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THE DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT and THE THREAT OF PEACE in the context of CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT. LECTURE AT Academic Staff College University of Mysore September 8, 2011. Maj Gen (Retd) S.G.Vombatkere, VSM, PhD Mysore Tel :0821-2515187 E-mail :<[email protected]>.

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slide1

THE DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT

and

THE THREAT OF PEACE

in the context of

CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT

LECTURE AT

Academic Staff College

University of Mysore

September 8, 2011

Maj Gen (Retd) S.G.Vombatkere, VSM, PhD

Mysore

Tel:0821-2515187

E-mail:<[email protected]>

slide2

THE ECONOMICS OF CONFLICT

and

THE THREAT OF PEACE

in the context of

CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT

IN THREE PARTS

PART 1 – THE CONTEXT OF

CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT

PART 2 – CONFLICT & ITS DYNAMICS

PART 3 – THE THREAT OF PEACE or WHO BENEFITS FROM CONFLICT?

slide3

PART 1

THE CONTEXT OF

CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT

slide4

DEVELOPMENT TODAY

TODAY DEVELOPMENT IS ABOUT GDP GROWTH AND THE MARKET … “MARKET ECONOMICS”

POLITICS SHOULD BE USED TO IMPLEMENT IDEOLOGY AND POLICY, AND ECONOMICS USED AS A TOOL TO REMOVE POVERTY & BRING PROSPERITY TO ALL

POLITICSSHOULD BE ABOUT PEOPLE – INTERACTION, CONSULTATION, CONSENSUS, DEBATE, MANAGEMENT – BUT IT IS NOT; IT IS ABOUT ECONOMICS

PARTY-CENTRED, MONEY-DRIVEN, ELECTORAL POLITICS INSTEAD OF PEOPLE-CENTRED POLITICS

slide5

POLITICS SHOULD USE ECONOMICS AS A TOOL;INSTEAD, TODAY ECONOMICS DRIVES AND DICTATES POLITICS

slide6

POLITICS TODAY

MANIPULATING or

CREATING SITUATIONS FOR PERSONAL, CASTE, or PARTY’s BENEFIT

PEOPLE’s, STATE’s or NATIONAL INTEREST IS SECONDARY or MISSING

slide7

INDIA SHINING, etc

URBAN-INDUSTRIAL INDIA

IS PERHAPS ON THE MOVE, BUT RURAL-AGRICULTURAL BHARAT SUFFERS SERIOUS ECONOMIC VIOLENCE

slide8

ECONOMIC VIOLENCE

If economic power is wielded to perpetuate unjust relations, then violence is taking place, and remaining silent condones the violence.

- M.K.Gandhi

slide9

PROGRESS & DEVELOPMENT

THE POOR WANT PERSONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH – AND ESSENTIAL MINIMUM FOR

QUALITY OF LIFE

BUT POLITICIANS & BUREAUCRATS AND THE GMIC WANT STANDARD OF LIVING AND “PROGRESS”

slide10

R.K.LAXMAN

ON PROGRESS

slide11

THE WORLD BANK’s

POVERTY INDICATOR

THE WORLD BANK\'S DEFINITION OF THE POVERTY LINE FOR “UNDER DEVELOPED” COUNTRIES LIKE INDIA, IS US$ 1/DAY/PERSON

BY THIS DEFINITION, MORE THAN 80% OF ALL INDIANS WOULD BE BELOW THE POVERTY LINE

(Arjun Sengupta Report: 836M<Rs.20 & of them, 239M<Rs.10)

THIS WAS UNACCEPTABLE IF WB or ADB LOANS WERE TO BE NEGOTIATED, SO

THE POVERTY LINE WAS REDEFINED

slide12

INDIA’s POVERTY LINE‏

  • RURAL – Rs.356 (US$8) / MONTH / PERSON
  • URBAN – Rs.538 (US$12) / MONTH / PERSON
  • (BOTH ARE WAY, WAY BELOW THE WORLD

BANK’s YARDSTICK OF “$1 PER DAY”)‏

AN URBAN FAMILY OF FIVE WITH GROSS MONTHLY EARNINGS OF Rs.2,700 (US$56) IS JUST ON THE STARVATION BORDERLINE, BUT IS APL !

