Chapter 14
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Chapter 14. A Nation Divided. Lesson 1: North and South Grow Apart. Seek First to Understand. There were many differences between the North and South in the 1800s. Differences . Results: Sectionalism —loyalty to a section or part of the country rather than the whole country.

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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

A Nation Divided


Lesson 1 north and south grow apart

Lesson 1: North and South Grow Apart


Seek first to understand

Seek First to Understand

  • There were many differences between the North and South in the 1800s.


Differences

Differences

Results:

Sectionalism—loyalty to a section or part of the country rather than the whole country


North and south resources

North and South Resources


North and south resources1

North and South Resources


North and south resources2

North and South Resources


North and south resources3

North and South Resources


North and south resources4

North and South Resources


North and south resources5

North and South Resources


How could they make their circumstances a win win situation

How Could They Make Their Circumstances a Win/Win Situation?


Slavery north and south

Slavery-North and South

  • By 1850, most northern states had outlawed slavery.

  • In the south, slaves were used by plantation owners to harvest crops such as tobacco, cotton, and rice.

  • Northern workers were free and paid for their work. However, in the northern factories, many put in long hours, under difficult conditions, for low pay.


Seek first to understand1

Seek First to Understand


Profitable

Profitable

  • Was profitable for the southern economy

    • Brought in more than twice as much money as the cost of owning the slave

    • Cotton was usually grown on large plantations

    • Many lived on small farms as wellwhere the farmer often worked alongside the slaves


Chapter 14

By 1860, there were almost 4,000,000 enslaved African AmericansFree and Enslaved African Americans 1820-1860


Free to vote

Free to Vote?

  • Even free African Americans did not always have the same rights as whites

    • Even though some states no longer required white men to own land, they DID require black men to own land in order to vote.


Seek first to understand2

Seek First to Understand


David walker

David Walker

  • Free African American

  • Abolitionist

  • Asked: “How would they like us to make slaves of …them?”


Slave owners defend slavery

Slave Owners Defend Slavery

  • Pointed to evils of factories in the north, where people worked long hours, in bad surroundings, for little pay.

  • Slave owners argued that slaves were better off than northern factory workers.


Seek first to understand3

Seek First to Understand


Lesson 2 resisting slavery

Lesson 2: Resisting Slavery


Resistance

Resistance

  • Slaves resisted slavery in many ways:

    • Escapes

    • Refused to obey the owner

    • Worked less or at a slower pace

    • Pretended to be sick

    • Broke tools needed for work

    • Learning to readand write


Seek first to understand4

Seek First to Understand


No choices

No Choices

  • Slaves had no choices:

    • Families were separated

    • Told when to work and when to stop

    • Could not leave without permission

    • Decided whether or not they could marry

    • Decided the age at which children began working


Seek first to understand5

Seek First to Understand


Slave codes

Slave Codes

  • Laws were passed limiting the rights of slaves

    • Slave codes—laws to control behavior of slaves

      • Slaves could not hit a white person (even in self-defense)

      • Slaves were not allowed to own property

      • Few slaves were allowed to buy and sell goods


Seek first to understand6

Seek First to Understand


Nat turner s rebellion

Nat Turner’s Rebellion

  • Led a rebellion against slavery

  • Killed about 60 whites

  • US and Virginia troops were called in to stop them

  • Soldiers killed more than 100 African Americans

  • Turner escaped but was later captured and hanged


Joseph cinque

Joseph Cinque

  • Led a rebellion against slavery

  • Seized control of a ship called Amistad (a Spanish slave ship)

  • He told the Africans, “We may as well die trying to be free.”

  • The Africans told a Spanish sailor to take them back to Africa

  • He tricked the Africans and took them along the coast of the United States until the US Navy captured them.

  • The Africans were taken as prisoners.

  • At first, the US planned to return them to the Spanish.

  • Abolitionists printed articles in newspapers of their plan

  • Their case eventually went before the Supreme Court


Synergy

Synergy


Former president john quincy adams

Former President John Quincy Adams

  • Presented the case in favor of the Africans

  • He argued that the Africans were not property. They were humans and should not be returned to Spain.

  • Supreme Court reached a decision

  • It agreed with Adams and set the Africans free, and all 35 survivors sailed back to Africa later that year.


Underground railroad

Underground Railroad

  • Not a real railroad

  • Underground railroad—an organized, secret system set up to help enslaved people escape the South to freedom in the North or Canada.

  • Conductors—people who helped those escaping

  • Stations—the houses, barns, and other places where escaped slaves hid along their journey


Synergy1

Synergy


Escape

Escape?

  • They were guided by the North Star

  • On cloudy nights, they felt for moss on tree trunks, because moss tends to grow on the north side of trees.

  • All along the journey they faced the risk of capture, a severe beating, or death.

