Bacteria
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Bacteria:. Classification and Structure. What are the 6 Kingdoms?. Archaebacteria Eubacteria Protists Fungi Plants Animals. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Pro – before Karyon – nucleus The simplest forms of life are prokaryotes. Earth’s first cells were prokaryotes. Lots of Them!.

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Bacteria

Bacteria:

Classification and Structure


What are the 6 kingdoms

What are the 6 Kingdoms?

  • Archaebacteria

  • Eubacteria

  • Protists

  • Fungi

  • Plants

  • Animals


Bacteria are prokaryotes

Bacteria are prokaryotes

  • Pro – before

  • Karyon – nucleus

  • The simplest forms of life are prokaryotes.

  • Earth’s first cells were prokaryotes.


Lots of them

Lots of Them!

  • Prokaryotes are Earth’s most abundant life forms.

  • They can survive in many environments.

  • They can get energy from many different sources.


Prokaryote review

Prokaryote Review

  • Mostly single-celled

  • No nucleus or organelles

  • Circular chromosomes

  • Cell walls

  • Reproduce mostly asexually

  • Anaerobic or aerobic

  • Heterotrophic or autotrophic


We are looking at the first two

We are looking at the first two

  • Archaebacteria

  • Eubacteria


Classification of bacteria

Classification of Bacteria

  • Archaebacteria: extremists

  • Eubacteria:

    • Heterotrophs

    • Photosynthetic autotrophs

    • Chemosynthetic autotrophs


Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria

  • Methane producers – anaerobic

  • Halophiles

    • Halo = salt

    • Philia = love

  • Thermophiles

    • Thermo = heat


Archaebacteria1

Archaebacteria

  • Live in extreme locations:

    • Oxygen-free environments

    • Concentrated salt-water

    • Hot, acidic water


Eubacteria

Eubacteria

  • Parasitic heterotrophs (Streptococcus)

  • Saprophages

    • Sapro = death

    • Phage = eat

  • Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)

    • Photosynthetic

  • Chemosynthetic autotrophs (Rhizobium)


Eubacteria heterotrophs

Eubacteria - Heterotrophs

  • Found everywhere

  • Parasites: live off of other organisms

  • Saprobes: live off of dead organisms or waste (recyclers)


Eubacteria photosynthetic autotrophs

Eubacteria: Photosynthetic Autotrophs

  • Photosynthetic: make their own food from light

  • Cyanobacteria: blue-green, yellow, or red

  • ponds, streams, moist areas


Eubacteria chemosynthetic autotrophs

Eubacteria: Chemosynthetic Autotrophs

  • Get energy by breaking down inorganic substances like sulfur and nitrogen

  • Make nitrogen in the air usable for plants {Very Important}


Structure of bacteria

Structure of Bacteria

  • Two parts to Bacteria Structure:

    • Arrangement

    • Shape


Arrangement

Arrangement

  • Paired: diplo

  • Grape-like clusters: staphylo

  • Chains: strepto


Bacteria are named by shape

Bacteria are Named by Shape

  • Cocci (ball-shaped)

    • Streptococcus mutans

  • Bacillus (rod-shaped)

    • Clostridium botulinum

  • Spirilli (spiral-shaped)

    • Treponema palladium


Shape

Shape

  • Rod: bacillus

  • Spheres: coccus

  • Spirals: spirillum


Examples

Examples

  • Streptococcus: chains of spheres

  • Staphylospirillum: Grapelike clusters of spirals

  • Streptobacillus: Chains of rods


Germ theory of disease

Germ Theory of Disease

  • Joseph Lister – Aseptic Techniques

  • Robert Koch – Germ Theory

    • A specific microorganism causes a specific disease


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