Local area networks are finding their way into all aspects of modern society. We find them in our homes through cable modems and phone modems, automobiles via wireless technologies, banking (e.g., ATMs), schools via Internet connections, businesses, government, and industry. There are not too many aspects of information exchange and data processing in which a LAN cannot be found. Local area networks and their associated technologies represent one of the great growth areas of the 1990s and early 2000s. As more and more LANs become available, so will new products and uses for them. LANs are used to connect all personal computers in offices, classrooms, factory floors, retail establishments, and now even many homes. They are used in these environments to send memoranda, issue directives, schedule meetings, transmit documents, send e-mail, discover new information, and process large volumes of data concurrently at many sites.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks8

LANs are used to link factory robots together with area and factory controllers. They provide sensor data, control data, and feedback to the control centers, while at the same time providing a vehicle to issue production changes and notices to users and robots alike. A fine example of a local area network providing diverse services to the users is seen in Walt Disney World. Disney uses LANs and computers to monitor all aspects of services, including fire protection, scheduling, ride management, on-line information, security, personnel services, and a plethora of other park management functions. Large banks, such as the World Bank, have adopted LANs as the means to interconnect their various local sites into smaller networks linked together by wide area networks. However, the LAN is not for everyone.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Text 1 evolution of computer networks9

Network evolution has not stopped there. As wireless technology has improved, so has the interest in networking vendors to provide their services to users of these domains. Wireless networks began fairly quietly in the 1970s with the Aloha net as the foundation. Since then, wireless phone network development has opened the door for computer networks. Today one of the great growth areas in networking will be in further developing wireless networks and integrating these into existing LAN and WAN networks to provide an even wider array of applications to the wireless cell phone community.

Text 1 Evolution of computer networks


Words and expressions

interconnection [intəkə'nekʃən] n. 网络互连

track [træk] n. 【计算机】数据磁道

cable ['keibl] n.电缆

coaxial ['kəu'æksəl] adj. 同轴传输线的

transportation [trænspɔ:'teiʃən] n. 运输,运输系统,运输工具

fiber ['faibə] n. 光纤

configuration [kənfigju'reiʃən] n. 【计算机】 配置

terminology [tə:mi'nɔlədʒi] n. 用辞,术语

microwave ['maikrəuweiv] n. 微波

dedicated ['dedikeitid] adj. 【计算机】(装置、程序、系统等)专用的

coalition [kəuə'liʃən] n. 结合,合并,联合

distributed [dis'tribju:tid] vt. 分布的,分布式的

loose [lu:s] adj. 宽松的,不牢固的,不精确的

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions1

binding ['baindiŋ] n.1. 捆绑;束缚;粘合;连接2. 捆缚物;束缚物;连接物3. (滑雪屐上的)扣栓,(滑雪板上的)皮靴固定装置4. (如桌布、毯子等的)镶边,滚带5. (书籍的)装订;装帧;活页封面和封底、封皮

ARPANET阿帕网

investigate [in'vestigeit] v. 【计算机】 研究

long-haul ['lɔŋ'hɔ:l; 'lɔ:ŋ-] adj.长远距的

metropolitan [metrə'pɔlit(ə)n] n. 大都市的居民,大主教,母国的居民adj. 大都市的

vehicle ['vi:ikl] n. 传播媒介,工具,手段,交通工具,车辆

congestion [kən'dʒestʃən] n. 【计算机】 拥挤

routing ['ru:tiŋ; 'rau-] n路由选择,路径选择

invocation [invəu'keiʃən] 【计算机】调用

availability [əveilə'biliti] n. 有效,有用,有益.