  • Between 40,000 and 100,000 slaves escaped using the Underground Railroad


Harriet tubman

Harriet Tubman

  • Most famous “conductor”

  • She escaped slavery herself

  • Settled in Philadelphia

  • Before the Civil War, she returned 19 times!

  • She led more than 300 people (including her mother and father) to freedom

  • She said, “I never ran my train off track and I never lost a passenger.”


Levi coffin

Levi Coffin

  • White teacher

  • “Conductor” on the Underground Railroad

  • Opened a school for slaves in North Carolina

  • Slave owners closed his school

  • He moved to Indiana and started “conducting”


Catherine coffin

Catherine Coffin

  • Levi’s wife

  • Helped her husband “conduct”

  • Together they led more than 2,000 slaves to freedom


Free african americans

Free African Americans

  • In 1860, 4.5 million Africans in US

  • 4.1 million in the South


Chapter 14

Fear

  • Although free, they feared losing their freedom. Any white person could accuse them of being a slave.

  • Without a certificate of freedom, African Americans in the South could be sent into slavery

  • Escaped slaves in the North could be kidnapped by slave catchers and returned to slavery in the South

  • Could not hold certain jobs

  • They were threatened by whites in the North and South over jobs


Seek first to understand7

Seek First to Understand


Chapter 14

Hope

  • Thousands found jobs

  • Thousands bought property


Lesson 3 the struggle over slavery

Lesson 3: The Struggle Over Slavery


Free or slave state

Free or Slave State?

  • Free state—slavery is not allowed

  • Slave State—slavery is allowed

  • In 1819, the US was made up of 11 free states and 11 slave states

  • This means the number of senators were balanced as well (each state has 2)


Think win win

Think Win-Win


New state

New State

  • In 1819 Missouri asked for statehood as a slave state

  • Northern states did not want to add a slave state

  • Southern states took the opposite position.


John c calhoun

John C. Calhoun

  • From South Carolina

  • Leader of the southerners in the Senate

  • Believed in states’ rights (the idea that states have the right to make decisions about issues that concern them)

  • Believed slavery should be legal if a state wanted it to be


Henry clay

Henry Clay

  • Senator from Kentucky

  • Known as the “Great Compromiser”

  • Urged a solution called the Missouri Compromise


Missouri compromise

Missouri Compromise

  • Missouri was admitted as a slave state

  • Maine was admitted as a free state

  • Now there are 24 states (12 slave and 12 free)

  • It tried to settle issues of future states gaining statehood

    • It drew a line dividing north and south

    • Any state south of the line would be slave

    • Any state north of the line would be free


More states

More States

  • It worked for a while

  • California wanted to be added as a free state

  • At the time, the numbers were balanced (15 free and 15 slave)


Henry clay again

Henry Clay (Again)

  • Suggested a compromise—

    Compromise of 1850

    • California becomes a free state

    • North agrees to pass the Fugitive Slave Law (law that forced people to return escaped slaves to their owners even if they escaped to the north where slavery was illegal)

    • Also suggested a way to accept other new states in the land gained from Mexico—let the people there vote to decide


Daniel webster

Daniel Webster

  • Senator from Massachusetts

  • Spoke in favor of the compromise

  • Opponent of slavery

  • Wanted to keep the country together


Stephen douglas

Stephen Douglas

  • Senator from Illinois

  • Proposed that Nebraska be split into 2 territories (north—Nebraska Territory and south—Kansas Territory)

  • Both were north of the Missouri Compromise line, they both were to be free


South says no

South Says No

  • Southern states wanted them both to be slave states


Kansas nebraska act

Kansas-Nebraska Act

  • Stephen Douglas suggested a compromise

    • Let the people of each territory decide

    • Congress agreed and passed a law—Kansas-Nebraska Act


Bleeding kansas

Bleeding Kansas

  • Instead of solving the problem, it created a new one

  • Because they were able to vote, many people who favored one side rushed to settle Kansas.

  • Many who voted were not living in Kansas. They had come from Missouri to vote for slavery.

  • Northerners claimed the vote was illegal

  • Violence broke out in many parts of Kansas

  • Kansas became known as “Bleeding Kansas”


Causes of conflict

Causes of Conflict


Harriet beecher stowe

Harriet Beecher Stowe

  • Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin which described the cruelties of slavery

  • Sold about 300,000 copies

  • Won many people over to the abolitionist cause


Dred scott

Dred Scott

  • Enslaved African American from Missouri

  • His owner took him to Illinois (free state), Wisconsin (free territory), and back to Missouri (slave state)

  • When his owner died, Scott went to court claiming he was a free man because he had lived in a free state

  • His case reached the Supreme Court

  • Court ruled that he had no rights because African Americans were not citizens of the US


