The muscular system
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The Muscular System. Five Golden Rules of Skeletal Muscle Activity. Table 6.2. Muscles and Body Movements. Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone Muscles are attached to at least two points Origin Attachment to an immovable bone Insertion.

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The Muscular System

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The muscular system

The Muscular System


Five golden rules of skeletal muscle activity

Five Golden Rules of Skeletal Muscle Activity

Table 6.2


Muscles and body movements

Muscles and Body Movements

  • Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone

  • Muscles are attached to at least two points

    • Origin

      • Attachment to an immovable bone

    • Insertion

  • Attachment to a moveable bone


Muscles and body movements1

Muscles and Body Movements

Figure 6.12


Types of ordinary body movements

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

  • Flexion

    • Decreases the angle of the joint

    • Brings two bones closer together

    • Typical of hinge joints like knee and elbow

  • Extension

    • Opposite of flexion

    • Increases angle between two bones


Types of ordinary body movements1

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

Figure 6.13a


Types of ordinary body movements2

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

Figure 6.13b


Types of ordinary body movements3

Types of Ordinary Body Movements


Types of ordinary body movements4

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

  • Rotation

    • Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis

    • Common in ball-and-socket joints

    • Example is when you move atlas around the dens of axis (shake your head “no”)


Types of ordinary body movements5

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

Figure 6.13c


Types of ordinary body movements6

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

  • Abduction

    • Movement of a limb away from the midline

  • Adduction

    • Opposite of abduction

    • Movement of a limb toward the midline


Types of ordinary body movements7

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

Figure 6.13d


Types of ordinary body movements8

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

  • Circumduction

    • Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction

    • Common in ball-and-socket joints


Types of ordinary body movements9

Types of Ordinary Body Movements

Figure 6.13d


Special movements

Special Movements

  • Dorsiflexion

    • Lifting the foot so that the superior surface approaches the shin

  • Plantar flexion

    • Depressing the foot (pointing the toes)


Special movements1

Special Movements

Figure 6.13e


Special movements2

Special Movements

  • Inversion

    • Turn sole of foot medially

  • Eversion

    • Turn sole of foot laterally


Special movements3

Special Movements

Figure 6.13f


Special movements4

Special Movements

  • Supination

    • Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly

  • Pronation

    • Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly


Special movements5

Special Movements

Figure 6.13g


Special movements6

Special Movements

  • Opposition

    • Move thumb to touch the tips of other fingers on the same hand


Special movements7

Special Movements

Figure 6.13h


Types of muscles

Types of Muscles

  • Prime mover—muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement

  • Antagonist—muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover

  • Synergist—muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation

  • Fixator—stabilizes the origin of a prime mover


Types of muscles1

Types of Muscles


Naming skeletal muscles

Naming Skeletal Muscles

  • By direction of muscle fibers

    • Example: Rectus (straight)

  • By relative size of the muscle

    • Example: Maximus (largest)


Naming skeletal muscles1

Naming Skeletal Muscles

  • By location of the muscle

    • Example: Temporalis (temporal bone)

  • By number of origins

    • Example: Triceps (three heads)


Naming skeletal muscles2

Naming Skeletal Muscles

  • By location of the muscle’s origin and insertion

    • Example: Sterno (on the sternum)

  • By shape of the muscle

    • Example: Deltoid (triangular)

  • By action of the muscle

    • Example: Flexor and extensor (flexes or extends a bone)


Arrangement of fascicles

Arrangement of Fascicles

Figure 6.14


Head and neck muscles

Head and Neck Muscles

  • Facial muscles

    • Frontalis—raises eyebrows

    • Orbicularis oculi—closes eyes, squints, blinks, winks

    • Orbicularis oris—closes mouth and protrudes the lips

    • Buccinator—flattens the cheek, chews

    • Zygomaticus—raises corners of the mouth

  • Chewing muscles

    • Masseter—closes the jaw and elevates mandible

    • Temporalis—synergist of the masseter, closes jaw


Head and neck muscles1

Head and Neck Muscles

  • Neck muscles

    • Platysma—pulls the corners of the mouth inferiorly

    • Sternocleidomastoid—flexes the neck, rotates the head


Head and neck muscles2

Head and Neck Muscles

Figure 6.15


Muscles of trunk shoulder arm

Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm

  • Anterior muscles

    • Pectoralis major—adducts and flexes the humerus

    • Intercostal muscles

      • External intercostals—raise rib cage during inhalation

      • Internal intercostals—depress the rib cage to move air out of the lungs when you exhale forcibly


