Terms epidemiologic transition
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Terms: Epidemiologic Transition. Gaziano 2005. Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030. Mathers & Loncar. PLoS Med November 2006 | Volume 3 | Issue 11 | e442. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) Mortality – years of life lost due to the disease

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Terms: Epidemiologic Transition

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Terms epidemiologic transition

Terms: Epidemiologic Transition

Gaziano 2005


Terms epidemiologic transition

Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030. Mathers & Loncar.

PLoS Med November 2006 | Volume 3 | Issue 11 | e442.


Terms epidemiologic transition

Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)

Mortality – years of life lost due to the disease

Disability - decrease in healthy or functional years of life due to disease or injury

(Experts decide based on previous research that some domain of function is reduced by some percent over so many years due to disease/injury.)

DALYs, thus, are estimates of health lost due to death and disability.


Cause specific mortality

Cause-specific Mortality

Population Reference Bureau (Cohn 2007)


Global burden of ncds

Global Burden of NCDs

  • Chronic Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the major cause of death and disability worldwide (except in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa)

  • NCDs now account for 59% of all deaths and 48% of the global burden of disease

  • Death rates for NCDs are higher in the developing world compared to the developed world

  • Top diseases:

    • Cardiovascular disease

    • Cancer

    • Chronic respiratory diseases

    • Type 2 Diabetes

    • Obesity

    • Mental health and psychiatric conditions

WHO: Facts related to chronic diseases; Yach 2004, Strong 2005


Increase in dual burden in lmic

Increase in ‘Dual Burden’ in LMIC

  • Low and middle income countries (LMIC) are now and will suffer increasingly from the dual presence of both infectious/communicable diseases and NCDs

  • Child survival to age 5 years

  • TB, HIV, malaria

  • Adult, esp age 40-80 yrs, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease

  • Risk behaviors – tobacco use, excess alcohol use, risky sexual exposures

  • Impact on design of health care systems, both clinical and public health

  • Need for broader range of clinical specialists, esp for NCDs


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