SO, BY CHANGING THE METHOD OF COMPUTATION, POVERTY WAS REDUCED TO 26.1%

slide13

TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION BELOW POVERTY LINE IS 26.1%

Source : Selected Socio - economic Statictics , India - 2001

Planning Commission

Indira Chakravarty : 23 - 24 Jaunary, 2006

slide14

JUSTICE & EQUITY IN INDIA

GOVERNMENT’S FORMULAE

GOVERNMENT FORMULA FOR BPL (26.1%) & APL

“SINCE WE CANNOT AFFORD TO FEED ALL THE HUNGRY, THERE MUST ONLY BE AS MANY HUNGRY AS WE CAN AFFORD TO FEED” … P.SAINATH, The Hindu, July 6, 2010; “Food Security – of BPL, APL and IPL”

BUT GOVERNMENT FORMULA FOR INDUSTRY

PROVIDED Rs.5 LAKH CRORES TAX EXEMPTIONS TO INDUSTRY AND THE WEALTHY UNDER JUST THREE HEADS OF THE CURRENT BUDGET, AND SANCTION HUNDREDS OF SEZs TO BENEFIT INDUSTRIALISTS, WITH TAX BREAKS AND LEGAL EXEMPTIONS

slide15

HOW TO HAVE FOOD SECURITY

FOOD EXPORTED AT RATES LOWER THAN BPL SALE RATE;

FOOD IMPORTED AT RATES HIGHER THAN MARKET RATE;

FCI WAREHOUSES USED TO STOCK LIQUOR WHILE GRAIN LIES IN THE OPEN;

LOSSES OF MILLIONS OF TONS OF FOODGRAIN TO WEATHER, RODENT & INSECT ATTACK, BUT NO FREE SUPPLY TO STARVING PEOPLE BECAUSE TRANSPTN IS TOO EXPENSIVE & PRICE LEVEL TO BE MAINTAINED;

FOOD LOSSES COST Rs.60,000 CRORES ANNUALLY – FOOD FOR THE POOR IS NOT AS IMPORTANT AS CRICKET

slide16

CALLING THE BLUFF

IF ONLY 26.1% PEOPLE ARE BPL, LET US SEE

NUTRITION & HEALTH

DATA FROM THE VERY SAME SOURCE THAT SHOWS THESTARK REALITY …

slide17

Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Children (age 6-35 months) by State (1998-99) (States better than Indian average) …

74.3%

Source : NFHS- 2, India 1998-99

Indira Chakravarty : 23 - 24 Jaunary, 2006

slide18

Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Children (age 6-35 months) by State (1998-99) (States worse than Indian average)‏

74.3%

Source : NFHS- 2, India 1998-99

Indira Chakravarty : 23 - 24 Jaunary, 2006

slide19

THE GREEN REVOLUTION

AND

THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY, 1991

AVERAGE DAILY NET FOOD AVAILABILITY

(GRAMS PER CAPITA PER DAY)

1955-582005-08

FOODGRAIN 440 436

PULSES 70 35

THE “GREEN REVOLUTION” WAS ONLY A QUALIFIED SUCCESS, AND NEP-1991 IS AN

ON-GOING DISASTER

slide20

POVERTY FIGURES WERE MANIPULATED

TO ATTRACT FOREIGNDIRECTINVESTMENT

AND

TO MAKE “THE ECONOMY” GROW FASTER

BUT WHAT ABOUT THE PEOPLE ?

slide21

FOOD SECURITY

MODERN HI-TECH SOLUTIONS

INSTEAD OF SAFE STORAGE AND JUST AND EQUITABLE FOOD DISTRIBUTION

  • SMART CARDS
  • FOOD STAMPS
  • CASH TRANSFERS
  • UID NUMBERS**

**Rs.50,000 CRORES SCHEME

slide22

SO WHO BENEFITS FROM, AND IS CONTENTED WITH, THE CURRENT DEVELOPMENT?

SURELY NOT 70% OF INDIA’s POPULATION WHICH LIVES ON LESS THAN Rs.20 PER DAY !

slide23

IN INDIA’s 1.2 BILLION POPULATION

INDIA’s 49 DOLLAR BILLIONAIRES TOGETHER OWN $191 BILLION (25% OF INDIA’s GDP) … AND INCREASINGLY THEY INFLUENCE AND “RUN” GOVERNMENTS.

