Proteins enzymes
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Proteins & Enzymes. Levels of structure Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary Types of bonds Importance of interaction: Hb Enzyme activity Specificity Models of action: activation NRG Effects pH & temp Allosteric effects Structural proteins. Lipids. Structure: fatty acid + glycerol

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Proteins & Enzymes

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Proteins enzymes

Proteins & Enzymes

  • Levels of structure

    • Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary

    • Types of bonds

    • Importance of interaction: Hb

  • Enzyme activity

    • Specificity

    • Models of action: activation NRG

    • Effects pH & temp

    • Allosteric effects

  • Structural proteins


Lipids

Lipids

  • Structure: fatty acid + glycerol

  • Role in membranes

    • Phospholipid: hydrophobic/philic

  • NRG storage

  • Special roles

    • Sterols

    • Waterproofing-cuticles


Carbs

Carbs

  • Basic structure: (CH2O)n

  • Monomers VS polymers

  • Functions

    • Glycolysis & respiration

    • Storage: ex starch

    • Structural: ex cellulose

    • Recognition on cell membrane


Nucleic acids

Nucleic acids

  • Nucleotide unit structure:

    • PO4, sugar, base

  • RNA vs DNA

  • Genetic code & variation


Cell membranes

Cell membranes

  • Phospholipid bilayer

  • Transmembrane proteins

    • Channels

      • Gated: V, ligand, etc

    • Receptors

      • 2nd messenger system

    • Pumps


Membrane function

Membrane function

  • Pumps & channels

  • Exo & endocytosis

  • Gradients as NRG storage

    • (see photo & resp)

  • Water potential: iCRT

  • Recognition

  • Intercellular structure: tight, gap j.


Cytomembrane system

Cytomembrane system

  • Parts: RER & SER, Golgi, vesicles

  • Imbedded VS secreted proteins

  • Special organelles: lysosome, etc


Nucleus

Nucleus

  • Nuclear membrane & traffic; Link to:

    • RNA processing

    • Signaling & Gene control

  • Chromosome structure

    • Levels of coiling

    • Relation to protein components: histones

    • Relation to mitosis & to gene control


Mitochondria chloroplasts

Mitochondria & chloroplasts

  • Evolution of…

    • Relation to bacterial membranes

  • Membrane structure related to function

    • Electron transport

    • Proton gradients

    • ATP synthase


Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton

  • Really “cytomusculoskeleton”

    • Structural protein

    • Molecular motors

  • Specializations:

    • Cilia & flagella (eukaryotic)

    • Special cell f(): muscle

    • Universal f(): mitosis


Cell cycle

Cell cycle

  • M, G1, S, G2

  • Stages of mitosis & cytokinesis

    • Special cases: eggs, etc.

  • Role of controls:

    • Embryo development

    • Cancer

    • Apoptosis


Meiosis

Meiosis

  • Sex & recombination

    • Relation to independent assortment

    • Crossing over

  • Steps in meiosis

  • Evol eggs vs sperm; an/isogamy

  • Problems:

    • Down’s, polyploidy


Mendelian genetics

Mendelian genetics

  • Segregation

  • Independent assortment

  • Dihybrid crosses

  • Dominance & incomplete dominance

  • Multiple alleles: ex ABO


Non mendelian patterns

Non-Mendelian patterns

  • Sex-linked inheritance

  • Epistasis & pleiotropy

  • Autosomal linkage

  • Extra-chromosomal inheritance

    • Mitochondrial DNA

    • Maternal effects

    • imprinting


Molecular genetics

Molecular Genetics

  • DNA replication

    • Semi-conservative, Meselson-Stahl

    • Mutations

      • Point substitution, insertion, deletion

      • Large duplications, deletions

    • repair


Genotype phenotype

Genotype-> phenotype

  • Transcription

    • mRNA synthesis

    • mRNA editing

  • Translation

    • Ribosomes & RER

    • tRNA & amino acids


Gene control

Gene control

  • Operons - prokaryotes

    • Positive & negative controls

  • Eukaryotic control

    • Chromosome structure

    • DNA modification: CH3 & CH3CO

    • Enhancers & inhibitors

    • Alternate editing


Genetic technology

Genetic technology

  • Reading genes: automated processes

  • Copying genes: PCR

  • Manipulating genes

    • Recombinant DNA

    • KO mice

    • Cloning

    • iRNA gene control


Evolution

Evolution

  • Darwin’s theory

    • Inherited variation

    • Population potential (Malthus)

    • Variation in survival/reproduction

  • Modern synthesis

    • Sources of variation

    • Mechanisms of inheritance


Evolution macro evidence

Evolution: macro evidence

  • Fossil records

    • Age of earth: methods

    • Changes in spp. over time

  • Biogeography

    • Island evolution

  • Comparative morphology & embryology

  • Comparative molecular genetics


Evolution micro

Evolution: micro

  • Evidence: direct observation Of selection

  • Types of selection

    • Directional

    • Stabilizing

      • Heterozygote superiority

    • Disruptive

    • Sexual selection


Evolution speciation

Evolution: speciation

  • Geographic isolation

  • Isolating mechanisms

    • Pre-zygotic

    • Post-zygotic

    • Non-random mating


Evolution major events

Evolution: major events

  • Origins of life

    • RNA hypothesis

    • Cells & DNA

  • Autotrophy

    • Photosynthesis System II & O2

  • Aerobic respiration

  • Eukaryotic cells- endosymbiosis


Evolution major events 2

Evolution: major events 2

  • Multicellular organisms

  • Sexual reproduction

  • Invasion of land

  • Mass extinctions

  • Biosphere modification by 1 sp (!guess who)


Major groups

Major groups

  • Prokaryotes

    • Archaea

    • Bacteria

  • Eukaryotes

    • Protists-- “bad group”

    • Fungi

    • Plants

    • Animals

Life Cycles

NRG sources

Body plans

& development


Plants

Plants

  • Evolution for terrestrial life

    • Support

    • H2O balance

    • Transport

    • Reproduction

      • Sex

      • dispersal


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