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Chapter 14. A Nation Divided. Lesson 1: North and South Grow Apart. Seek First to Understand. There were many differences between the North and South in the 1800s. Differences . Results: Sectionalism —loyalty to a section or part of the country rather than the whole country.

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

A Nation Divided

Lesson 1: North and South Grow Apart

Seek First to Understand

  • There were many differences between the North and South in the 1800s.



Sectionalism—loyalty to a section or part of the country rather than the whole country

North and South Resources

North and South Resources

North and South Resources

North and South Resources

North and South Resources

North and South Resources

How Could They Make Their Circumstances a Win/Win Situation?

Slavery-North and South

  • By 1850, most northern states had outlawed slavery.

  • In the south, slaves were used by plantation owners to harvest crops such as tobacco, cotton, and rice.

  • Northern workers were free and paid for their work. However, in the northern factories, many put in long hours, under difficult conditions, for low pay.

Seek First to Understand


  • Was profitable for the southern economy

    • Brought in more than twice as much money as the cost of owning the slave

    • Cotton was usually grown on large plantations

    • Many lived on small farms as wellwhere the farmer often worked alongside the slaves

By 1860, there were almost 4,000,000 enslaved African AmericansFree and Enslaved African Americans 1820-1860

Free to Vote?

  • Even free African Americans did not always have the same rights as whites

    • Even though some states no longer required white men to own land, they DID require black men to own land in order to vote.

Seek First to Understand

David Walker

  • Free African American

  • Abolitionist

  • Asked: “How would they like us to make slaves of …them?”

Slave Owners Defend Slavery

  • Pointed to evils of factories in the north, where people worked long hours, in bad surroundings, for little pay.

  • Slave owners argued that slaves were better off than northern factory workers.

Seek First to Understand

Lesson 2: Resisting Slavery


  • Slaves resisted slavery in many ways:

    • Escapes

    • Refused to obey the owner

    • Worked less or at a slower pace

    • Pretended to be sick

    • Broke tools needed for work

    • Learning to readand write

Seek First to Understand

No Choices

  • Slaves had no choices:

    • Families were separated

    • Told when to work and when to stop

    • Could not leave without permission

    • Decided whether or not they could marry

    • Decided the age at which children began working

Seek First to Understand

Slave Codes

  • Laws were passed limiting the rights of slaves

    • Slave codes—laws to control behavior of slaves

      • Slaves could not hit a white person (even in self-defense)

      • Slaves were not allowed to own property

      • Few slaves were allowed to buy and sell goods

Seek First to Understand

Nat Turner’s Rebellion

  • Led a rebellion against slavery

  • Killed about 60 whites

  • US and Virginia troops were called in to stop them

  • Soldiers killed more than 100 African Americans

  • Turner escaped but was later captured and hanged

Joseph Cinque

  • Led a rebellion against slavery

  • Seized control of a ship called Amistad (a Spanish slave ship)

  • He told the Africans, “We may as well die trying to be free.”

  • The Africans told a Spanish sailor to take them back to Africa

  • He tricked the Africans and took them along the coast of the United States until the US Navy captured them.

  • The Africans were taken as prisoners.

  • At first, the US planned to return them to the Spanish.

  • Abolitionists printed articles in newspapers of their plan

  • Their case eventually went before the Supreme Court


Former President John Quincy Adams

  • Presented the case in favor of the Africans

  • He argued that the Africans were not property. They were humans and should not be returned to Spain.

  • Supreme Court reached a decision

  • It agreed with Adams and set the Africans free, and all 35 survivors sailed back to Africa later that year.

Underground Railroad

  • Not a real railroad

  • Underground railroad—an organized, secret system set up to help enslaved people escape the South to freedom in the North or Canada.

  • Conductors—people who helped those escaping

  • Stations—the houses, barns, and other places where escaped slaves hid along their journey



  • They were guided by the North Star

  • On cloudy nights, they felt for moss on tree trunks, because moss tends to grow on the north side of trees.

  • All along the journey they faced the risk of capture, a severe beating, or death.

  • Between 40,000 and 100,000 slaves escaped using the Underground Railroad

Harriet Tubman

  • Most famous “conductor”

  • She escaped slavery herself

  • Settled in Philadelphia

  • Before the Civil War, she returned 19 times!

