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Energy, environment, justice. Chris Greacen Sheila Bijoor Palang Thai www.palangthai.org. Outline. Problems Global warming (only part of the “energy-environment crisis”) Causes Impacts Solutions? Saving energy Renewable energy. Getting hotter:1000 years of global temperature.

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Energy environment justice

Energy, environment, justice

Chris Greacen

Sheila Bijoor

Palang Thai

www.palangthai.org


Outline
Outline

  • Problems

    • Global warming (only part of the “energy-environment crisis”)

      • Causes

      • Impacts

  • Solutions?

    • Saving energy

    • Renewable energy



Global temperature dramatically increases, especially during the last decade and scientists predicts the future surface temperature to be …

During the last 100 years

ช่วงที่มีการสังเกตการณ์

Projections in

the next 100 years

ในรอบ 1,000 ปีที่ผ่านมา

Source: IPCC, 2001 Seehttp://www.ipcc.ch/present/graphics/2001syr/small/05.24.jpg




Carbon dioxide the last 10 000 years
Carbon Dioxide - The Last 10,000 years hotter

Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols with different colours for different studies) and atmospheric samples

(red lines).


Rising co 2 measured since 1958
Rising CO hotter2 – measured since 1958


Man made co 2 in 2002 of total
Man-made CO hotter2 in 2002 (% of total)

Source: IEA


Per Capita CO hotter2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry, 1996

Thailand (1997): 0.77


Cumulative co 2 emissions 1900 1999
Cumulative CO hotter2 emissions 1900-1999

From fossil fuel combustion and land-use change

From WRI (Baumert and Kete 2002)


Per capita income ppp 1999
Per capita income (PPP) 1999 hotter

From WRI (Baumert and Kete 2002)


The champagne glass
The Champagne Glass hotter

UNDP, Human Development Report, 1998


Electricity use in thailand in 2003
Electricity use in Thailand in 2003 hotter

Source: Figure 19, Statistical Report Fiscal Year 2003 Power Forecast and Statistics Analysis Department System Control and Operation Division. Report No. SOD-FSSR-0404-05


โรงไฟฟ้าพลังความร้อน hotter

โรงไฟฟ้าพลังน้ำ

โรงไฟฟ้าพลังความร้อนร่วม

แม่เมาะ 2,625 MW

เทินหินบุน 214 MW

สิริกิติ์ 500 MW

ภูมิพล 736 MW

น้ำพอง 710 MW

N

ลานกระบือ 169 MW

NE

ปากมูล 136 MW

เขาแหลม 300 MW

ห้วยเฮาะ 133 MW

C

ลำตะคอง 500 MW

ศรีนครินทร์ 720 MW

วังน้อย 2,031 MW

  • EPEC 350 MW

บางปะกง 3,675 MW

บ่อวิน 713 MW

  • TECO 700 MW

  • ราชบุรี

  • 3,645 MW

ระยอง 1,232 MW

IPT

700 MW

Metro

เขต กทม.

พระนครใต้ 2,288 MW

หนองจอก 366 MW

S

  • ขนอม 824 MW

รัชชประภา 240 MW

ระบบส่ง 230,000 โวลต์

ระบบส่ง 500,000 โวลต์

  • สุราษฎร์ 240 MW

โรงไฟฟ้ากังหันแก็ส

บางลาง 72 MW



Some effects of climate change

1993 hotter(2536)

2000 (2543)

Some effects of climate change…

Snow on Mt. Kilmanjaro (Kenya) almost all melted within the past 7 years

Source: IUCN


Polar ice melting

Ice melting areas hotter

Polar ice melting

Albedo Effect

กรีนแลนด์ บริเวณขั้วโลกเหนือ

Source of picture: bbc.co.uk


Source: Government of South Australia, 2005 hotterSee http://www.climatechange.sa.gov.au/greenhouse/greenhouse.htm



Impact on Bangladesh of sea rise of 1.5 meters hotter

Source: UNEP/GRID Seehttp://www.grida.no/climate/vital/33.htm




Economic impacts especially from extreme weather
Economic impacts -- especially from extreme weather hotter

