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Climate Change 1020. Lecture Oct 16, 2006 Lis Cohen. Today’s Lecture. Weather What makes weather? Is energy from the sun evenly distributed? Sun heating the earth Deficits and Excess How does this energy move to create less of a gradient (difference over space)?

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Climate change 1020

Climate Change 1020

Lecture Oct 16, 2006

Lis Cohen


Today s lecture
Today’s Lecture

  • Weather

    • What makes weather?

      • Is energy from the sun evenly distributed?

        • Sun heating the earth

        • Deficits and Excess

      • How does this energy move to create less of a gradient (difference over space)?

        • One cell vs. Three cell model

        • Pressure Gradient Force, Coriolis, Friction

      • What moves the energy?

        • Mid latitude storms


What makes weather
What makes weather?

  • Unequal heating of the Earth!!!

    • This unequal energy is moved and distributed to other places on Earth.


Although, Energy in = Energy out,

the distribution of energy with latitude is uneven.


Tropics have a surplus of energy and the poles a deficit. A net poleward transport of energy is therefore required.

ENERGY


http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.phphttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.phphttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


Our atmosphere is a three cell model. http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php

These three cells transport energy to the poles.

http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


Other planets show evidence of multiple cell atmospheres…http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


How does the energy heat move from equator to the poles

How does the energy (heat) move from equator to the poles?http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php

Vertical winds and horizontal winds transport the energy!


Winds patterns balance of 3 forces
Winds Patterns http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.phpBalance of 3 forces

  • The pressure gradient force causes wind to blow from high pressure toward low pressure.

  • The coriolis force causes wind to be deflected to the right of the motion in the northern hemisphere.

  • Friction which slows the wind.


Pressure gradient force
Pressure Gradient Forcehttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php

http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/pgf.rxml


If the earth was not spinning, http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php

air would move directly from high

to low pressure areas.

http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


Winds patterns are a balance of 3 forces
Winds Patterns are a http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.phpbalance of 3 forces

  • The pressure gradient force causes wind to blow from high pressure toward low pressure.

  • The coriolis force causes wind to be deflected to the right of the motion in the northern hemisphere.

  • Frictionwhich slows the wind.


Coriolis effect
Coriolis Effecthttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


Coriolis videos
Coriolis Videoshttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php

  • Video 1 of the Coriolis Effect


Coriolis northern hemisphere air moves to the right of the initial motion
Coriolishttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php(Northern Hemisphere- air moves to the right of the initial motion)

Direction of initial motion


Coriolis northern hemisphere air moves to the right of the initial motion1
Coriolishttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php(Northern Hemisphere- air moves to the right of the initial motion)

  • Highs – clockwise rotation

  • Lows – counterclockwise rotation (cyclonic)

  • Northern Hemisphere Surface map

  • Northern Hemisphere Satellite map

  • Northern Hemisphere Wind map


Coriolis southern hemisphere air moves to the left of the initial motion
Coriolishttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php(Southern Hemisphere - Air moves to the left of the initial motion)

Direction of initial motion


Coriolis southern hemisphere air moves to the left of the initial motion1
Coriolishttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php(Southern Hemisphere - Air moves to the left of the initial motion)

  • Highs- counterclockwise rotation

  • Lows- clockwise rotation

  • Southern Hemisphere Satellite

  • Southern Hemisphere Winds

  • Southern Hemisphere Pressure


Coriolis earth turns underneath the slower wind
Coriolis http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php(earth turns underneath the slower wind)

Direction of initial motion


Coriolis effect1
Coriolis Effecthttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.phphttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php


Winds patterns are a balance of 3 forces1
Winds Patterns are a http://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.phpbalance of 3 forces

  • The pressure gradient force causes wind to blow from high pressure toward low pressure.

  • The coriolis force causes wind to be deflected to the right of the motion in the northern hemisphere.

  • Friction which slows the wind.


Pressure gradient and coriolis
Pressure Gradienthttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php and Coriolis

H

L

Initial Motion


Pressure gradient and coriolis and friction
Pressure Gradienthttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php and CoriolisandFriction

H

L

Initial Motion


Pressure gradient and coriolis and friction1
Pressure Gradienthttp://teacherresourceexchange.org/science/coriolis/index.php and CoriolisandFriction

H

L

New Motion


The poleward transport of energy occurs in the fronts and low pressure systems of the middle latitudes.


Warm fronts
Warm Fronts low pressure systems of the middle latitudes.

COLD AIR

COLD AIR

Transport warm air and water vapor (energetic water) from the equator, to the poles.


Warm fronts1
Warm Fronts low pressure systems of the middle latitudes.

COLDER AIR

WARM AIR


Cold fronts
Cold Fronts low pressure systems of the middle latitudes.

COLD AIR

Cold fronts usually transport colder and drier air

(less energetic air) towards the equator.

WARM AIR


Water Vapor Transport Pathway low pressure systems of the middle latitudes.


Energy emitted by the earth most is absorbed by atmosphere

Atmospheric Window: low pressure systems of the middle latitudes.Important to the energy balance of the planet. A body at 288 K (Earth) temperature emits most of its energy in this wavelength region.

IR satellites use this window to see the temperature of the cloud tops.

Energy Emitted by the EarthMost is absorbed by atmosphere


Meteo 1020 Lecture 3 low pressure systems of the middle latitudes.

Weather and Climate

This figure shows the transparency of various wavelength bands important to absorption of energy in the earth’s atmosphere

Satellite images in this band are from reflected sunlight

Atmospheric Window - Wavelength region of infrared satellite images- responds to the temperature of the cloud tops.

The atmospheric window is also important to the energy balance of the planet. A body at 288 K temperature (the earth’s average surface temperature) emits most of its energy in this wavelength region.


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