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Ultrasound. Ultrasound. What is Ultrasound Defined as sound w/ frequency > 20,000 cycles per sec Ultrasound travels thru materials Thermal & non-thermal properties. Ultrasound. Terminology Transducer (sound head) – converts electrical energy into sound energy

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Presentation Transcript
ultrasound1
Ultrasound
  • What is Ultrasound
    • Defined as sound w/ frequency > 20,000 cycles per sec
    • Ultrasound travels thru materials
    • Thermal & non-thermal properties
ultrasound2
Ultrasound
  • Terminology
    • Transducer (sound head) – converts electrical energy into sound energy
    • Power (W) – amount of sound energy per unit of time
    • Intensity (W/cm2) – amount of power per unit time
ultrasound3
Ultrasound
  • Terminology
    • Continuous US
    • Pulsed US
ultrasound4
Ultrasound
  • Terminology
    • Pulsed US
      • Duty cycles
        • 20% duty cycle – 20% on : 80% off
        • 50% duty cycle – 50% on : 50% off
ultrasound5
Ultrasound
  • Terminology
    • Frequency – number of cycles per sec (Hz)
      • 1.0 MHz penetrates deeper tissues
      • 3.0 MHz or 3.3 MHz penetrates more superficial tissues
      • Phonophoresis – application of US with a topical drug
generation of ultrasound
Generation of Ultrasound
  • Crystals in the sound head expand & contract in response to electrical current resulting in resonating ultrasound
effects of ultrasound
Effects of Ultrasound
  • Thermal Effects
    • Tissues Affected
effects of ultrasound1
Effects of Ultrasound
  • Thermal Effects
    • Factors Affecting the Amount of Temperature Increase
      • Areas of increased collagen content achieve higher temps
      • Areas of greater circulation cooler faster
      • Thicker tissues heat slower
effects of ultrasound2
Effects of Ultrasound
  • Thermal Effects
    • Applying Other Physical Agents in Conjunction With Ultrasound
      • Hot pack prior to US
      • US & electrical stimulation
      • US & cryotherapy – used to limit/control thermal effects of US
effects of ultrasound3
Effects of Ultrasound
  • Nonthermal Effects
    • Increase intracellular Ca
    • Increase skin & membrane permeability (phonophoresis)
    • Increase macrophage response
    • Increase protein synthesis by fibroblasts
clinical applications of ultrasound
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound
  • Soft Tissue Shortening
    • Thermal effects
  • Pain Control
    • Thermal effects
clinical applications of ultrasound1
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound
  • Dermal Ulcers
    • Thermal effects
    • Increased macrophage activity
    • Increased protein synthesis by fibroblasts
clinical applications of ultrasound2
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound
  • Surgical Skin Incisions
    • Thermal effects
    • Increase macrophage response
    • Increase protein synthesis by fibroblasts
clinical applications of ultrasound3
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound
  • Tendon Injuries
    • Thermal effects
    • Increase macrophage response
    • Increase protein synthesis by fibroblasts
clinical applications of ultrasound5
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound
  • Bone Fractures
    • Promotes healing
    • Simulates osteoblast activity
    • Increase intracellular Ca
  • Reabsorption of Calcium Deposits
    • Unknown how this occurs
clinical applications of ultrasound6
Clinical Applications of Ultrasound
  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Phonophoresis
    • Unit on phonophoresis in your book is required reading
contraindications for the use of ultrasound
Contraindications for the Use of Ultrasound
  • Malignant Tumor
  • Pregnancy
  • Central Nervous System Tissue
  • Joint Cement
contraindications for the use of ultrasound1
Contraindications for the Use of Ultrasound
  • Plastic Components
  • Pacemaker
  • Thrombus
  • Eyes
  • Reproductive Organs
precautions for the applications of ultrasound
Precautions for the Applications of Ultrasound
  • Acute Inflammation
  • Epiphyseal Plates
  • Fractures (high frequency US)
  • Breast Implants
adverse effects of ultrasound
Adverse Effects of Ultrasound
  • Adverse effects are “rare”
  • Burn is the most common adverse effect
ultrasound6
Ultrasound

Autosound video

slide36

Use of Ultrasound Debate

    • http://ptjournal.apta.org/site/misc/podcasts.xhtml#discussions
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