Ultrasound
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Ultrasound. Ultrasound. What is Ultrasound Defined as sound w/ frequency > 20,000 cycles per sec Ultrasound travels thru materials Thermal & non-thermal properties. Ultrasound. Terminology Transducer (sound head) – converts electrical energy into sound energy

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Ultrasound1
Ultrasound

  • What is Ultrasound

    • Defined as sound w/ frequency > 20,000 cycles per sec

    • Ultrasound travels thru materials

    • Thermal & non-thermal properties


Ultrasound2
Ultrasound

  • Terminology

    • Transducer (sound head) – converts electrical energy into sound energy

    • Power (W) – amount of sound energy per unit of time

    • Intensity (W/cm2) – amount of power per unit time


Ultrasound3
Ultrasound

  • Terminology

    • Continuous US

    • Pulsed US


Ultrasound4
Ultrasound

  • Terminology

    • Pulsed US

      • Duty cycles

        • 20% duty cycle – 20% on : 80% off

        • 50% duty cycle – 50% on : 50% off


Ultrasound5
Ultrasound

  • Terminology

    • Frequency – number of cycles per sec (Hz)

      • 1.0 MHz penetrates deeper tissues

      • 3.0 MHz or 3.3 MHz penetrates more superficial tissues

      • Phonophoresis – application of US with a topical drug


Generation of ultrasound
Generation of Ultrasound

  • Crystals in the sound head expand & contract in response to electrical current resulting in resonating ultrasound


Effects of ultrasound
Effects of Ultrasound

  • Thermal Effects

    • Tissues Affected


Effects of ultrasound1
Effects of Ultrasound

  • Thermal Effects

    • Factors Affecting the Amount of Temperature Increase

      • Areas of increased collagen content achieve higher temps

      • Areas of greater circulation cooler faster

      • Thicker tissues heat slower


Effects of ultrasound2
Effects of Ultrasound

  • Thermal Effects

    • Applying Other Physical Agents in Conjunction With Ultrasound

      • Hot pack prior to US

      • US & electrical stimulation

      • US & cryotherapy – used to limit/control thermal effects of US


Effects of ultrasound3
Effects of Ultrasound

  • Nonthermal Effects

    • Increase intracellular Ca

    • Increase skin & membrane permeability (phonophoresis)

    • Increase macrophage response

    • Increase protein synthesis by fibroblasts


Clinical applications of ultrasound
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound

  • Soft Tissue Shortening

    • Thermal effects

  • Pain Control

    • Thermal effects


Clinical applications of ultrasound1
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound

  • Dermal Ulcers

    • Thermal effects

    • Increased macrophage activity

    • Increased protein synthesis by fibroblasts


Clinical applications of ultrasound2
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound

  • Surgical Skin Incisions

    • Thermal effects

    • Increase macrophage response

    • Increase protein synthesis by fibroblasts


Clinical applications of ultrasound3
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound

  • Tendon Injuries

    • Thermal effects

    • Increase macrophage response

    • Increase protein synthesis by fibroblasts



Clinical applications of ultrasound5
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound

  • Bone Fractures

    • Promotes healing

    • Simulates osteoblast activity

    • Increase intracellular Ca

  • Reabsorption of Calcium Deposits

    • Unknown how this occurs


Clinical applications of ultrasound6
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

  • Phonophoresis

    • Unit on phonophoresis in your book is required reading


Contraindications for the use of ultrasound
Contraindications for the Use of Ultrasound

  • Malignant Tumor

  • Pregnancy

  • Central Nervous System Tissue

  • Joint Cement


Contraindications for the use of ultrasound1
Contraindications for the Use of Ultrasound

  • Plastic Components

  • Pacemaker

  • Thrombus

  • Eyes

  • Reproductive Organs


Precautions for the applications of ultrasound
Precautions for the Applications of Ultrasound

  • Acute Inflammation

  • Epiphyseal Plates

  • Fractures (high frequency US)

  • Breast Implants


Adverse effects of ultrasound
Adverse Effects of Ultrasound

  • Adverse effects are “rare”

  • Burn is the most common adverse effect


Ultrasound6
Ultrasound

Autosound video




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