Frederick douglass

Frederick Douglass

  • Former slave

  • Spoke publically of his experiences as a slave

  • Writer, editor, and leading abolitionist


John brown

John Brown

  • Abolitionist

  • Led attacks on pro-slavery people in Kansas

  • Made plans to lead attacks on slave owners in Virginia

  • He needed weapons

  • Planned to steal them from army’s arsenal (place where weapons are stored) at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia


Raid on harper s ferry

Raid on Harper’s Ferry

  • John Brown and 21 other men (black and white) set out to raid Harper’s Ferry

  • Federal and state soldiers stopped them, killing some of the raiders

  • Brown was taken prisoner, found guilty, and sentenced to death

  • He was hanged


Abraham lincoln

Abraham Lincoln

  • Republican party—opposed slavery

  • Illinois chose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate for Senate

  • A lawyer from Illinois

  • Called “The Rail Splitter” because he split logs when he was young with an axe to make the rails of fences


Stephen douglas1

Stephen Douglas

  • Democratic candidate

  • Called the “Little Giant” because although he was short, he was a giant when it came to making speeches that changed people’s ideas

  • Believed in states’ rights


Debates

Debates

  • Lincoln and Douglas debated throughout Illinois about the spread of slavery

  • Both were excellent speakers


Winner

Winner

  • Douglas won the election for Senate, but Lincoln became the leader of the Republican Party

  • Within 2 years he became the Republican candidate for President


Lincoln douglas again

Lincoln-Douglas (again)

  • Democrats chose Douglas as their candidate for President

  • Republicans chose Lincoln as their candidate for President

  • Lincoln won with no southern electoral votes

    • Southerners feared he would end slavery

    • They also worried they would have no voice in government

    • They said if he won, they would secede from United States


Lesson 4 the first shots are fired

Lesson 4: The First Shots Are Fired


Southern states secede

Southern States Secede

  • Secede—break away

  • Many southerners believed that the south should secede from the Union

  • Almost 2 months after Lincoln was elected President in 1860, South Carolina decided to secede


More states1

More States

  • In 1861, 6 more states seceded

    • Alabama

    • Florida

    • Mississippi

    • Georgia

    • Louisiana

    • Texas


A new country

A New Country?

  • Representatives from the 7 states met in Montgomery, Alabama

  • They decided to form their own government called the Confederate States of America (or the Confederacy).

  • They adopted a constitution that supported states’ rights and slavery


President of the confederate states of america

President of the Confederate States of America

  • President—Jefferson Davis

  • Former US senator from Mississippi

  • He was born in Kentucky in a log cabin(like Abraham Lincoln)

  • Grew up on a plantation

  • Later he developed his own plantation


President davis

President Davis

  • He said the Confederacy should “look forward to success, to peace, an to prosperity.”

  • In a letter to his wife, he wrote that the Confederate states were “threatened by a powerful opposition.”

  • That threat came from the US and a newly elected President Abraham Lincoln.


Problems

Problems

  • Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861.

  • The Confederate States had taken control of the forts and military property in the southern states.


2 countries

2 Countries

  • Union—states which remained loyal to the United States

  • Confederacy—States which seceded from the Unites States

  • Border States—States located between the Union and the Confederacy which were unsure (Delaware, Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland)


Fort sumter

Fort Sumter

  • In the south

  • Still under Union control

  • Jefferson Davis met with his advisers to discuss Ft. Sumter

  • He decided to send officers to ask for the surrender of the fort


Robert anderson

Robert Anderson

  • Commanded Ft. Sumter

  • Agreed to surrender if the Confederacy would wait 3 days.


Pierre g t beauregard

Pierre G. T. Beauregard

  • Confederate commander

  • Gave the order to fire on the fort if they did not surrender in 1 hour

  • They began firing on Ft. Sumter on April 12, 1861 at 4:30 AM


Battle of fort sumter

Battle of Fort Sumter

  • The bombing continued into the next day (Saturday)

  • With little food and water, Anderson surrendered and left the fort on Sunday


After the battle

After the Battle

  • Lincoln responded to the attack by asking Union states to supply 75,000 soldiers to put down the Confederate rebellion

  • His call for troops angered Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina

  • They seceded and joined the Confederacy

  • Union states—23

  • Confederate states—11

  • Border states—4


Border states

Border States

  • Lincoln wanted to keep the border states in the Union even though they were slave states

  • In 1861 he continued to say his aim was to hold the states together, not to abolish slavery


Causes of the conflict

Causes of the Conflict

  • To preserve (keep together) the Union

  • Supporters of the north believed they were fighting to end slavery

  • they also believed they were defending their homeland and their way of life


Chapter 14

WAR!

  • The Battle of Fort Sumter officially began the American Civil War

  • Civil war—awar between people of the same country

  • Some described the war as a rebellion and the Confederacy as rebels

  • To the south, this was the War for Southern Independence or the War of Northern Aggression


The war begins

The War Begins

  • No matter what it was called, the war would be longer and bloodier than anyone would have guessed at this point.


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