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误差理论与测量平差基础 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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误差理论与测量平差基础. 第 7 章 间接平差 主讲:王华. 主要内容. 间接平差原理 误差方程 精度评定 间接平差公式汇编和水准网平差示例 间接平差特例 - 直接平差 三角网坐标平差 测边网坐标平差 导线网间接平差 GPS 网平差 七参数坐标转换平差. 1. 间接平差原理. 间接平差原理. 间接平差(参数平差法)选定 t 个独立参数,将每个观测量的平差值分别表达成这 t 个参数的函数,按最小二乘原理,用求自由极值的方法解出参数的最或然值,从而求得各观测量的平差值。 间接平差函数模型. ( 7-1-1 ). 观测值方程:. ( 7-1-2 ).

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误差理论与测量平差基础

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3252214

7


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  • -

  • GPS


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1.


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  • tt

7-1-1

7-1-2

X0,

7-1-4

7-1-3

L0=BX0+dl l L L0Dl =DL=D,Qll=QLL=Q, l


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  • n


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7-1-7

7-1-8

7-1-77-1-8


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V

7-1-9

7-1-10

NBB

7-1-11

7-1-12

7-1-13


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  • t

  • V


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n=5t=3BCD

7-17-1AHA=237.483,BCDBCD

1


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2

10km


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3

4

5


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7-2


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7-1-1

7-1-5

7-1-4

7-1-3

7-1-9

7-1-11

7-1-13

7.1.04


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2.


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  • t


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  • t=2

  • 7-2jhkLjhLjkjo j

  • jk

7-2-1

7-2-2

jk


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jk

7-2-3

7-2

7-2-5


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7-2-6

7-2-8


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7-2-12

7-2-2 jk

7-2-14

7-2-15


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1

7-2-14

j

k


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7-2-19


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7-3 7-3ABCD7-2107-3D


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n=10, 14Z t = 2 + 4 =6

BADD

7-4


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7-4

Z0

nj j A


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7-5

7-4ab7-5l


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7-5


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7-4j,k,h

l


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7-2-29


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7-4 7-56ABC 7-27-6


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1D7-2-22

2ab


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37-5

:


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4

=1


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D


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  • 7-6jkLi


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7-2-31

7-2-33

7-2-33x/y

j

k

jkkj


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7-5 7-7L1 = 387.363m, L2 =306.065m, L3 = 354.862m,ABC7-7

1n=3, t=2,DABL1 L27-8h ABDABlL1AB


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2

7-2-34


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  • m

  • R it=3+mn=2mr=m-3


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DEMGPS


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3.


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  • VTPV


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  • QLL=Q


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7-3-7


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  • t7-10AHAP1P2P3P3P2

    P1 P3


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7-5DAD

t


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m


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7-6 7-11ABHAHBS1=4km, S2=2km, S3=2km, S4=4kmP1P2

P1P2

C=44km1


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7-4

7-7 7-5,7-4DDA

1DA


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7-7 7-5,7-4DDA

2

3


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7-4

4

5


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7.2.18/19/217.3.31/40


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4.


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7-1-1

7-1-5

7-1-4

7-1-3

7-1-9

7-1-11

7-1-13

7-3-2

7-3-16

7-3-13

7-3-14

7-3-17


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7-8 5-14

1

2CD

3CD

:(1)C/D/E


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7-8 5-14

1

2CD

3CD

(2)

1pi=1/si


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3V

4

CD

CD


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5.-


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n pi Li


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6.


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7-11

7-9 7-12ABCDP1P2187-117-12


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  • 7-9 7-12ABCDP1P2187-117-12

7-12


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1t=4,

AB


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2


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3


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4P

5

1

2

7-16


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6

1

2


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7.4.45/467.6.53


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7.


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  • ab(ppm),Si


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7-107-13,ABCDP1 P2 P3 P4133mm+1ppm


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1

ABL1 L2P1P1 A L3 L4P2P1 P2L10 L5P3P1 P3L9 L12P4


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2

7-19


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3

4


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5.

1

27-19


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6

1

2


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8.


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  • n1n2n=n1 +n2,


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PD

1

7-8-7

2

3 2/m22/mm2


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7-11 7-14107


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n=17,t=52=10

1

p1437-25G

2

7-25

3

0=10

7-26p144).


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47-26

57-26


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6

1

2

7

1

2


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  • 7.7.58

  • 7.8.61

  • 7.10.65

  • 7.10.69


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