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Bellringer & Section 1 Notes

Chemists and other scientists write the element names so often that they have developed a system of short symbols. Most of the symbols are one or two letters taken from the element’s name. Some of the elements have symbols that derive from their Latin names. What is important about knowing the symbols is that scientists from all over the world are able to communicate, no matter what language they speak.

Complete the right column of the table below, using the following names: boron, bromine, calcium, magnesium, neon, nitrogen, silicon, sulfur, zinc.

2. Which four elements do you think were used before modern times?

(Hint: Prior to modern times, scientists frequently used Latin rather than English to communicate. Because of that, the symbols of these elements

do not match the English names.)

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Complete the right column of the table below, using the following names: boron, bromine, calcium, magnesium, neon, nitrogen, silicon, sulfur, zinc.

A. Magnesium

B. Bromine

C. Nitrogen

D. Sulfur

E. Calcium

F. Boron

G. Zinc

H. Silicon

I. Neon

2. Which four elements do you think were used before modern times? Hint: Prior to modern times, scientists frequently used Latin rather than English to communicate. Because of that, the symbols of these elements do not match the English names.)

Sodium - Na, Potassium - K, Silver - Ag, and Iron - Fe

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Section 1

What Is Matter?

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I. Composition of Matter

Chemistry –

Made up of three parts:

1. What things are made of.

2. What their properties are.

3. How they interact & change.

B. Matter –

Has _____ & takes up _____.

mass

space

C. All matter is made up of _______.

ATOMS

1. Elements – made of the same type of atoms.

2. We recognize 115 elements.

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D. Compounds - made from atoms of two or more

elements.

Compounds usually have a different appearance than the elements that make them up.

E. Chemical Formula – The ratio of atoms that make up a chemical formula.

C9H8O4

Two parts:

Chemical symbols

b. Numbers of atoms

Subscript: tells the number of carbon (C) atoms

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F. Practice – Name the:

1. element and the number of those elements

2. Total number of atoms in the molecule

Example: NaCl

Symbol

Element

# of Atoms

Na

Sodium

1 atom

Cl

Chlorine

1 atom

Total

2 atoms

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F. Practice – Name the:

1. element and the number of those elements

2. Total number of atoms in the molecule

C8H10N4O2

C3H8O

H2O2

C6H12O6

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F. Practice – Name the:

1. element and the number of those elements

2. Total number of atoms in the molecule

Carbon 8 atoms

Hydrogen 10 atoms

Nitrogen 4 atoms

Oxygen 2 atoms_

Total: 24 atoms

C8H10N4O2

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F. Practice – Name the:

1. element and the number of those elements

2. Total number of atoms in the molecule

2. Carbon 3 atoms

Hydrogen 8 atoms

Oxygen 1 atoms_

Total: 12 atoms

2. C3H8O

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F. Practice – Name the:

1. element and the number of those elements

2. Total number of atoms in the molecule

3. Hydrogen 2 atoms

Oxygen 2 atoms_

Total: 4 atoms

3. H2O2

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F. Practice – Name the:

1. element and the number of those elements

2. Total number of atoms in the molecule

4. Carbon 6

Hydrogen 12

Oxygen 6_

Total: 24

4. C6H12O6

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II. Pure Substances & Mixtures

Pure Substance –

Has a fixed composition & definite properties

Pure Substance – all molecules are the same.

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B. Mixture –

Combination of two or more substances

Mixture – composed of different types of molecules.

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C. Pure substance OR Mixture?

Water:

hydrogen peroxide:

Dr. Pepper:

Mayonnaise:

Diamond

Pencil Lead

Pure Substance

Pure Substance

Mixture

Mixture

Pure Substance

Pure Substance

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III. Heterogeneous and Homogeneous mixtures

A. Heterogeneous Mixtures –

Substances are not mixed uniformly and are not evenly distributed

Italian salad dressing is a heterogeneous mixture.

The ingredients will settle If the bottle is left standing.

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B. Homogeneous Mixtures –

Substances are mixed evenly

Water is a homogeneous mixture

Vinegar is a homogeneous mixture made of acetic acid and water

Kool Aid is a homogeneous mixture composed of water, flavoring, and sugar

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Assignment:

Workbook Pg. 6

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