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Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry Objectives. Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity. Students will be able to compare properties of nuclear reactions with chemical reactions.

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Nuclear chemistry objectives
Nuclear Chemistry Objectives

Students will be able to identify what radioisotopes are and why they undergo radioactivity.

Students will be able to compare properties of nuclear reactions with chemical reactions.

Students will demonstrate understanding of radioactive decay through application and graphing.

Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries.

Students will understand and classify nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.


Nuclear reactions vs chemical reactions
Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions

Chemical Reactions

Nuclear Reactions

Similarities


Radio isotopes
Radioisotopes

  • Radioisotopes = Atoms with unstable nuclei.

  • Why are some atoms’ nuclei unstable?

    (Use nuclear stability graph to answer this question)


Nuclear band of stability
Nuclear Band of Stability

http://www.hasdeu.bz.edu.ro/softuri/fizica/mariana/Atomica/Table/lessons/11nuclear/nuclear.htm


Radio isotopes1
Radioisotopes

  • Radioisotopes = Atoms with unstable nuclei.

  • Unstable nucleus = disproportional ratio of protons to neutrons to stabilize nucleus.


Nuclear band of stability1
Nuclear Band of Stability

*Big Misconception: Stable nucleus means equal number of protons and neutrons. From

graph, students confirmed that most elements with a stable nucleus needs more neutrons to minimize the repulsion force between protons with a similar charge.

http://www.hasdeu.bz.edu.ro/softuri/fizica/mariana/Atomica/Table/lessons/11nuclear/nuclear.htm


Radio isotopes2
Radioisotopes

  • Radioisotopes = Atoms with unstable nuclei.

  • Unstable nucleus = disproportional ratio of protons to neutrons to stabilize nucleus.

  • Most elements with atomic #s < 83 have at least one radioisotope.

  • All elements with atomic #s > 83 are radioisotopes.


Radiosotope s notation
Radiosotope’s Notation

  • What is the radioisotope notation for each of the following?

    a. Polonium (Po). It has a mass number of 210.

    b. Plutonium (Pu). It has a mass number of 245.

    c. Rn-240 with an atomic number of 86.

    d. Th-230.


Nuclear reactions bell ringer
Nuclear Reactions: Bell Ringer

  • Identify a similarity and a difference between chemical and nuclear reactions?

    2. What is a radioisotope?

    3. Using the Nuclear Band of Stability graph to determine which of the following elements are radioisotopes.

  • C -12 b. C-14 c. U-238 d. Nd-140


Nuclear band of stability2
Nuclear Band of Stability

http://www.hasdeu.bz.edu.ro/softuri/fizica/mariana/Atomica/Table/lessons/11nuclear/nuclear.htm


Nuclear reactions
Nuclear Reactions

  • Reactions that occur within the nucleus of radioisotopes in order to stabilize it.

  • Also called: radioactive decay; radioactivity

  • Spontaneousreactions(occurs naturally).

  • Reaction rates remain constant for radioisotopes despite changes in temperature, pressure, or addition of a catalyst.


Nuclear equations
Nuclear Equations

  • Illustrate the nuclear process in which radioisotopes become stable.

parent decays α + daughter isotope

isotope particle (stable)

(unstable)


Infinite campus update
Infinite Campus Update:

“Radioactivity” article questions: (10pts)

Due Mon., March 19th: Graphing Skills Wksht (10pts.)

Radioactive Decay Lab (15pts.)

Due Tues., March 20th: Formal Lab Report draft (15pts.)


Nuclear reactions1
Nuclear Reactions

  • Reactions that occur within the nucleus of radioisotopes in order to stabilize it.

  • Also called: radioactive decay; radioactivity

  • Spontaneousreactions(occurs naturally).

  • Reaction rates remain constant for radioisotopes despite changes in temperature, pressure, or addition of a catalyst.


Nuclear equations1
Nuclear Equations

  • Illustrate the nuclear process in which radioisotopes become stable.

parent decays α + daughter isotope

isotope particle (stable)

(unstable)

  • Half-Life: The time it takes for half of the radioisotope sample (parent isotopes) to decay into a more stable isotope (daughter isotope)



Radioactive decay lab
Radioactive Decay Lab

Purpose: Simulate and graph the radioactive decay of an artificial radioisotope, M&Mium.

Revised Procedures:

Pre-Lab Questions:

  • What side of the candy represents the parent isotope?

  • What side of the candy represent the daughter isotope?

  • What is the half-life of the M&Mium radioisotope?

    Hypothesis: Complete on lab.

thefoxisblack.com

usd314.k12.ks.us


Radioactive decay lab revised procedures
Radioactive Decay Lab: Revised Procedures

  • Carefully pour the M&Mium radioisotope sample onto a plate.

  • Count the number of M&Mium radioisotopes in sample and record in table under 0 half-life.

  • Cover sample with another plate and gently shake for 10 seconds. Record time in table under first half-life.

  • Remove the top plate and count the number of M&Miums that have decayed into the daughter isotope(candy with no M&M print) during the first half-life. Record in table.

  • Consume the daughter isotopes (decayed isotopes).

  • Count the remaining M&Mium radioisotopes after the first half-life and record in table.

  • Continue shaking for 10 seconds, counting, recording, and consuming until all the M&Mium sample has decayed into the more stable daughter isotope.

  • Graph the rate of decay for the M&Mium radioisotope and the rate of production for the daughter isotope.