INDIA ALSO HAS 100,000 DOLLAR MILLIONAIRES,

70% OF MPs ARE (DECLARED) CROREPATIs.

slide24

CAUSES OF SOCIAL UNREST

HUNGER or FEAR OF HUNGER

HUNGER AMONG FOOD PRODUCERS

FARMERS’ FAILURES & SUICIDES

FOOD WASTED OR STOLEN (CORRUPTION)

EMPHASIS ON URBAN-INDUSTRIAL SECTOR AT COST OF RURAL-AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

DISPLACEMENT – LAND, WATER & FOREST

slide25

LAND, WATER & FOREST

  • LIBERALIZATION OF THE ECONOMY – LARGE-SCALE

INVESTMENT BY MNCs NECESSARY FOR ECONOMIC

GROWTH & NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

  • LAND NEEDED FOR EXTRACTIVE & PRODUCTIVE

INDUSTRIES, ESPECIALLY IN CENTRAL INDIAN

STATES – ORISSA, CHHATTISGARH, JHARKHAND, MP

  • MoUs SIGNED BETWEEN GOVERNMENTS & MNCs

MUST BE HONOURED – LAND MUST BE ACQUIRED

  • OBSTRUCTION TO LAND ACQUISITION IS “ANTI-DEVLP”

AND “ANTI-NATIONAL”

  • WIDESPREAD PROTESTS AGAINST DISPOSSESSION,

DISPLACEMENT … AND DESTITUTION

ADIVASI PEOPLE’S SLOGAN IN MAHARASHTRA:

Jal, jangal, zameen konyachi? Aamichi! Aamichi!

slide26

DISPLACEMENT EFFECTS

DISPLACEMENT MAKES THE POOR BUT INDEPENDENT INTO DESTITUTE, DEPENDENT, DISCONTENTS … AND SOME BECOME MILITANT

OF 60 MILLION DISPLACED SINCE INDEPENDENCE, 40% ARE ADIVASI

INDEPENDENT INDIA’s DISPLACEMENT RECORD IS WORSE THAN TWO CENTURIES OF EUROPEAN SLAVE TRADING

slide27

BIG MONEY RULES & RUNS INDIA

INDUSTRIALIZATION AS IDEOLOGY

PLANNING FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH INDUSTRIALIZATION HAS SERIOUS ILL EFFECTS ON POOR PEOPLE and THE ENVIRONMENT

slide28

IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO IMAGINE THAT PEOPLE WHO ARE FORCIBLY DISPLACED WILL EVER TRUST THE STATE

(EXECUTIVE, LEGISLATIVE & JUDICIARY)

OR REGARD IT WITH FAVOUR

IS THIS THE RIGHT WAY TO GO, WHERE EVERYONE LOSES EXCEPT THE BIG CORPORATIONS AND CORRUPT OFFICIALS ?

slide29

PART 2

CONFLICT AND ITS DYNAMICS

slide30

PROTEST

ARISES WHEN THERE IS ACTUAL OR PERCEIVED DENIAL OR RESTRICTION OF SOME RIGHT,

OR LOSS OR INFRINGEMENT OF SOME FREEDOM

slide31

THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF GOVERNMENT IS TO

DELIVER BASIC CIVIC SERVICES AND SECURITY TO PEOPLE,

ENSURE THEIR BASIC RIGHTS AND

ENHANCE THEIR FREEDOMS

slide32

GOVERNMENT’S PRIMARY TASK IS ADMITTEDLY NOT AN EASY ONE, BUT …

WHEN GOVERNMENT FAILS IN ITS PRIMARY FUNCTION,

PROTEST

INVARIABLY FOLLOWS

slide33

FORMS OF PROTEST

  • PERSUASION
  • NON-COOPERATION
  • NON-VIOLENT INTERVENTIONS
  • ACTIONS
  • MILITANCY
slide34

GOVERNMENT AS BULLY

PEOPLE WHO DEMAND THEIR RIGHTS OR PROTEST GOVERNMENT’S PLANS ARE USUALLY IGNORED AT FIRST.

