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Proteins & Enzymes. Levels of structure Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary Types of bonds Importance of interaction: Hb Enzyme activity Specificity Models of action: activation NRG Effects pH & temp Allosteric effects Structural proteins. Lipids. Structure: fatty acid + glycerol

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proteins enzymes
Proteins & Enzymes
  • Levels of structure
    • Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
    • Types of bonds
    • Importance of interaction: Hb
  • Enzyme activity
    • Specificity
    • Models of action: activation NRG
    • Effects pH & temp
    • Allosteric effects
  • Structural proteins
lipids
Lipids
  • Structure: fatty acid + glycerol
  • Role in membranes
    • Phospholipid: hydrophobic/philic
  • NRG storage
  • Special roles
    • Sterols
    • Waterproofing-cuticles
carbs
Carbs
  • Basic structure: (CH2O)n
  • Monomers VS polymers
  • Functions
    • Glycolysis & respiration
    • Storage: ex starch
    • Structural: ex cellulose
    • Recognition on cell membrane
nucleic acids
Nucleic acids
  • Nucleotide unit structure:
    • PO4, sugar, base
  • RNA vs DNA
  • Genetic code & variation
cell membranes
Cell membranes
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Transmembrane proteins
    • Channels
      • Gated: V, ligand, etc
    • Receptors
      • 2nd messenger system
    • Pumps
membrane function
Membrane function
  • Pumps & channels
  • Exo & endocytosis
  • Gradients as NRG storage
    • (see photo & resp)
  • Water potential: iCRT
  • Recognition
  • Intercellular structure: tight, gap j.
cytomembrane system
Cytomembrane system
  • Parts: RER & SER, Golgi, vesicles
  • Imbedded VS secreted proteins
  • Special organelles: lysosome, etc
nucleus
Nucleus
  • Nuclear membrane & traffic; Link to:
    • RNA processing
    • Signaling & Gene control
  • Chromosome structure
    • Levels of coiling
    • Relation to protein components: histones
    • Relation to mitosis & to gene control
mitochondria chloroplasts
Mitochondria & chloroplasts
  • Evolution of…
    • Relation to bacterial membranes
  • Membrane structure related to function
    • Electron transport
    • Proton gradients
    • ATP synthase
cytoskeleton
Cytoskeleton
  • Really “cytomusculoskeleton”
    • Structural protein
    • Molecular motors
  • Specializations:
    • Cilia & flagella (eukaryotic)
    • Special cell f(): muscle
    • Universal f(): mitosis
cell cycle
Cell cycle
  • M, G1, S, G2
  • Stages of mitosis & cytokinesis
    • Special cases: eggs, etc.
  • Role of controls:
    • Embryo development
    • Cancer
    • Apoptosis
meiosis
Meiosis
  • Sex & recombination
    • Relation to independent assortment
    • Crossing over
  • Steps in meiosis
  • Evol eggs vs sperm; an/isogamy
  • Problems:
    • Down’s, polyploidy
mendelian genetics
Mendelian genetics
  • Segregation
  • Independent assortment
  • Dihybrid crosses
  • Dominance & incomplete dominance
  • Multiple alleles: ex ABO
non mendelian patterns
Non-Mendelian patterns
  • Sex-linked inheritance
  • Epistasis & pleiotropy
  • Autosomal linkage
  • Extra-chromosomal inheritance
    • Mitochondrial DNA
    • Maternal effects
    • imprinting
molecular genetics
Molecular Genetics
  • DNA replication
    • Semi-conservative, Meselson-Stahl
    • Mutations
      • Point substitution, insertion, deletion
      • Large duplications, deletions
    • repair
genotype phenotype
Genotype-> phenotype
  • Transcription
    • mRNA synthesis
    • mRNA editing
  • Translation
    • Ribosomes & RER
    • tRNA & amino acids
gene control
Gene control
  • Operons - prokaryotes
    • Positive & negative controls
  • Eukaryotic control
    • Chromosome structure
    • DNA modification: CH3 & CH3CO
    • Enhancers & inhibitors
    • Alternate editing
genetic technology
Genetic technology
  • Reading genes: automated processes
  • Copying genes: PCR
  • Manipulating genes
    • Recombinant DNA
    • KO mice
    • Cloning
    • iRNA gene control
evolution
Evolution
  • Darwin’s theory
    • Inherited variation
    • Population potential (Malthus)
    • Variation in survival/reproduction
  • Modern synthesis
    • Sources of variation
    • Mechanisms of inheritance
evolution macro evidence
Evolution: macro evidence
  • Fossil records
    • Age of earth: methods
    • Changes in spp. over time
  • Biogeography
    • Island evolution
  • Comparative morphology & embryology
  • Comparative molecular genetics
evolution micro
Evolution: micro
  • Evidence: direct observation Of selection
  • Types of selection
    • Directional
    • Stabilizing
      • Heterozygote superiority
    • Disruptive
    • Sexual selection
evolution speciation
Evolution: speciation
  • Geographic isolation
  • Isolating mechanisms
    • Pre-zygotic
    • Post-zygotic
    • Non-random mating
evolution major events
Evolution: major events
  • Origins of life
    • RNA hypothesis
    • Cells & DNA
  • Autotrophy
    • Photosynthesis System II & O2
  • Aerobic respiration
  • Eukaryotic cells- endosymbiosis
evolution major events 2
Evolution: major events 2
  • Multicellular organisms
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Invasion of land
  • Mass extinctions
  • Biosphere modification by 1 sp (!guess who)
major groups
Major groups
  • Prokaryotes
    • Archaea
    • Bacteria
  • Eukaryotes
    • Protists-- “bad group”
    • Fungi
    • Plants
    • Animals

Life Cycles

NRG sources

Body plans

& development

plants
Plants
  • Evolution for terrestrial life
    • Support
    • H2O balance
    • Transport
    • Reproduction
      • Sex
      • dispersal
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