The hittites the assyrians the nubians
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The Hittites The Assyrians The Nubians. Empires of Ancient Middle East. Main Idea: To identify the Hittites and the effects of their technology on other societies. The Hittites. Essential Question: Who were the Hittites?. The Hittites. The Hittites.

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Empires of Ancient Middle East

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The Hittites

The Assyrians

The Nubians

Empires of Ancient Middle East


Main Idea: To identify the Hittites and the effects of their technology on other societies

The Hittites


Essential Question:

Who were the Hittites?

The Hittites


The Hittites

  • By 2000 B.C.E., they occupied most Anatolia (or Asia Minor)

  • City-states formed into an empire by 1650 B.C.E.

  • Capital: Hattusas

  • Controlled much of Mesopotamia for 450 years

    • Fought with Egypt to control ancient Syria

    • Eventually signed peace treaty


Essential Question:

What influenced their law system and how was it different?

The Hittites


The Hittites

  • Borrowed ideas about literature, art, politics, and law from Mesopotamian peoples

    • Gave each own distinctive twist

  • Legal code similar to Hammurabi’s Code, but less harsh

    • Murderers not automatically punished by death

    • Convicted murderer could make up for death by giving the family a slave or own child


Essential Question:

How was the Hittites war technology superior?

The Hittites


The Hittites

  • Excelled in war technology

  • Superior chariots

    • Light and easy to maneuver

  • Iron weapons

    • Around 1500 B.C.E., first in Mesopotamia to smelt iron and harden it into weapons

    • Iron technology spread to areas conquered

  • Fell suddenly in 1190 B.C.E. due to waves of invasions, and the burning of the capital


Main Ideas:

Assyria built a military machine that was greatly feared by others in the region.

Assyria used several different methods to control its empire.

The Assyrians


Essential Question:

How was Assyria able to build an empire?

The Assyrians


The Assyrians – A Powerful Army

  • Assyria was located in hilly northern Mesopotamia

    • Built powerful horse and chariot army to protect lands

    • Soldiers were only ones in area to use iron swords and spear tips

    • Used battering rams, ladders, tunnels to get past city walls

    • Inside cities, feared Assyrians slaughtered enemy inhabitants


Harsh Treatment of Captured People

  • Assyrians were cruel to defeated peoples

  • Enemies who surrendered were allowed to choose a leader

    • Enemies who resisted were taken captive and killed and enslaved

  • Enemy leaders were killed, and cities were burned

  • Captured peoples were sent into exile

    • Exile: forced to move from homelands to other lands, often far away


Essential Question:

How did Assyria control its empire?

Assyrian Builds a Huge Empire


A Huge Empire

  • From 850 to 650 B.C.E., Assyrians conquered most of the Fertile Crescent

    • Including Syria, Egypt, Babylonia, Palestine

  • Reached peak under Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.E.)

    • Known for creating libraries to collect documents

  • Assyrians chose native kings and governors to rule conquered lands

  • Conquered rulers paid tribute (payment for army’s protection)

    • Assyrians destroyed cities if no tribute was paid, and exiled people

  • Assyrians made many enemies by their cruelty

    • Exiled peoples tried to gather forces to fight the Assyrians

    • Assyrians put down many revolts


Assyria Crumbles

  • Assyrian empire fell in 609 B.C.E.

    • Defeated by combined forces of the Medes and Chaldeans

    • Victors burned Assyrian capital city of Ninevah


The Assyrian Empire showed that to control large areas of land with many people, an empire must have a highly organized government and a strong military.

Why learn about the Assyrians?


Main Idea:

The region of Nubia had connections with Egypt.

Nubia and the Land of Kush


Essential Question:

In what ways were Nubia and Egypt connected?

The Region of Nubia


Upper and Lower Nubia

  • Nubia: African region south of Egypt, includes modern Sudan and South Sudan

  • Nubia was divided into two areas

    • Upper area was southern or upstream

    • Lower area was northern or downstream

  • People of Nubia lived along the Nile River

    • Southern Nubia’s moist climate didn’t limit farming to Nile River Valley


Cultural Relations Between Egypt and Nubia

  • Egypt controlled parts of Nubia between 2000 and 1000 B.C.E.

  • Egyptian art, architecture, and religion influenced Nubia

  • Egypt went through a period of decline, and Nubian kingdom Kush became powerful

  • Kushite nobles went to Egypt and brought back rituals and writing system

    • Adopted Egyptian customs, clothing styles, adapted pyramids


The Decline of Kush (Nubia)

  • Taharqa, a later Kushite ruler of Egypt, fought Assyrian invasion

    • Assyria conquered Egypt in 671 B.C.E. with iron weapons, bows and arrows

    • Kushite bronze weapons were too weak


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