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions2

manipulation [mə,nipju'leiʃən] n. 处理

emphasi ['emfəsis] n. 强调,重点

stimulate ['stimjuleit] vt. 刺激,激励,鼓舞

batch [bætʃ] n.批, 成批, 分批

originator [ə'ridʒəneitə(r)] n. 创始人,发起人

sufficed [sə'fais] v. 足够,使...满足,合格

synchronization [siŋkrənai'zeiʃən] 同步化

shortfall ['ʃɔ:tfɔ:l] n. 不足之量,差额

throughput ['θru:put] n.【计算机】(计算机输入输出信息的)吞吐量,通过量,总处理能力

turnaround [‘tɜ:nəraʊnd] n.转变,突然好转

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions3

landscape ['lændskeip] n. 风景,山水,风景画

LANs abbr.局域网 (local area networks)

spectrum ['spektrəm] n. 光谱,(比喻)范围, 系列

fiber ['faibə] n. 纤维

memoranda [memə'rændə] n. 备忘录(便条)21世纪大英汉词典》concurrently [kən'kʌrəntli] adv. 同时(兼)

plethora ['pleθərə] n. 过量,过剩

vendor ['vendɔ:] n. 厂商

Aloha [ɑ:'ləuhɑ:] int. 哈罗,欢迎,再见21世纪大英汉词典》WAN [wɔn] (wide area network)广域网

Words and Expressions


Exercises

I. True or false? If correct, write T in parentheses; Otherwise, write F.

( )1. The term network can mean a same thing.

( )2. Users found that the network could offer information sharing only.

( )3. The earliest concept of a network was of a loose binding together of devices or resources for sharing.

( )4. An early computer network that exhibited these traits was the Internet.

( )5. Because of the wide distances, delays of minutes were commonplace and caused added overhead in performing otherwise simple tasks.

( )6. Local area networks began showing up on the networking landscape in the early to mid 1960s as mostly research activities in universities and government laboratories.

( )7. We find wide area networks in our homes through cable modems and phone modems, automobiles via wireless technologies, banking (e.g., ATMs), schools via Internet connections, businesses, government, and industry.

( )8. There are too many aspects of information exchange and data processing in which a LAN cannot be found.

( ) 9. LANs are used to connect all personal computers in offices, classrooms, factory floors, retail establishments, and now even many homes.

( )10. Large banks, such as the World Bank, have adopted LANs as the means to interconnect their various local sites into smaller networks linked together by wide area networks.

Exercises


Exercises1

II. Fill in the blanks with proper words.

1. __________was first brought on-line in 1969 as a research tool to investigate long-haul network issues and to provide a tool for research and development solutions.

2. __________ has evolved into the Internet, connecting millions of computers over local area networks, metropolitan area networks, and other wide area networks.

3. __________are finding their way into all aspects of modern society.

4. Large banks, such as the World Bank, have adopted __________ as the means to interconnect their various local sites into smaller networks linked together by wide area networks.

Exercises


Text 2 network security

Main Contents

Words and Expressions

Exercises

Text 2 Network Security


Text 2 network security1

Security is a broad topic and covers a multitude of sins. In its simplest form, it is concerned with making sure that nosy people cannot read, or worse yet, secretly modify messages intended for other recipients. It is concerned with people trying to access remote services that they are not authorized to use. It also deals with ways to tell whether that message purportedly from the IRS saying: Pay by Friday or else is really from the IRS and not from the Mafia. Security also deals with the problems of legitimate messages being captured and replayed, and with people trying to deny that they sent certain messages.

Text 2 Network Security


Text 2 network security2

Network security problems can be divided roughly into four closely intertwined areas: secrecy, authentication, nonrepudiation, and integrity control. Secrecy, also called confidentiality, has to do with keeping information out of the hands of unauthorized users. This is what usually comes to mind when people think about network security. Authentication deals with determining whom you are talking to before revealing sensitive information or entering into a business deal. Nonrepudiation deals with signatures: How do you prove that your customer really placed an electronic order for ten million left-handed doohickeys at 89 cents each when he later claims the price was 69 cents? Or maybe he claims he never placed any order. Finally, how can you be sure that a message you received was really the one sent and not something that a malicious adversary modified in transit or concocted?

Text 2 Network Security


Text 2 network security3

In the data link layer, packets on a point-to-point line can be encrypted as they leave one machine and decrypted as they enter another. All the details can be handled in the data link layer, with higher layers oblivious to what is going on. This solution breaks down when packets have to traverse multiple routers, however, because packets have to be decrypted at each router, leaving them vulnerable to attacks from within the router. Also, it does not allow some sessions to be protected (e.g., those involving on-line purchases by credit card) and others not. Nevertheless, link encryption, as this method is called, can be added to any network easily and is often useful.

