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Energy, environment, justice. Chris Greacen Sheila Bijoor Palang Thai www.palangthai.org. Outline. Problems Global warming (only part of the “energy-environment crisis”) Causes Impacts Solutions? Saving energy Renewable energy. Getting hotter:1000 years of global temperature.

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Energy environment justice

Energy, environment, justice

Chris Greacen

Sheila Bijoor

Palang Thai

www.palangthai.org


Outline

Outline

  • Problems

    • Global warming (only part of the energy-environment crisis)

      • Causes

      • Impacts

  • Solutions?

    • Saving energy

    • Renewable energy


Getting hotter 1000 years of global temperature

Getting hotter:1000 years of global temperature


Energy environment justice

Global temperature dramatically increases, especially during the last decade and scientists predicts the future surface temperature to be

During the last 100 years

Projections in

the next 100 years

1,000

Source: IPCC, 2001 Seehttp://www.ipcc.ch/present/graphics/2001syr/small/05.24.jpg


Energy environment justice

Greenhouse effect how greenhouse gases make the world hotter


Energy environment justice

How the world gets hotter


Carbon dioxide the last 10 000 years

Carbon Dioxide - The Last 10,000 years

Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols with different colours for different studies) and atmospheric samples

(red lines).


Rising co 2 measured since 1958

Rising CO2 measured since 1958


Man made co 2 in 2002 of total

Man-made CO2 in 2002 (% of total)

Source: IEA


Energy environment justice

Per Capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry, 1996

Thailand (1997): 0.77


Cumulative co 2 emissions 1900 1999

Cumulative CO2 emissions 1900-1999

From fossil fuel combustion and land-use change

From WRI (Baumert and Kete 2002)


Per capita income ppp 1999

Per capita income (PPP) 1999

From WRI (Baumert and Kete 2002)


The champagne glass

The Champagne Glass

UNDP, Human Development Report, 1998


Electricity use in thailand in 2003

Electricity use in Thailand in 2003

Source: Figure 19, Statistical Report Fiscal Year 2003 Power Forecast and Statistics Analysis Department System Control and Operation Division. Report No. SOD-FSSR-0404-05


Energy environment justice

2,625 MW

214 MW

500 MW

736 MW

710 MW

N

169 MW

NE

136 MW

300 MW

133 MW

C

500 MW

720 MW

2,031 MW

  • EPEC 350 MW

3,675 MW

713 MW

  • TECO 700 MW

  • 3,645 MW

1,232 MW

IPT

700 MW

Metro

.

2,288 MW

366 MW

S

  • 824 MW

240 MW

230,000

500,000

  • 240 MW

72 MW


Small residential customers use very little

Small residential customers use very little


Some effects of climate change

1993 (2536)

2000 (2543)

Some effects of climate change

Snow on Mt. Kilmanjaro (Kenya) almost all melted within the past 7 years

Source: IUCN


Polar ice melting

Ice melting areas

Polar ice melting

Albedo Effect

Source of picture: bbc.co.uk


Energy environment justice

Source: Government of South Australia, 2005 See http://www.climatechange.sa.gov.au/greenhouse/greenhouse.htm


Impacts flooding sea level rise

Impacts: flooding & sea-level rise


Energy environment justice

Impact on Bangladesh of sea rise of 1.5 meters

Source: UNEP/GRID Seehttp://www.grida.no/climate/vital/33.htm


Energy environment justice

Apart from CO2 reduction, adaptation is needed


Impacts extreme weather events

Impacts: extreme weather events


Economic impacts especially from extreme weather

Economic impacts -- especially from extreme weather

2005 Atlantic hurricane season has clearly been the most active season on record

www.pewclimate.org/hurricanes.cfm#5


Impacts in parts of the world less rain less crops

Impacts: in parts of the world -- less rain, less crops


Energy environment justice

Source: BBC UK, 2005; UNEP, 2006 Seehttp://www.grida.no/climate/vital/32.htm


Climate change used to justify big dams

Climate change used to justifyBIG DAMS

  • Ecological/social damage from flooding

  • Decimated fish stocks

  • Especially impacts rural politically disempowered

  • (Often does cause climate change)


Nuclear

NUCLEAR

  • Expensive

  • Waste deadly for at least 250,000 years

  • We cant figure out how to dispose of waste

  • Unavoidable weapons linkages


Global warming is only a tiny part of the energy ecology society story

Global warming is only a tiny part of the energy/ecology/society story

  • One large shopping mall (average consumption): 10 Megawatt

  • Pak Mun Dam (average production): 40 Megawatt

    • Fish stocks decimated

    • 10 years of protest, 5000 villagers

    • Communities forcefully relocated


Are there alternatives yes

Are there alternatives? yes

  • Save energy

  • Use clean (renewable) energy


Real buddhist values

(Real) Buddhist values

  • Moderation / simplicity

  • Emphasis on being rather than having


Energy waste in a typical pumping system

Energy waste in a typical pumping system


Saving electricity is cheaper than generating it

Saving electricity is cheaper than generating it

Demand Side Management (saving electricity)

Source: The World Bank (1993)


Energy environment justice

GHGs emissions from

household and daily activities

: Australian Greenhouse Office (2003) See http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/gwci/index.html


Energy environment justice

South

: Australian Greenhouse Office (2003)


California energy conservation programs save 1000 per family year

California energy conservation programs save $1000 per family/year


Energy environment justice

Source: Presentation by Ministry of Energy at Energy Strategy Workshop chaired by Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. 28 August 2003


Very little electricity comes from renewables

Very little electricity comes from renewables

0.6% from Renewable Energy

Source: EGAT PDP 2003


Energy environment justice

Old way

New way

Power plant

Power plant

Biomass

Wind power

Biomass

Solar

Customers

Energy efficient end-use


Biogas from pig farms

Reduces air and water pollution

Produces fertilizer

Produces electricity

Biogas from Pig Farms


Biogas from pig farms1

Biogas from Pig Farms


Korat waste to energy biogas

Korat Waste to Energy - biogas

  • Uses waste water from cassava to make methane

  • Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity

  • Earns high market returns

  • Developer estimates 300 MW from waste water + 800 MW from wet cake


Korat waste to energy biogas1

Korat Waste to Energy - biogas

  • 3 x 1 MW Jenbacher gas generators


Micro hydroelectricity

Micro-hydroelectricity

Source: Inversin, A. R. (1986). Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook.


40 kw micro hydro generator at mae kam pong

40 kW micro-hydro generator at Mae Kam Pong


Replacing small diesel generators with renewable energy

Replacing small diesel generators with renewable energy


Energy environment justice

Kre Khi village micro-hydro2003


Energy environment justice

Kre Khi village Microhydro

Estimated power: 500 Watts

Head: 8 meters

Flow: 20 liters/second

Total Installed cost: $2500


Energy environment justice

E Wi Jo village microhydro

Estimated power: 750 Watts

Head: 20 meters

Flow: 20 liters/second

Total installed cost: <$2000


Energy environment justice

3 kW Pump as Turbine


Community micro hydro

Community micro-hydro

  • Mae Kam Pong village, Chiang Mai

  • 40 kW

  • Community cooperative

  • Expected gross revenues: $750/month


What to do

What to do?

  • Get informed

  • Get involved:

    • Public hearings

    • Help make alternatives happen

    • Save energy

Meeting to discuss village micro-hydro renewable energy project in Mae Kam Pong Village, Chiang Mai


Thank you

Thank you!

For more information contact:

Tel. (+011) 662-672-0364

[email protected]

[email protected]

www.palangthai.org

Download presentation slides & documents at:

http://www.palangthai.org/docs/index


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