Bovine Herd Health Management:
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 28

Objectives PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 141 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Bovine Herd Health Management: Diseases and Parasites This is a presentation from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the Georgia Curriculum Office. Objectives. Explain importance of herd health Discuss economic impacts on both diseases and parasites Identify diseases/parasites

Download Presentation

Objectives

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Objectives

Bovine Herd Health Management:Diseases and ParasitesThis is a presentation from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by the Georgia Curriculum Office.


Objectives

Objectives

  • Explain importance of herd health

  • Discuss economic impacts on both diseases and parasites

  • Identify diseases/parasites

  • State types of organisms

  • Discuss mode of transmission.


Objectives cont

Objectives,cont.

  • Discuss common symptoms.

  • Discuss life Cycle of worm.

  • Discuss preventative methods.

  • Determine the best time of year to treat for diseases/parasites.


Economic losses

Economic Losses

  • The beef industry along with the producers lose millions of dollars each year.

  • The most common losses are due to:

    • infertility and abortion

    • calf scours

    • respiratory infections

    • sudden death


Economic losses cont

Economic Losses, cont.

  • Parasites also contribute to the loss of millions of dollars annually in the U.S. due to poorly managed cattle.

  • Losses include:

    • reduced weight gains which increases the amount of feed per pound of gain.

    • Low milk production


More losses

More Losses

  • reduced hide value

  • additional trim on carcasses

  • and death


Diseases

Diseases

  • The common pathogens in bovine diseases are bacterial, viral, and protozoan.

  • Cattle diseases are transmitted by many different ways. The most common forms of infection are:

    • grazing and contact with the soil.

    • Sexually

    • casual contact

    • viruses can be shed in the feces


Diseases1

The most common diseases that should be treat twice a year are:

IBR

PI3

BVD

BRSV

Pasteruella

Brucellosis

Clostridial diseases

Leptospirosis

Campylobacter fetus

Trichomoniasis

Diseases


Diseases2

IBR (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis):

organism: virus

symptoms: respiratory infection (“red nose”), abortion. Also called BRD: bovine respiratory disease

vaccination: modified-live

PI3(Parainfluenza 3):

organism: virus

symptoms: can lead to a secondary bacterial infection, and abortion. Also called BRD: bovine respiratory disease

vaccination: modified-live

Diseases


Diseases3

BVD (bovine virus diarrhea):

organism: virus

symptoms: persistent diarrhea,can lead to a secondary bacterial infection, and abortion. BRD: bovine respiratory disease.

vaccination: modified-live

BRSV (bovine respiratory syncytial virus):

organism: virus

symptoms:can lead to a secondary bacterial infection, and abortion. BRD: bovine respiratory disease.

vaccination: modified-live

Diseases


Diseases4

Pasteurella:

organism: bacteria

symptoms: pneumonia, “shipping fever”

vaccination: two doses of BRSV 2-4 weeks apart

Brucellosis:

organism: bacteria

symptoms: abortion and infertility

vaccination: calfhood vaccinate heifers < 8months of age.

Diseases


Diseases5

Clostridial:

organism: bacteria

symptoms: death-primarily in young animals.

Vaccination: 7-way

Leptospirosis:

organism: bacteria

symptoms: abortion and kidney failure

vaccination: 5-way vaccine

Diseases


Diseases6

Campylobacter fetus:

organism: bacteria

symptoms: venereal disease, infertility

vaccination: vaccine with oil adjuvant

Trichomoniasis:

organism: protozoa

symptoms: abortion; venereal disease spread by bulls

vaccination: none

Diseases


Prevention

Prevention

  • VACCINATE

  • VACCINATE

  • VACCINATE

    • at least 2 times a year


Internal parasites

Internal Parasites

  • Internal parasites are present inside the animal.

  • The parasites and their eggs are microscopic in size.

  • Internal parasites are not easily noticed.


Modes of transmission

Modes of Transmission

  • Wet and warm climates favor infestation of internal parasites.

  • Transmission takes place through ingestion.

  • Infection usually takes place in the spring and fall.


Life cycle

Life Cycle

  • Worms occur in the hosts small intestine.

  • Female produces eggs which are passed in the feces.

  • Eggs then hatch in to larvae

  • The larvae are eaten by the host, infecting them.

  • Larvae then mature into adults, repeating the cycle.


Common classes of worms

Common Classes of Worms

  • Nematodes: (Roundworms)

    • Small Stomach worm

    • Medium Stomach worm

    • Large Stomach Worm or barber-pole worm

    • Hookworm

    • Lungworm


Common classes of worms cont

Common Classes of Worms, cont.

  • Cestodes: (Flatworms)

  • Flatworm

  • Trematodes: (Flukes)

  • Liver Flukes

  • Stomach Flukes


Symptoms of infestation

Normal or increased appetite with no weight gain.

Abnormal weight loss

poor growth

anemia

anorexia

dull hair coat

diarrhea

weakness

edema in jaw

Symptoms of infestation


Anthelmintics or wormers

Anthelmintics or ‘wormers’

  • There are many products on the market that are designed to treat ruminant worms. Some of the most common are:

    • Ivermectin (Ivomec)

    • Eprinomectin (Ivomec Eprinex)

    • Doramectin (Dectromax)

    • Moxidectin (Cydectin)


Wormers

Wormers

  • These products can be administered through injection or topically by a ‘pour-on’.

  • Treatment should take place in the early spring and fall.

  • Products should be rotated to prevent parasite resistance.


External parasites

External Parasites

  • External parasites are a nuisance to man and beast. They can cause a lot of unintended aggravation and pain. Some examples are:

    • Flies: (horn, face, stable,and house flies) -insects that suck blood and are responsible for pinkeye, reduced gains and milk production. Can also cause mastitis.

    • lice: insects that also suck blood and eat flesh. They will cause rubbing which results in raw spots.


External parasites1

External Parasites

  • Grubs: larvae enter hide and cause large sores along the backs of cattle. Larvae feed on pus caused by its presence.

  • Ticks: arachnids that feed on blood and is responsible for diseases such as anaplasmosis and ‘blue tongue’.


Treatment

Treatment

  • Pour-on treatments will control all these external parasites, but it is a good idea to also have a back-up treatment for longer periods. The pour-on treatments are:

    • Ivermectin (Ivomec)

    • Eprinomectin (Ivomec Eprinex)

    • Doramectin (Dectromax)

    • Moxidectin (Cydectin)


Treatments

Treatments

  • They back-up treatments are just added insurance. They may consists of:

    • ear tags

    • back rubs

    • boluses

    • drench

    • paste

    • supplemented minerals

    • sprays

    • dust


Summary

Summary

  • Disease and parasites can cause huge economic losses due to:

    • poor wt. Gain

    • low milk production

    • carcass loss

    • infertility and abortion

    • death


Summary1

Transmission occurs through internal ingestion, casual contact and sexually.

Spring and Fall are the most favorable times of the year for infection.

Infective pathogens are bacterial, viral, protozoan, and parasitic (internal and external).

Summary


  • Login