Text 2 Network Security


Text 2 network security4

In the network layer, firewalls can be installed to keep good packets and bad packets out. IP security also functions in this layer.

In the transport layer, entire connections can be encrypted, end to end, that is, process to process. For maximum security, end-to-end security is required.

Finally, issues such as user authentication and nonrepudiation can only be handled in the application layer.

Since security does not fit neatly into any layer, it does not fit into any chapter of this book. For this reason, it rates its own chapter.

Text 2 Network Security


Text 2 network security5

It is well documented that most security failures at banks, for example, are due to incompetent employees, lax security procedures, or insider fraud, rather than clever criminals tapping phone lines and then decoding encrypted messages. If a person can walk into a random branch of a bank with an ATM slip he found on the street claiming to have forgotten his PIN and get a new one on the spot (in the name of good customer relations), all the cryptography in the world will not prevent abuse. In this respect, Ross Anderson's book is a real eye-opener, as it documents hundreds of examples of security failures in numerous industries, nearly all of them due to what might politely be called sloppy business practices or inattention to security. Nevertheless, we are optimistic that as e-commerce becomes more widespread, companies will eventually debug their operational procedures, eliminating this loophole and bringing the technical aspects of security to center stage again. Except for physical layer security, nearly all security is based on cryptographic principles.

Text 2 Network Security


Words and expressions4

Ross Anderson安德森,剑桥大学资讯安全工程讲师

loom [lu:m] n. 织布机v. 朦胧地出现,隐约可见

horizon [hə'raizn] n. 地平线;视野;眼界.

pitfall ['pitfɔ:l] n. 陷阱,诱惑,阴谋

algorithm ['ælgəriðəm] 算法

sin [sin] n. 罪,罪孽v. 犯罪

nosy ['nəuzi] adj. 鼻子大的,好管闲事的,爱追问的

recipient [ri'sipiənt] n. 接受者

authorized ['ɔ:θəraizd] adj. 经认可的,审定的,经授权的21世纪大英汉词典》purportedly [pə:'pɔ:tidli,'pə:p-,'pə:pət-] ad. 据称

IRS abbr. Internal Revenue Service 美国国税局

Mafia ['mɑ:fiə] n. 黑手党,秘密政党

legitimate [l i'dʒitimit] a. 合法的,正当的v. 使合法

malicious [mə‘liʃəs] a. 怀恶意的,恶毒的

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions5

perpetrator [pə:pi'treitə] n. 犯人,作恶之人

outsmart [aut'smɑ:t] v. 比...更聪明,打败

adversary ['ædvəsəri] n. 敌手,对手

well-funded资金充足的

thwart [θwɔ:t] a. 横坐板v. 反对,阻碍ad. 横过

perpetrate ['pə:pitreit] v. 做,犯

tapping ['tæpiŋ] n. 开孔(导出液体,放液,流出口,浇铸,抽头)

insider [in'saidə(r)] n. 内部的人,会员,知道内情的人

grudge [grʌdʒ] n. 怨恨,恶意v. 怀恨,嫉妒,吝惜

intertwined [intə:'waind] a. 互相缠结的,缠绕在一起的

secrecy ['si:krisi] n. 秘密(保密,隐蔽)

authentication[ɔ:,θenti'keiʃən] n. 证明,鉴定.