  • Independent variable: half-life time (seconds)

  • Dependent variable: number of isotopes



Radioactivity decay review wksht key
Radioactivity Decay Review Wksht. Key

4a. I-131 b. C-14 c. U-238

No, only 75% of parent isotope decays, still 25% remaining.

1 million radioactive atoms

a.0.625 mg of I-131 remaining

b. 24 days

8 a. 20% b. about 85 grams c. about 83 days

d. about 28 days

9. 915 B.C.


Nuclear chemistry objectives1
Nuclear Chemistry Objectives

Students will understand, classify, and predict nuclear reactions by the types of radiation produced.


Nuclear radiation
Nuclear Radiation

What is nuclear radiation?


Nuclear radiation1
Nuclear Radiation

  • Nuclear Radiation= matter and large amounts of energy produced during a nuclear reaction.

  • Three main types of nuclear radiation:

  • Alpha radiation (α )

  • Beta radiation (β)

  • Gamma radiation (ϒ)


Types of nuclear radiation
Types of Nuclear Radiation

  • Types of radiation can be classified by their charges.


Nuclear radiation2
Nuclear Radiation

Types of radiation can be classified by type of shielding.

paper

(alpha particle)

wood

(beta particle)

(gamma particle)

concrete or lead


Nuclear radiation3
Nuclear Radiation

Types of radiation can be classified by changes in mass number and atomic number between the parent isotope and the daughter isotope.


Alpha radiation
Alpha (α ) Radiation

parent decays α + daughter isotope

isotope particle (stable)

(unstable) (He nucleus)

  • change in mass number:

  • change in atomic number:


Beta radiation
Beta (β) Radiation

β particle

change in mass number:

change in atomic number:


Gamma radiation
Gamma(ϒ) Radiation

parent decays α + daughter isotope + ϒ

isotope particle (stable)

(unstable) (He nucleus)

  • change in mass number:

  • change in atomic Number:


Nuclear radiation bell ringer
Nuclear Radiation: Bell Ringer

What are the three main types of nuclear radiation?

2. List three ways you can distinguish between these types of radiation.



Transmutation
Transmutation

  • Transmutation:

  • An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay.

  • How else could you define transmutation?

  • What must happen in the nucleus for a

  • transmutation to occur?

  • Does a transmutation occur when alpha, beta, or gamma radiation is produced?


Transmutation1
Transmutation

  • Transmutation:

  • An element is converted to a new element during radioactive decay.

  • A parent isotope is converted to daughter isotope

  • An unstable atom converted to a more stable atom.

  • Atomic number changes during radioactive decay

parent decays α + daughter isotope

isotope particle (stable)

(unstable) (He nucleus)


Nuclear chemistry objective
Nuclear Chemistry Objective

Students can explain the difference between fission and fusion.

Students can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy


Transmutation2
Transmutation

Transmutation occurs during:

1. Radioactive Decay

2. Bombarding an atom’s nucleus with particles.

-can occur naturally or artificially

-fission and fusion nuclear reactions


Fission vs fusion
Fission vs. Fusion

Fission

Fusion

Similarities


Nuclear fission
Nuclear Fission

  • Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus by bombarding it with neutrons.

cikguwong.blogspot.com

chm.bris.ac.uk


Nuclear fission application
Nuclear Fission Application

  • Generates electricity where only steam is released into the environment.

english-online.at

chm.bris.ac.uk


Nuclear fission problem
Nuclear Fission Problem

  • Nuclear Waste: Spent fuel rods must be disposed of properly. (pg. 812 in text)

  • On-site or off-site holding tanks called pools.

coto2.wordpress.com


Nuclear fusion
Nuclear Fusion

  • Nuclear Fusion – Small radioisotope nuclei combine.

    mrbarlow.wordpress.com

mrbarlow.wordpress.com


Nuclear fusion1
Nuclear Fusion

  • Produces immense amount of energy.

  • Does not produce nuclear waste

  • Applications? Not yet.

    Requires immense amount of energy.

    Example: sun (40,000,000 0C)

scienceknowledge.org


Nuclear chemistry objectives2
Nuclear Chemistry Objectives

Students will assess the application of nuclear chemistry as a continual alternative resource of energy for developed countries.

Assessment by:

-reading and annotating literature that addresses pros and cons of nuclear energy.

Debating with peers why we should or should not depend on nuclear energy.

Formulating an opinion based on facts as to why the U.S. should continue to support the research and development of nuclear energy. (ORQ format)


Exit slip
Exit Slip

1. What is the difference between fission and fusion and give an example of each?

2. Should the United States continue the research, development, and application of nuclear energy through nuclear fission?


Nuclear chemistry objective1
Nuclear Chemistry Objective

I can analyze the benefits and risks of nuclear energy. (SC-H-ET-S-2)


Nuclear energy debate
Nuclear Energy Debate

NUCLEAR REACTOR

breakthrougheurope.org




Nuclear energy
Nuclear Energy

www.nukepills.com



Fukushima japan disaster effects
Fukushima, Japan Disaster Effects

novinite.com

guardian.co.uk

nucleaire11.wordpress.com

business.financialpost.com

uncannyterrain.com


Gallery walk nuclear energy pros and cons
Gallery Walk: Nuclear Energy Pros and Cons

  • Each debate group record on chart paper important pros and cons you addressed today.

  • Walk around and observe what other debate groups discussed.


Exit slip nuclear energy
Exit Slip: Nuclear Energy

  • Did today’s nuclear energy debate strengthen or weaken your view on this issue?

  • What is your view on this issue now: Should the U.S. continue to support the research, development, and application of nuclear energy?

    *Make sure to validate your view with several supporting facts. *


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