LATER, WHEN THE PROTESTS BECOME EFFECTIVE, POLICE FORCE IS USED EVEN AGAINST PEACEFUL PROTESTORS.

PEOPLE IN AUTHORITY IN GOVERNMENT PLAN AND EXECUTE PROJECTS FOR THE “PUBLIC GOOD”, BUT TREAT POOR AND UNEMPOWERED PEOPLE

CALLOUSLY & WITHOUT COMPASSION.

slide35

GOVERNMENT AS BULLY

OFTEN, GOVERNMENT WILL PARLEY OR NEGOTIATE WITH MILITANT OBJECTORS BUT RARELY WITH PEACEFUL DEMONSTRATORS – IN THE LAND OF GANDHI, PEACEFUL MOVEMENTS ARE IGNORED; INTERPRETED AS ORIGINATING IN WEAKNESS OF CAUSE OR OF PURPOSE.

THUS, INSTANCES OF VIOLENCE GROW.

TODAY, THERE IS REDUCING INCENTIVE TO USE DEMOCRATIC AND PEACEFUL MEANS OF DISSENT OR PROTEST

slide36

MOST POLITICAL PARTIES CALL PUBLIC MEETINGS BY

“RENTING-A-CROWD”

OF MANY THOUSANDS & USE THE VIOLENCE OF HIRED MUSCLE-POWER USING BLACK MONEY

BUT …..

slide37

A NEW TREND ?

THE VERY RECENT MOVEMENT LED BY Sri ANNA HAZARE FOR AN EFFECTIVE LOKPAL BILL WAS JOINED BY MILLIONS IN TOWNS, CITIES & METROS ACROSS THE COUNTRY AND WAS ENTIRELY NON-VIOLENT.

THE UNION GOVERNMENT WAS FORCED TO AGREE TO TERMS SET BY “TEAM ANNA” BECAUSE OF THE HUGE PUBLIC SUPPORT THAT HE COMMANDED.

THIS HAS BEEN A LANDMARK DISPLAY OF PEOPLE-POWER OVER A DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENT.

slide38

A FEW PROTEST HOTSPOTS

4,000 DAMS, NARMADA VALLEY

TEHRI DAM, UTTARAKHAND

DAMODAR VALLEY PROJECT

TATA, KALINGANAGAR, ORISSA

MINING, KASHIPUR, ORISSA

MINING, NIYAMGIRI, A.P

POWER PLANTS, SRIKAKULAM, A.P

JADUGODA, JHARKHAND

COCACOLA - KERALA, RAJ, BIHAR

DALIT ISSUE, KHAIRLANJI, MAH

POSCO, GOVINDPUR, ORISSA

POWER PLANT, DADRI, U.P

SINGUR, WEST BENGAL

SEZ, NANDIGRAM, WEST BENGAL

BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH

THE SMALL PRINT IN

“SOMEBODY HAS TO PAY

FOR PROGRESS”

IS

SO LONG AS IT IS SOMEONE ELSE

slide39

DEMOCRACY IS PUSHED TO THE BACK SEAT WHEN

VESTED INTERESTS (CORPORATIONS, NBFCs & IFIs) INFLUENCE GOVERNMENTS

THIS INITIATES & ENCOURAGES VOCAL, UNARMED AND ARMED MILITANT PROTEST

slide40

TERRORISM

THE NEW DIMENSION

  • INSURGENT / MILITANT TACTICS –

ATTACK POLICE/MILITARY; PEOPLE ARE

NOT TARGETS, BUT COLLATERAL DAMAGE

TAKES PLACE

  • TERRORIST TACTICS – CREATE FEAR

(TERROR) AMONG PEOPLE BY DELIBERATE

or RANDOM, UNPREDICTABLE HITS AT

CIVILIAN (SOFT) TARGETS; “TIE UP” STATE

RESOURCES, CAUSE POLITICO-ECONOMIC

CRISES

slide41

TERRORISM IS UNACCEPTABLE

“Terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes, is unacceptable and can never be justified”.

“All States, large or small, strong or weak, in every region, are vulnerable to terrorism and its consequences”.

UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan

May 2, 2006

slide42

THOUGH ALL ARMED MILITANTS ARE NOT TERRORISTS,

ALL TERRORISTS ARE ARMED & MILITANT

IN ANY CASE,

ALL VIOLENCE IS CONDEMNABLE

slide43

CONDEMNING VIOLENCE

VIOLENCE BY MILITANT ELEMENTS IS CONDEMNABLE; BUT SO IS ECONOMIC OR PHYSICAL VIOLENCE BY THE STATE

VIOLENCE BY EITHER SIDE ISNOT IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST

slide44

USE OF STATE FORCE

ROLE OF POLICE & MILITARY

THE ROLE OF THE STATE POLICE, CENTRAL POLICE FORCES AND THE MILITARY IN CONTROLLING MILITANCY IS

DEFINED BY GOVERNMENTS

THE USE OF STATE FORCE CAN & OFTEN DOES HAVE AN IMMEDIATE OR SHORT-TERM EFFECT, BUT EXPERIENCE SHOWS THAT IN THE LONG RUN, IT IS FUTILE AND WASTEFUL OF RESOURCES, WEARS DOWN DEMOCRATIC NORMS, AND

CREATES A VIOLENT SOCIETY

slide45

ANTI-MILITANCY OPERATIONS

CONTINUOUSLY SERVE POLITICAL EXPEDIENCY,

AND GOVERNMENTS

MISUSE POLICE OR MILITARY

AS POLITICAL TOOLS

slide46

PART 3

THE THREAT OF PEACE

or

WHO BENEFITS FROM CONFLICT?

slide47

CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

  • EQUALITY
  • FREEDOM AGAINST EXPLOITATION
  • FREEDOM OF RELIGION
  • CULTURAL & EDUCATIONAL FREEDOM
  • CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES
slide48

OTHER FREEDOMS

FREEDOM FROM HATE, FREEDOM FROM FEAR, FREEDOM FROM REPRESSION, FREEDOM FROM POVERTY, FREEDOM FROM ILLITERACY, FREEDOM FROM FORCED PROGRESS, FREEDOM TO BE FREE, FREEDOM TO CO-EXIST, FREEDOM TO CONTROL ONE’S OWN LIFE

FOR MOST PEOPLE THESE ARE ONLY DREAMS

slide49

SHARING POWER

THOSE WHO DON’T ENJOY ESSENTIAL RIGHTS, WANT THEM; AND THOSE WHO ALREADY HAVE THEM, WANT TO EXPAND THEM

PROBLEMS ARISE WHEN THOSE WHO ALREADY HAVE THEM & WANT TO EXPAND THEM, DO SO BY CURTAILING THE RIGHTS OF OTHERS WHO ALREADY HAVE LESS

THE ISSUE OF SHARING POWER IS AT THE CORE OF DEMOCRATIC FUNCTIONING, BUT …

slide50

THE MODERN BUSINESS CORPORATION WAS CREATED IN USA, WHEN THE U.S. SUPREME COURT GAVE THE STATUS OF

LEGAL PERSON

TO CORPORATIONS IN 1886

THE STATUS OF “LEGAL PERSON” IS ALSO GRANTED IN INDIA TO BUSINESS CORPORATIONS, AND …

slide51

BUSINESS CORPORATIONS

ARE NOT GEARED TO SHARE POWER

HISTORICALLY THERE HAVE ALWAYS BEEN PERSONS & GROUPS WHO SHARE THE COMMON INTERESTS OF THEIR

SOCIAL-ECONOMIC-POLITICAL ADVANCEMENT

TODAY, CORPORATIONS (“PERSONS” IN LAW) ARE DOMINATING THE ECONOMIC SCENE IN INDIA, INFLUENCING POLICIES AND ENACTMENT OF LAWS THROUGH HUMAN PERSONS IN POSITIONS OF POWER IN STATE & CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS

slide52

SIZE & REACH

TODAY, MANY CORPORATIONS ARE ECONOMICALLY BIGGER THAN SOME COUNTRIES,

MANY LARGE CORPORATIONS ARE REGISTERED IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES, WITH OPERATIONS SPANNING ACROSS CONTINENTS, AND

MOST MNCs ARE BASED IN THE RICH COUNTRIES, AND HAVE ACCESS TO THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF POLITICAL POWER IN EVERY COUNTRY.

slide53

ECONOMICS

(THE NEXUS)