nonrepudiation认可

confidentiality [‘kɔnfi,denʃi’æləti] n. 秘而不宣,保密

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions6

unauthorized ['ʌn'ɔ:θəraizd] 非法的,越权的

doohickey ['du:,hiki] n. 小玩意,装置,窍门

malicious [mə'liʃəs] a. 怀恶意的,恶毒的

adversary ['ædvəsəri] n. 敌手,对手

transit ['trænsit] n. 经过,运输v. 横越

concoct [kən'kɔkt] vt.调制,配制

photocopy ['fəutəu,kɔpi] n. 影印v. 影印

tampering ['tæmpəriŋ] a. 干预的,干涉的

sealed [si:ld] a. 封口的,密封的

wiretapping ['waiə,tæpiŋ] vt.wiretap的变形n.搭线窃听adj.搭线窃听的

tube [‘tju:b] n. 地铁,电子管,显像管,管,软管

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions7

packe [pækt] adj.挤满的;塞满的压结实的;压紧的

encrypt [in'kript] vt. 把…编码

decrypt [di:'kript] v. 译,解释

oblivious [ə'bliviəs] a. 没注意到,或不知道

vulnerable ['vʌlnərəb(ə)l] a. 易受伤害的,有弱点的

lax [læks] a. 松的,松懈的,不严的

slip [slip] n. 滑,错误,下跌v. 滑倒,犯错,减退

cryptography [krip'tɔgrəfi] 密码术,密码系统

sloppy ['slɔpi] a. 被泼水弄湿的,泥泞的,多阴雨的

inattention [inə'tenʃən] n. 不注意,粗心,疏忽

debug [di:'bʌɡ] vt. 【计算机】调试;排除(程序)中的错误,排除故障

loophole ['lu:phəʊl] n. 枪眼,小窗,换气孔

Words and Expressions


Exercises2

I. True or false? If correct, write T in parentheses; Otherwise, write F.

( )1. Network security problems can be divided roughly into three closely intertwined areas: secrecy, authentication, and integrity control.

( )2. All these issues (secrecy, authentication, nonrepudiation, and integrity control) do not occur in traditional systems.

( )3. Integrity and secrecy are achieved by using registered mail and locking documents up.

( )4. With electronic checks, the original and the copy are distinguishable.

( )5. Tampering can usually be detected by handwriting, ink, and paper experts. None of these options are available electronically.

( )6.In the transport layer, firewalls can be installed to keep good packets and bad packets out.

( )7.Issues such as user authentication and nonrepudiation can not be handled in the application layer.

Exercises


Exercises3

II. Fill in the blanks with proper words.

1. For the first few decades of their existence, __________ were primarily used by university researchers for sending e-mail and by corporate employees for sharing printers.

2. __________, also called confidentiality, has to do with keeping information out of the hands of unauthorized users.

3. __________ deals with determining whom you are talking to before revealing sensitive information or entering into a business deal.

4. In the __________ layer, entire connections can be encrypted, end to end, that is, process to process.

Exercises


Text 3 virtualization technology

Main Contents

Words and Expressions

Exercises

Text 3 Virtualization Technology


Virtualization

Virtualization - the technique of managing systems and resources functionally, regardless of their physical layout or location - represents a powerful breakthrough in IT efficiency, responsiveness and agility.

    Since 2005, virtualization software was adopted faster than anyone imagined, including the experts. There are three areas of IT where virtualization is making headroads, network virtualization, storage virtualization and server virtualization.

Virtualization


Server virtualization

Server virtualization is the masking of server resources (including the number and identity of individual physical servers, processors, and operating systems) from server users. The intention is to spare the user from having to understand and manage complicated details of server resources while increasing resource sharing and utilization and maintaining the capacity to expand later. In general, server virtualization software runs between the operating system and the hardware. Server virtualization products are available from a number of vendors. VMware is the major software vendor providing server virtualization for Windows and Linux systems with Intel-powered servers. Microsoft offers its own Virtual Server product.

Server virtualization


Network virtualization

  Network virtualization is a method of combining the available resources in a network by splitting up the available bandwidth into channels, each of which is independent from the others, and each of which can be assigned (or reassigned) to a particular server or device in real time. Each channel is independently secured. Every subscriber has shared access to all the resources on the network from a single computer.

Network virtualization


Storage virtualization

Storage virtualization is the pooling of physical storage from multiple network storage devices into what appears to be a single storage device that is managed from a central console. Storage virtualization is commonly used in a storage area network (SAN). The management of storage devices can be tedious and time-consuming. Storage virtualization helps the storage administrator perform the tasks of backup, archiving, and recovery more easily, and in less time, by disguising the actual complexity of the SAN.

Virtualization can be viewed as part of an overall trend in enterprise IT that includes autonomic computing, a scenario in which the IT environment will be able to manage itself based on perceived activity, and utility computing, in which computer processing power is seen as a utility that clients can pay for only as needed. The usual goal of virtualization is to centralize administrative tasks while improving scalability and work loads.

