What is chemistry
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What is Chemistry. Chemistry ‑ the study of matter and the changes matter undergoes. Matter ‑ something that has mass and takes up space (has a volume). States of Matter. Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy-

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What is Chemistry

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What is chemistry

What is Chemistry

  • Chemistry ‑ the study of matter and the changes matter undergoes.

  • Matter ‑ something that has mass and takes up space (has a volume).


States of matter

States of Matter

  • Law of Conservation of Mass & Energy-

    • Matter can never be created nor destroyed; neither gained nor lost. It must be conserved.


Mass vs weight

Mass vs. Weight


Characteristics of matter

Characteristics of Matter

Chemical Properties

  • Ability for a substance to undergo a chemical change (new stuff)

  • Examples.

    • Ability to burn

    • Ability to rust

    • Ability to sour


Physical properties

Physical Properties

Physical Properties observed or measured

without altering makeup of substance (still the same

stuff)

  • Examples

    • mass

    • weight

    • volume

    • color

    • solubility

    • luster

    • melting point

    • boiling point


Intensive vs extensive properties

Extensive

depends on amount of matter present

Examples

mass

weight

volume

Intensive:

doesn't depend on amount present

Examples

color

solubility

luster

melting point

boiling point

Intensive vs. Extensive Properties


Classification of matter

Classification of Matter

Separation


Classification of matter1

Classification of Matter

Pure Substances

  • Elements- 118 on Periodic Table organized according to properties.

  • Named after famous scientists, countries, states, and planets

  • Abbreviation (Element symbols) begin with first letter capitalized.

  • Examples

    • Al - aluminum

    • O - oxygen

    • Hg - mercury (Latin hydrargyum)

    • Au - gold (Latin Aurum)

    • Cl - chlorine


Classification of matter2

Classification of Matter

Compounds: element combined in a

chemical rxn (reaction).

  • Can not be physically separated.

  • Many have both common names and scientific names.

  • Abbreviations (Chemical formulas) use element symbols

  • Examples

    • NaClsodium chloridesalt

    • NaOHsodium hydroxideDrano

    • NaHCO3sodium bicarbonate Baking Soda

    • H2ODihydrogen monoxideWater


Separation

Separation

Separation by Physical Means

  • Filtration

  • Evaporation

  • Distillation

  • Chromatography

Pure Substances

Mixtures

Separation


Classification of matter3

Classification of Matter

Mixtures: can be physically separated

  • Methods of separation

    • Filtration – solid/liquid

    • Evaporation or crystallization – dissolved substance

    • Distillation – purifies a liquid or separates 2 liquids, based on different boiling points

    • Chromatography – separates a solution by allowing it to flow along a stationary substance (liquid, gas, paper).


Classification of matter4

Classification of Matter

Types of Mixtures

Homogeneous - the same composition throughout

  • Examples:

    • Pure air or Solutions (Kool-aid)

    • Alloys – Brass, Steel, Silverware

      Heterogeneous- varying composition throughout

  • Examples:

    • Chocolate Chip Cookies

    • River water


Types of changes

Types of Changes

Substances can undergo three types of

changes:

  • Physical

  • Chemical

  • Nuclear


Physical

Physical

  • Physical- though appearance (color, shape) may change, the mass will still be the same since the molecules remain the same

  • Examples:

    • Bending

    • Tearing

    • Melting


Separation cont d

Separation Cont’d

Compounds can only be separated chemically into elements

Elements

Compounds

Separation


Chemical

Chemical

  • Chemical- (Rxn) the structure of the substance changes. The new substance possesses different chemical and physical properties

  • Examples:

    • Burning

    • Molding

    • Souring


Parts of chemical rxn

Parts of Chemical RXN

2 parts to a Chemical Rxn

  • Reactants  Products

  • Starting substances yields new substances with new properties.

    Three Indicators of Chemical Rxn’s

  • Formation of heat and/or light (energy)

  • Formation of a new gas (bubbles or fizzes)

  • Formation of a precipitate (solid formed for two solutions)


Nuclear

Nuclear

  • the structure of the nucleus changes. The energy involved is 6 to 8 times the Magnitude of a chemical or physical change.


Bunsen burner notes

Bunsen Burner Notes


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