“2005 Atlantic hurricane season has clearly been the most active season on record”

www.pewclimate.org/hurricanes.cfm#5



Source: BBC UK, 2005; UNEP, 2006 hotterSeehttp://www.grida.no/climate/vital/32.htm


Climate change used to justify big dams
Climate change used to justify… hotterBIG DAMS

  • Ecological/social damage from flooding

  • Decimated fish stocks

  • Especially impacts rural politically disempowered

  • (Often does cause climate change)


Nuclear
NUCLEAR hotter

  • Expensive

  • Waste deadly for at least 250,000 years

  • We can’t figure out how to dispose of waste

  • Unavoidable weapons linkages


Global warming is only a tiny part of the energy ecology society story
Global warming is only a tiny part of the energy/ecology/society story…

  • One large shopping mall (average consumption): 10 Megawatt

  • Pak Mun Dam (average production): 40 Megawatt

    • Fish stocks decimated

    • 10 years of protest, 5000 villagers

    • Communities forcefully relocated


Are there alternatives yes
Are there alternatives? … yes… energy/ecology/society story…

  • Save energy

  • Use clean (renewable) energy


Real buddhist values
(Real) Buddhist values energy/ecology/society story…

  • Moderation / simplicity

  • Emphasis on “being” rather than “having”


Energy waste in a typical pumping system
Energy waste in a typical pumping system energy/ecology/society story…


Saving electricity is cheaper than generating it
Saving electricity is cheaper than generating it energy/ecology/society story…

Demand Side Management (saving electricity)

Source: The World Bank (1993)


GHGs emissions from energy/ecology/society story…

household and daily activities

ที่มา : Australian Greenhouse Office (2003) See http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/gwci/index.html


ปลูกสร้างอาคารให้สอดคล้องกับทิศการรับความร้อน ปลูกต้นไม้ให้ความร่มรื่น และช่วยลดอุณหภูมิ

South

ที่มา : Australian Greenhouse Office (2003)



Source: Presentation by Ministry of Energy at Energy Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003


Very little electricity comes from renewables
Very little electricity comes from renewables… Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

0.6% from Renewable Energy

Source: EGAT PDP 2003


Old way Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

New way

Power plant

Power plant

Biomass

Wind power

Biomass

Solar

Customers

Energy efficient end-use


Biogas from pig farms

Reduces air and water pollution Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

Produces fertilizer

Produces electricity

Biogas from Pig Farms


Biogas from pig farms1
Biogas from Pig Farms Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003


Korat waste to energy biogas
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

  • Uses waste water from cassava to make methane

  • Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity

  • Earns high market returns

  • Developer estimates 300 MW from waste water + 800 MW from wet cake


Korat waste to energy biogas1
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

  • 3 x 1 MW Jenbacher gas generators


Micro hydroelectricity
Micro-hydroelectricity Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

Source: Inversin, A. R. (1986). Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook.


40 kw micro hydro generator at mae kam pong
40 kW micro-hydro generator at Mae Kam Pong Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003


Replacing small diesel generators with renewable energy
Replacing small diesel generators with renewable energy Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003


Kre Khi village micro-hydro Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 20032003


Kre Khi village Microhydro Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

Estimated power: 500 Watts

Head: 8 meters

Flow: 20 liters/second

Total Installed cost: $2500


E Wi Jo village microhydro Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

Estimated power: 750 Watts

Head: 20 meters

Flow: 20 liters/second

Total installed cost: <$2000


3 kW Pump as Turbine Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003


Community micro hydro
Community micro-hydro Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

  • Mae Kam Pong village, Chiang Mai

  • 40 kW

  • Community cooperative

  • Expected gross revenues: $750/month


What to do
What to do? Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

  • Get informed

  • Get involved:

    • Public hearings

    • Help make alternatives happen

    • Save energy

Meeting to discuss village micro-hydro renewable energy project in Mae Kam Pong Village, Chiang Mai


Thank you
Thank you! Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003

For more information contact:

Tel. (+011) 662-672-0364

[email protected]

[email protected]

www.palangthai.org

Download presentation slides & documents at:

http://www.palangthai.org/docs/index


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