Storage virtualization


Words and expressions8

Virtualization虚拟化技术

layout ['lei,aut] n. 布局,安排,设计

breakthrough ['breikθru:] n. 突破

responsiveness [ri'spɔnsivnis] n. 响应性(反应性)

agility [ə'dʒiliti] n. 敏捷,灵活,轻快

complicate['kɔmplikeit] v. 弄复杂,使错综,使起纠纷

masking ['mɑ:skiŋ] n. 遮蔽

spare [spєə] n. 剩余,备用零件,备用轮胎a. 多余的,备用的,简陋的

utilization [ju:tilai'zeiʃən] n. 利用

multiple ['mʌltipl] a. 多样的,多重的n. 倍数

VMware虚拟机 虚拟电脑, 虚拟主机

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions9

scale-out全面地

legacy ['legəsi] n. 祖先传下来之物,遗赠物

simulate ['simjuleit] vt. 模拟;装作

distribute [dis'tribju:tid] vt. 分布的,分布式的

consolidation [kən,sɔli'deiʃən] n. 巩固,团结,合并

splitting up n. 分裂

bandwidth ['bændwidθ] n. 频带宽度(通带宽度)subscriber[sʌbs'kraibə] n. 签署者,捐献者,订户

tedious ['ti:diəs] adj. 沉闷的, 单调乏味的

satisfaction [,sætis'fækʃən] n. 满意

optimize ['ɔptimaiz] v. 使...完美,乐观,使...完善v.优化

scalability [,skeilə‘biliti] n. 可扩充性 延展性

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions10

sudden ['sʌdn] n. 突然,忽然a. 突然的,快速的

surge [sə:dʒ] n. 巨涌,汹涌,澎湃v. 汹涌,澎湃

complexity [kəm'pleksiti] n. 复杂(性),复杂的事物

administrator [əd'ministreitə] n. 管理人,行政官

administrative [əd'ministrətiv] a. 行政的,管理的

automatically [ɔ:tə'mætikli] a. 不经思索的ad. 自动地

storage area network (SAN) 存储区域网络

archiving [ɑ:'kəviŋ] n.【计算机】归档,胶片保管

hybrid ['haibrid] n. 混血儿,杂种,混合物a. 混合的,杂种的,混合语的

centralize ['sentrəlaiz] v. 集聚,集中,施行中央集权

autonomic [ɔ:tə'nɔmik] adj. 自治的,自律的

scenario [si'nɑ:riəu] n. 情节,剧本

Words and Expressions


Exercises4

I. True or false? If correct, write T in parentheses; Otherwise, write F.

( )1. The intention of server virtualization is to let the user from have to understand and manage complicated details of server resources while increasing resource sharing and utilization and maintaining the capacity to expand later.

( )2. Vendors suggest that server virtualization allows a company to “scale-out”with multiple smaller computers as its processing needs grow rather than having to scale up to a more expensive multi-processor computer.

( )3. Server virtualization is frequently used to mask the complexities of server consolidation and is unrelated to the concept of the virtual machine, which uses a copy of an operating system to create the appearance of a full set of storage and other resources to each user.

( )4. Network virtualization is intended to optimize network speed, reliability, flexibility, scalability, and security.

( )5. Server virtualization is the pooling of physical storage from multiple network storage devices into what appears to be a single storage device that is managed from a central console.

( )6. Users cannot implement virtualization with software applications or by using hardware and software hybrid appliances.

Exercises


Exercises5

II. Fill in the blanks with proper words.

1. __________ is the technique of managing systems and resources functionally, regardless of their physical layout or location.

2. __________ virtualization is the masking of server resources (including the number and identity of individual physical servers, processors, and operating systems) from server users.

3. __________ virtualization is intended to improve productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction of the administrator by performing many of these tasks automatically, thereby disguising the true complexity of the network.

4. Storage virtualization is commonly used in a __________.

5. __________ virtualization helps the storage administrator perform the tasks of backup, archiving, and recovery more easily, and in less time, by disguising the actual complexity of the SAN.