Anterior muscles of trunk shoulder arm

Anterior Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm

Figure 6.16a


Muscles of trunk shoulder arm1

Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm

  • Muscles of the abdominal girdle

    • Rectus abdominis—flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal contents (defecation, childbirth, forced breathing)

    • External and internal obliques—flex vertebral column; rotate trunk and bend it laterally

    • Transversus abdominis—compresses abdominal contents


Anterior muscles of trunk shoulder arm1

Anterior Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm

Figure 6.16b


Muscles of trunk shoulder arm2

Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm

  • Posterior muscles

    • Trapezius—elevates, depresses, adducts, and stabilizes the scapula

    • Latissimus dorsi—extends and adducts the humerus

    • Erector spinae—back extension

    • Quadratus lumborum—flexes the spine laterally

    • Deltoid—arm abduction


Muscles of posterior neck trunk arm

Muscles of Posterior Neck, Trunk, Arm

Figure 6.17a


Muscles of posterior neck trunk arm1

Muscles of Posterior Neck, Trunk, Arm

Figure 6.17b


Muscles of the upper limb

Muscles of the Upper Limb

  • Biceps brachii—supinates forearm, flexes elbow

  • Brachialis—elbow flexion

  • Brachioradialis—weak muscle

  • Triceps brachii—elbow extension (antagonist to biceps brachii)


Anterior muscles of trunk shoulder arm2

Anterior Muscles of Trunk, Shoulder, Arm

Figure 6.16a


Muscles of posterior neck trunk arm2

Muscles of Posterior Neck, Trunk, Arm

Figure 6.17a


Muscles of the lower limb

Muscles of the Lower Limb

  • Gluteus maximus—hip extension

  • Gluteus medius—hip abduction, steadies pelvis when walking

  • Iliopsoas—hip flexion, keeps the upper body from falling backward when standing erect

  • Adductor muscles—adduct the thighs


Muscles of the pelvis hip thigh

Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh

Figure 6.19a


Muscles of the pelvis hip thigh1

Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh

Figure 6.19c


Muscles of the lower limb1

Muscles of the Lower Limb

  • Muscles causing movement at the knee joint

    • Hamstring group—thigh extension and knee flexion

      • Biceps femoris

      • Semimembranosus

      • Semitendinosus


Muscles of the pelvis hip thigh2

Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh

Figure 6.19a


Muscles of the lower limb2

Muscles of the Lower Limb

  • Muscles causing movement at the knee joint

    • Sartorius—flexes the thigh

    • Quadriceps group—extends the knee

      • Rectus femoris

      • Vastus muscles (three)


Muscles of the pelvis hip thigh3

Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, Thigh

Figure 6.19c


Muscles of the lower limb3

Muscles of the Lower Limb

  • Muscles causing movement at ankle and foot

    • Tibialis anterior—dorsiflexion and foot inversion

    • Extensor digitorum longus—toe extension and dorsiflexion of the foot

    • Fibularis muscles—plantar flexion, everts the foot

    • Soleus—plantar flexion


Muscles of the lower leg

Muscles of the Lower Leg

Figure 6.20a


Muscles of the lower leg1

Muscles of the Lower Leg

Figure 6.20b


Superficial muscles anterior

Superficial Muscles: Anterior

Figure 6.21


Superficial muscles posterior

Superficial Muscles: Posterior

Figure 6.22


Superficial anterior muscles of the body

Superficial Anterior Muscles of the Body

Table 6.3 (1 of 3)


Superficial anterior muscles of the body1

Superficial Anterior Muscles of the Body

Table 6.3 (2 of 3)


Superficial anterior muscles of the body2

Superficial Anterior Muscles of the Body

Table 6.3 (3 of 3)


Superficial posterior muscles of the body

Superficial Posterior Muscles of the Body

Table 6.4 (1 of 3)


Superficial posterior muscles of the body1

Superficial Posterior Muscles of the Body

Table 6.4 (2 of 3)


Superficial posterior muscles of the body2

Superficial Posterior Muscles of the Body

Table 6.4 (3 of 3)


Intramuscular injection sites

Intramuscular Injection Sites

Figure 6.18, 6.19b, d


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