  • She led more than 300 people (including her mother and father) to freedom

  • She said, “I never ran my train off track and I never lost a passenger.”

Levi Coffin

  • White teacher

  • “Conductor” on the Underground Railroad

  • Opened a school for slaves in North Carolina

  • Slave owners closed his school

  • He moved to Indiana and started “conducting”

Catherine Coffin

  • Levi’s wife

  • Helped her husband “conduct”

  • Together they led more than 2,000 slaves to freedom

Free African Americans

  • In 1860, 4.5 million Africans in US

  • 4.1 million in the South


  • Although free, they feared losing their freedom. Any white person could accuse them of being a slave.

  • Without a certificate of freedom, African Americans in the South could be sent into slavery

  • Escaped slaves in the North could be kidnapped by slave catchers and returned to slavery in the South

  • Could not hold certain jobs

  • They were threatened by whites in the North and South over jobs

Seek First to Understand


  • Thousands found jobs

  • Thousands bought property

Lesson 3: The Struggle Over Slavery

Free or Slave State?

  • Free state—slavery is not allowed

  • Slave State—slavery is allowed

  • In 1819, the US was made up of 11 free states and 11 slave states

  • This means the number of senators were balanced as well (each state has 2)

Think Win-Win

New State

  • In 1819 Missouri asked for statehood as a slave state

  • Northern states did not want to add a slave state

  • Southern states took the opposite position.

John C. Calhoun

  • From South Carolina

  • Leader of the southerners in the Senate

  • Believed in states’ rights (the idea that states have the right to make decisions about issues that concern them)

  • Believed slavery should be legal if a state wanted it to be

Henry Clay

  • Senator from Kentucky

  • Known as the “Great Compromiser”

  • Urged a solution called the Missouri Compromise

Missouri Compromise

  • Missouri was admitted as a slave state

  • Maine was admitted as a free state

  • Now there are 24 states (12 slave and 12 free)

  • It tried to settle issues of future states gaining statehood

    • It drew a line dividing north and south

    • Any state south of the line would be slave

    • Any state north of the line would be free

More States

  • It worked for a while

  • California wanted to be added as a free state

  • At the time, the numbers were balanced (15 free and 15 slave)

Henry Clay (Again)

  • Suggested a compromise—

    Compromise of 1850

    • California becomes a free state

    • North agrees to pass the Fugitive Slave Law (law that forced people to return escaped slaves to their owners even if they escaped to the north where slavery was illegal)

    • Also suggested a way to accept other new states in the land gained from Mexico—let the people there vote to decide

Daniel Webster

  • Senator from Massachusetts

  • Spoke in favor of the compromise

  • Opponent of slavery

  • Wanted to keep the country together

Stephen Douglas

  • Senator from Illinois

  • Proposed that Nebraska be split into 2 territories (north—Nebraska Territory and south—Kansas Territory)

  • Both were north of the Missouri Compromise line, they both were to be free

South Says No

  • Southern states wanted them both to be slave states

Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Stephen Douglas suggested a compromise

    • Let the people of each territory decide

    • Congress agreed and passed a law—Kansas-Nebraska Act

Bleeding Kansas

  • Instead of solving the problem, it created a new one

  • Because they were able to vote, many people who favored one side rushed to settle Kansas.

  • Many who voted were not living in Kansas. They had come from Missouri to vote for slavery.

  • Northerners claimed the vote was illegal

  • Violence broke out in many parts of Kansas

  • Kansas became known as “Bleeding Kansas”

Causes of Conflict

Harriet Beecher Stowe

  • Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin which described the cruelties of slavery

  • Sold about 300,000 copies

  • Won many people over to the abolitionist cause

Dred Scott

  • Enslaved African American from Missouri

  • His owner took him to Illinois (free state), Wisconsin (free territory), and back to Missouri (slave state)

  • When his owner died, Scott went to court claiming he was a free man because he had lived in a free state

  • His case reached the Supreme Court

  • Court ruled that he had no rights because African Americans were not citizens of the US

Frederick Douglass

  • Former slave

  • Spoke publically of his experiences as a slave

  • Writer, editor, and leading abolitionist

John Brown

  • Abolitionist

  • Led attacks on pro-slavery people in Kansas

  • Made plans to lead attacks on slave owners in Virginia

  • He needed weapons

  • Planned to steal them from army’s arsenal (place where weapons are stored) at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia

Raid on Harper’s Ferry

  • John Brown and 21 other men (black and white) set out to raid Harper’s Ferry

  • Federal and state soldiers stopped them, killing some of the raiders

  • Brown was taken prisoner, found guilty, and sentenced to death

  • He was hanged

Abraham Lincoln

  • Republican party—opposed slavery

  • Illinois chose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate for Senate

  • A lawyer from Illinois

  • Called “The Rail Splitter” because he split logs when he was young with an axe to make the rails of fences

Stephen Douglas

  • Democratic candidate

  • Called the “Little Giant” because although he was short, he was a giant when it came to making speeches that changed people’s ideas

  • Believed in states’ rights


  • Lincoln and Douglas debated throughout Illinois about the spread of slavery

  • Both were excellent speakers


  • Douglas won the election for Senate, but Lincoln became the leader of the Republican Party

  • Within 2 years he became the Republican candidate for President

Lincoln-Douglas (again)

  • Democrats chose Douglas as their candidate for President

  • Republicans chose Lincoln as their candidate for President

  • Lincoln won with no southern electoral votes

    • Southerners feared he would end slavery

    • They also worried they would have no voice in government

    • They said if he won, they would secede from United States

Lesson 4: The First Shots Are Fired

Southern States Secede

  • Secede—break away

  • Many southerners believed that the south should secede from the Union

  • Almost 2 months after Lincoln was elected President in 1860, South Carolina decided to secede

More States

  • In 1861, 6 more states seceded

    • Alabama

    • Florida

    • Mississippi

    • Georgia

    • Louisiana

    • Texas

A New Country?

  • Representatives from the 7 states met in Montgomery, Alabama

  • They decided to form their own government called the Confederate States of America (or the Confederacy).

  • They adopted a constitution that supported states’ rights and slavery

President of the Confederate States of America

  • President—Jefferson Davis

  • Former US senator from Mississippi

  • He was born in Kentucky in a log cabin(like Abraham Lincoln)

  • Grew up on a plantation

  • Later he developed his own plantation

President Davis

  • He said the Confederacy should “look forward to success, to peace, an to prosperity.”

  • In a letter to his wife, he wrote that the Confederate states were “threatened by a powerful opposition.”

  • That threat came from the US and a newly elected President Abraham Lincoln.


  • Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861.

  • The Confederate States had taken control of the forts and military property in the southern states.

2 Countries

  • Union—states which remained loyal to the United States

  • Confederacy—States which seceded from the Unites States

  • Border States—States located between the Union and the Confederacy which were unsure (Delaware, Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland)

Fort Sumter

  • In the south

  • Still under Union control

  • Jefferson Davis met with his advisers to discuss Ft. Sumter

  • He decided to send officers to ask for the surrender of the fort

Robert Anderson

  • Commanded Ft. Sumter

  • Agreed to surrender if the Confederacy would wait 3 days.

Pierre G. T. Beauregard

  • Confederate commander

  • Gave the order to fire on the fort if they did not surrender in 1 hour

  • They began firing on Ft. Sumter on April 12, 1861 at 4:30 AM

Battle of Fort Sumter

  • The bombing continued into the next day (Saturday)

  • With little food and water, Anderson surrendered and left the fort on Sunday

After the Battle

  • Lincoln responded to the attack by asking Union states to supply 75,000 soldiers to put down the Confederate rebellion

  • His call for troops angered Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina

  • They seceded and joined the Confederacy

  • Union states—23

  • Confederate states—11

  • Border states—4

Border States

  • Lincoln wanted to keep the border states in the Union even though they were slave states

  • In 1861 he continued to say his aim was to hold the states together, not to abolish slavery

Causes of the Conflict

  • To preserve (keep together) the Union

  • Supporters of the north believed they were fighting to end slavery

  • they also believed they were defending their homeland and their way of life


  • The Battle of Fort Sumter officially began the American Civil War

  • Civil war—awar between people of the same country

  • Some described the war as a rebellion and the Confederacy as rebels

  • To the south, this was the War for Southern Independence or the War of Northern Aggression

The War Begins

  • No matter what it was called, the war would be longer and bloodier than anyone would have guessed at this point.

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