Exercises


Text 4 electronic commerce

Main Contents

Words and Expressions

Exercises

Text 4 Electronic Commerce


Electronic commerce

Electronic Commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage. The use of commerce is conducted in this way, spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer, supply chain management,Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI),inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well.

Electronic Commerce


Early development

The meaning of electronic commerce has changed over the last 30 years. Originally, electronic commerce meant the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically, using technology such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). These were both introduced in the late 1970s, allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically. The growth and acceptance of credit cards, automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic commerce. Another form of e-commerce was the airline reservation system typified by Sabre in the USA and Travicom in the UK. During the 1980s, online shopping was used extensively particularly by auto manufacturers such as Ford, Peugeot-Talbot, General Motors and Nissan.From the 1990s onwards, electronic commerce would additionally include enterprise resource planning systems (ERP), data mining and data warehousing.

Early development


Business applications

Some common applications related to electronic commerce are the following:

E-mail

Enterprise content management

Instant messaging

Newsgroups

Online shopping and order tracking

Online banking

Online office suites

Domestic and international payment systems

Shopping cart software

Teleconferencing

Electronic tickets

Business applications


Forms

Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering “digital”content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to “meta”services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce.

On the consumer level, electronic commerce is mostly conducted on the World Wide Web. An individual can go online to purchase anything from books or groceries, to expensive items like real estate. Another example would be online banking, i.e. online bill payments, buying stocks, transferring funds from one account to another, and initiating wire payment to another country. All of these activities can be done with a few strokes of the keyboard.

On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce today.

Forms


Words and expressions11

World Wide Web万维网

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) 电子货币转帐

supply chain management供应链管理

Internet marketing网络营销

online transaction processing在线事务处理

electronic data interchange (EDI) 电子数据交换

inventory management systems存货管理

automated data collection systems自动数据收集系统

enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) 企业资源计划

data mining数据挖掘

data warehousing数据仓库

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions12

e-tailers n. 网上购物店,电子零售商

Electronic Commerce 电子商务

business-to-business or B2B adj.企业对企业的(电子商务)

business-to-consumer or B2C adj. 企业对消费者的(电子商务)

Amazon.com亚马逊网站

travicom n. 旅游计算公司

Boston Computer Exchange波士顿计算机交易所

strictly adv. 严格地

prohibited [prəu'hibitid] 被禁止的

Newsgroups n.【计算机】新闻组(即专题讨论组)

Online banking网上银行业务

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions13

Teleconferencing远程会议,电信会议

Electronic tickets电子票

Facilitate [fə'siliteit] v. 帮助,使...容易,促进

Groceries ['ɡrəusəri] n. 食品;杂货

transferring [træns'fə:riŋ] 印字、中转、转移、传递[导,送,输,热]

strokes [strəuk] n. 中风

institutions [,insti'tju:ʃən] n. 体系

facilitate [fə'siliteit] v. 帮助,使...容易,促进

domestic [də'mestik] adj. 国内的,家庭的,驯养的n. 家仆,佣人

integrity [in'tegriti] n. 诚实,正直,完整,完善

Words and Expressions


Exercises6

I. True or false? If correct, write T in parentheses; Otherwise, write F.

( )1. A small percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a website.

( )2. Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses and consumers, on the other hand, is referred to as business-to- business or B2B.

( )3.The growth and acceptance of credit cards, automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were not forms of electronic commerce.

( )4. From the 1980s onwards, electronic commerce would additionally include enterprise resource planning systems (ERP), data mining and data warehousing.

( )5. On the business level, electronic commerce is mostly conducted on the World Wide Web.

Exercises


Exercises7

II. Fill in the blanks with proper words.

1. __________ Commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks.

2. Online retailers are sometimes known as e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as __________.

3. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the __________.

4. Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as business-to-business or__________.

5. Data integrity and __________ are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce today.

Exercises


Text 5 lan cruising

Main Contents

Words and Expressions

Exercises

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Text 5 lan cruising1

The wheel hasn’t changed much over time apart from the addition of a tyre, and it’s this that most seriously affects its efficiency: a 10 per cent drop in optimum tyre pressure can easily add 10 per cent to the fuel consumption of the engine driving them.