A CORPORATION’S ACTIVITIES ARE DIRECTED TOWARDS INCREASING DEMAND, PRODUCTION, TURN-OVER, MARKETS, PROFITS, …

IN THE CURRENT DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM, ALL THESE ARE LINKED WITH ENHANCING GROWTH OF GDP, WHICH IS THE PRINCIPAL DETERMINANT FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH …

HENCE THE NEXUS BETWEEN CORPORATIONS & NATIONAL LAW-MAKERS, POLICY-MAKERS & DECISION-MAKERS … POLITICIANS, BUREAUCRATS & THE WEALTHY CLASS OF PEOPLE

slide54

CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY

ACCORDING TO COMPANY LAW, THE RESPONSIBILITY OF A CORPORATION IS TOWARDS ITS SHAREHOLDERS (INVESTORS), ITS CREDITORS, ITS EMPLOYEES & ITS CLIENTS

LAWS EXIST TO PROTECT EMPLOYEES & WORKERS, THE PUBLIC AND THE ENVIRONMENT AGAINST ACTIONS OF CORPORATIONS … LAWS PRESCRIBE WHAT CORPORATIONS SHOULD NOT OR CANNOT DO, AND ALSO REGULATE THEIR FUNCTIONING

HOWEVER, IN THE CONSTITUTION OF A CORPORATION, THERE IS

NO LEGALLY PRESCRIBED RESPONSIBILITY TOWARDS SOCIETY OR THE ENVIRONMENT

slide55

CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

THE COST OF COMPLIANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL AND OTHER LAWS IS MUCH GREATER THAN THE COST OF BRIBING POLITICIANS OR BUREAUCRATS OR MINOR OFFICIALS TO PERMIT OR OVERLOOK VIOLATIONS

BREAK THE LAW TO MAXIMIZE PROFIT !

slide56

SOME EXAMPLES

THE NEXUS

POLITICIAN-BUREAUCRAT-INDUSTRIALIST

  • UNION CARBIDE IN BHOPAL
  • ENRON IN DABHOL
  • POSCO IN ORISSA
  • MONSANTO & FDA or GEAC
  • SEZs ACROSS INDIA

THE BOTTOM LINE: PROFIT-AT-ANY-COST

slide57

LAND

NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE

PRIMARY ASSET

FOR MNCs – A PRIMARY ECONOMIC ASSET FOR MAXIMIZING PROFIT

FOR PEOPLE – THE PRIMARY ASSET, FOR SOCIO-CULTURAL-ECONOMIC SURVIVAL

slide58

ECONOMIC VIOLENCE TODAY

POLICY IN ACTION

  • REPLACE LOW-GDP ACTIVITIES (ADIVASIs) WITH

HIGH-GDP ACTIVITIES (MNCs); ESTABLISHING

INDUSTRY LEADS TO INVESTMENT & ECONOMIC

GROWTH

  • INDUSTRIES NEED LAND (MINING, SEZs, etc)
  • GOVERNMENTS SIGN MoU’s WITH MNCs TO

PROVIDE LAND etc. FOR INDUSTRY

  • OPPOSITION TO LAND ACQUISITION IS ILLEGAL
  • LAND IS ACQUIRED BY USE OF POLICE FORCE
  • THE NEXUS OPERATES WITHIN THE LAW, BUT THE

LAW DOES NOT PROVIDE JUSTICE

  • BUT GOVERNMENTS HAVE VIOLATED FOREST

RIGHTS ACT & PESA ACT TO ACQUIRE LAND FROM

ADIVASIs

slide59

HOW TO ACQUIRE THE LAND ?