So critical is tyre performance to road transport costs that engineers at Volvo Truck have developed an RF transmitter for each tyre on its massive trucks to send constant information to an in-dash display to warn drivers when any of up to 50 tyres are at anything other than perfect pressure.

A quarter of truck breakdowns are caused by tyre failure, starting as slow leaks and sometimes ending in explosion but certainly adding to rolling resistance and reduced life of expensive rubber.

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Text 5 lan cruising2

The matchbox-sized transmitters are fixed next to the valve and connected by a tiny tube to send a burst of eight readings every 15 minutes to a receiver and processor bolted to the chassis.

The processor sifts reports from each wheel to find the most accurate average, signalling an errant tyre on a schematic of the wheel configuration on an LCD screen in the dash.

The system’s CPU is one of 25 in the vehicle, together providing far more computing firepower than for the Apollo 13 landings.

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Text 5 lan cruising3

They control pretty well every function in the vehicle other than driving it: engine performance, brake pressure, gear changes and transmission management, air conditioning, and GPS-enabled locators.

While on-board computers have been increasingly gaining new tasks in trucks for nearly a decade, wireless networking has steadily replaced complex wiring looms to get information to the driver’s cab and beyond.

Already 30 per cent of the cost of a new car is in the electronics: the chips, wires and networks that support features ranging from automatic door locks to anti-lock brakes to airbag deployment.

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Text 5 lan cruising4

As automotive electronics become more complex, car manufacturers are borrowing a page from the network industry, relying on shared networks and standard protocols to support internal communications between control systems. They’re also turning to industry standards such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi to support links to external systems that provide traffic, weather, entertainment and other information.

Today’s cars have half a dozen different proprietary networks that carry messages from control systems to the devices being operated. Until recently, each car manufacturer and car model had its own network parts. These are hardened, automotive-specific networks with ultra-reliable electronic components that can withstand vibration and operate in extreme heat and cold.

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Text 5 lan cruising5

The latest trend is toward standardisation so car manufacturers can save money on components and software development.

Companies are converging on several standards for internal networks that address different speed requirements. At the same time carmakers are looking to extend the use of those networks to replace the spaghetti of wire used to support functions such as turning on the engine and operating lights.

More carmakers are going wireless to support a host of new navigation and safety services.

Bluetooth is the technology of choice to support mobile phones. The car industry is developing a special profile of the Bluetooth standard -dubbed Bluetooth Handsfree 2.0 - that will link a built-in microphone in the car to any mobile phone without requiring a docking station, allowing for hands-free calling.

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Text 5 lan cruising6

Longer term, car manufacturers plan to use Bluetooth to support services such as remote vehicle diagnostics, advanced safety features and vehicle-to-vehicle communications.

But Bluetooth is only one of the technologies that are emerging to connect the computer-based car to the outside world. The rising demand for in-vehicle entertainment services has carmakers looking at everything from satellite links to Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) and Wi-Fi.

On the horizon are real-time news, information and entertainment services that are integrated with in-vehicle entertainment systems. The most promising way to deliver these services is digital satellite radio. With improvements in compression techniques and smaller antennas, digital satellite also could deliver streaming video.

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Text 5 lan cruising7

Another technology that could bring high-speed, two-way communications to automobiles is DSRC. DSRC was designed specifically for the transportation industry to complement cellular communications, supporting 6 to 54Mbit/sec wireless data transfer rates. Mercedes-Benz has started shipping cars with DSRC support in Germany.

Further out on the horizon is in-vehicle support for Wi-Fi technology. In 2006, some car manufacturers have installed self-contained Wi-Fi to allow users to load music and files into the car. Users could download files and other content to the car such as traffic reports or news.

But use of Wi-Fi for Internet access while cars are in motion is still just a pipe dream today. You’d need to have Wi-Fi hot spots along the highway. That won’t happen anytime soon.