ENFORCE THE PRINCIPLE OF EMINENT DOMAIN TO ACQUIRE LAND FOR A PUBLIC PURPOSE – LEGALIZE EVICTIONS … APEX COURT’s RECENT JUDGEMENT

ADOPT A POLICY OF :

“IF-YOU-ARE-NOT-WITH-US-YOU-ARE-AGAINST-US”

RE-LOCATE PEOPLE BY FORCE, WITH AND WITHOUT COMPENSATION

RESTRICT ENTRY INTO TROUBLED AREAS, TO PREVENT REAL STATE OF AFFAIRS BEING KNOWN

CREATE MEDIA-EXCLUSION or ENFORCE MEDIA COMPLIANCE

ALL THESE RESTRICT OR VIOLATE RIGHTS AND DENY PEACE

slide60

THE ONLY OPTION

ADIVASIs & POOR RURAL FOLK REFUSE TO VACATE LAND, THEIR PRIMARY ASSET FOR SURVIVAL

THEY DEMAND DEVELOPMENT (NOT GDP-CENTERED ECONOMIC GROWTH) WITHOUT DISPLACEMENT

ADVOCATING PEACE IS A THREAT TO LAND ACQUISITION, HENCE A THREAT TO ECONOMIC GROWTH, THEREFORE ANTI-DEVELOPMENT AND ANTI-NATIONAL – IT SIMPLY DOES NOT FIT THE DEVELOPMENT MODEL PRESCRIBED BY WB-IMF-WTO FOR CORPORATE PROFIT

HENCE FORCIBLE VACATION OF LAND BY THE STATE IS THE ONLY OPTION

slide61

THREE KINDS OF OBJECTORS

TO LAND ACQUISITION

ARMED MILITANTS (MAOISTS) WHOSE IDEOLOGY REJECTS THE ‘STATE’. THEY PLAN ITS OVERTHROW, & DO NOT HESITATE TO KILL POLICE OR CIVILIANS (INCLUDING ADIVASIs) WHOM THEY SUSPECT

PEOPLE WHO DO NOT ACCEPT MAOIST IDEOLOGY, EXPECT ONLY MORE INJUSTICE FROM GOVERNMENT, & THINK THAT ONLY MAOISTS CAN HELP THEM RESIST CORPORATE-GOVERNMENT DEMAND ON THEIR LANDS

THE HUGE MAJORITY WHO STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL, DO NOT WANT TO VACATE THEIR LANDS; DO NOT SUBSCRIBE TO MAOIST IDEOLOGY; ARE FRIGHTENED AND CONFUSED; ARE SUSPECTED BY MAOISTS AND GOVERNMENT FORCES; AND SUFFER VIOLENCE FROM BOTH SIDES

slide62

PEACE IS A THREAT TO THIS PROCESS WHICH IS ALREADY ON THE ROLL THROUGH ‘OPERATION GREENHUNT’ IN CHHATTISGARH STATE

THE FORMAL INDUCTION OF THE INDIAN ARMY AND INDIAN AIR FORCE IS BEING CONSIDERED; BOTH HAVE NO STAKE OR PRIMARY ROLE FOR INVOLVEMENT IN INTERNAL SECURITY DUTIES IN “AID TO CIVIL POWER”

slide63

THE THIRD POSITION

IN FAVOUR OF PEACE

NON-ALIGNMENT WITH VIOLENCE

A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE POSITION WHICH SUPPORTS NEITHER ARMED MILITANCY, NOR GOVERNMENTS’ RESPONSE TO MILITANCY WITH THE USE OF POLICE OR MILITARY

FIRE-POWER

“The Third Position – Non-alignment with violence”, Mainstream, New Delhi, Vol XLVIII No 13, March 20, 2010, p.29-31.

slide64

WHO ARE THE LOSERS ?

or

THE POOR AGAINST THE POOR

  • POLICE KILLED BY MAOISTS;

(2) MAOISTS KILLED BY POLICE;

(3) BOTH SIDES KILL or ABDUCT, RAPE, BEAT,

etc. NON-MAOIST ADIVASIs

SOCIETY IS BRUTALIZED & PAUPERIZED; THE

LOSSES ARE NATIONALIZED

BUT THERE ARE GAINERS IN THIS VIOLENT

PROCESS, AND THEY ARE NOT POOR …

slide66

BUT IF PEACE IS DESIRED …

THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR THE CLEAN POLITICS OF CONSULTATION, CONSENSUS, DEBATE, DISCUSSION …

“CLEAN POLITICS” IS NOT AN IMPOSSIBLITY, BUT WE HAVE TO STRUGGLE FOR IT

slide67

FREEDOM IS NEVER GRANTED – IT ALWAYS HAS TO BE DEMANDED, FOUGHT FOR, AND WON … AND THEREAFTER, PROTECTED AND DEFENDED

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