Text 5 LAN-Cruising


Words and expressions14

predominantly [,pri'dɔminənt] adj.占优势的,支配其他的,优越的,突出的,最显著的,主要的

subroutine [,sʌbru:'ti:n] n.子程序,【计算机】=subprogram21世纪大英汉词典》triggered ['triɡəd] adj. 有触发器的,触发器启动的,有扳机的

frequency ['fri:kwənsi] n. 频繁,频率

handler ['hændlə] n.处理程序21世纪大英汉词典》

latency ['leitənsi] n.潜伏,潜在,等待时间

queue [kju:] n.【计算机】等候行列,排队

nonpreemptive adj.非抢占式

scheme [ski:m] n. 方案,计划,阴谋;v. 计画,设计,体系,结构,图谋

idle [‘aidl] adj. 【机械学】空转的;慢转的;怠速的;【电子学】空载的;无功的

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions15

routine [ru:'ti:n] n.【计算机】程序;例行程序

Interpreter n.【计算机】 翻译器,译印机,解释程序,翻译程序

functionality [,fʌŋkəʃə'næliti] n. 函数性(泛函性,官能度) , 功能(尤指软件、硬件的功能)21世纪大英汉词典》conceptually [kən'septjuəli] adv. 概念地21世纪大英汉词典》parallel ['pærəlel] adj.【电子学、计算机】并联的;n.【电子学、计算机】并联的

potentially [pə'tenʃəli] adv. 潜在地,假定地.

MMU abbr.Memory Manager Unit内存管理单元

synchronization [,siŋkrənai'zeiʃən] n.同步化21世纪大英汉词典》semaphore ['seməfɔ:] n.信号灯,旗语

non-blocking adj.非阻塞

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions16

microkernel微核

Shell n.命令解译程序(连接并解译用户命令,调用并执行存储器中的程序)

allocate ['æləukeit] vi.&vt.【计算机】分配,指定,保留

extensible [ik'stensəbl] adj.可展开的,可伸展的,可延续的;可扩大的,可扩展的;可延伸的

downside ['daun,said] n. 消极面,负面

navigation [,nævi'geiʃən] n. 航行,航海

guarantee [,gærən'ti:] v.&n. 保证,担保;vt. 保证

RTOS abbr. Real Time Operating Systems实时操作系统

exotic [,iɡ‘zɔtik] adj. 1.外来的,非本地的;2.【核物理学】异的;极不稳定的

Words and Expressions


Words and expressions17

unobtainable ['ʌnəb'teinəbl] adj. 无法得到的, 难获得的

partition [pɑ:'tiʃən] n. 分割,隔离物,隔墙 ; v.区分,隔开,分割

mechanism ['mekənizəm] n. 机械,机构,结构,机制,原理

upper-layer adj.上层的

category ['kætigəri] n. 种类,类别

availability [ə,veilə'biləti] n.有效性;可用性,可得性,利用(或获得)的可能性

Words and Expressions


Exercises8

I. True or false? If correct, write T in parentheses; Otherwise, write F.

( )1. The loop calls subroutines, each of which manages all of the hardware or software.

( )2. This gives programmers an environment different to a desktop operating system like Linux or Microsoft Windows, and is therefore very productive for development.

( )3. An interrupt could be generated for example by a timer in a predefined frequency, or by a serial port controller receiving a byte.

( )4. After the interrupt handler has finished, these tasks are executed by any loop.

( )5. A nonpreemptive multitasking system is very different to the simple control loop scheme, except that the loop is hidden in an API.

( )6. The advantages and disadvantages are very similar to the control loop, so that adding new software is easier, by simply writing a new task, or adding to the queue-interpreter.

( )7. Because of these complexities, it is common for organizations to buy a real-time operating system, allowing the application programmers to concentrate on device functionality and operating system services.

( )8. smaller systems can afford the overhead associated with a generic real time system, due to limitations regarding memory size, performance, and/or battery life.

( )9. Microkernels communicate efficiently by normal subroutine calls.

( )10. A microkernel is a logical step up from a real-time OS.

Exercises


Exercises9

II. Fill in the blanks with proper words.

1. Some embedded systems are predominantly __________ controlled.

2. __________ communicate efficiently by normal subroutine calls.

3. Common examples of embedded monolithic __________ are Embedded Linux and Windows CE.

4. An interrupt could be generated for example by a __________ in a predefined frequency, or by a serial port controller receiving a byte.

5. A nonpreemptive multitasking system is very similar to the simple control loop scheme, except that the loop is hidden in an __________.

Exercises


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