Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 14

Memory PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Memory. The persistence of learning over time Retrieval: The process of remembering or accessing what was previously stored. Sensory Working (WM)—encoded and kept for further use Long Term Memory (LTM) Episodic (autobiographical) memory Semantic memory. More Memory Issues.

Download Presentation


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


  • The persistence of learning over time

  • Retrieval: The process of remembering or accessing what was previously stored

  • Sensory

  • Working (WM)—encoded and kept for further use

  • Long Term Memory (LTM)

  • Episodic (autobiographical) memory

  • Semantic memory

More Memory Issues

  • Implicit vs. explicit

  • Memory enhancement

    • Recognition

    • Recall

    • Elaboration

  • Some communication strategies to enhance memory

    • Chunking

    • Rehearsal

    • Recirculation

    • Elaboration


  • Information already learned and stored

  • Knowledge structure: How knowledge is stored and organized

  • Schema: Associations between entities (e.g., brands, product categories, experiences)

  • Associative Network of Knowledge—knowledge elements—when accessed--trigger other elements

  • Priming: Increased sensitivity to associations due to prior implicit memory

Specific Schemas

  • Brand image: associations with the brand

  • “Brand Personality:” The way the brand would have been described if it were a person (anthropomorphism)—e.g.,

    • Sincerity

    • Competence

    • Ruggedness

Associate Network of Knowledge


















  • Knowledge of steps needed to carry out an activity

    • Make it easier to carry out routine activities with limited conscious involvement

    • For novel or infrequent experiences, lack of a script can make these difficult

  • Practical implications

    • Inclusion of specific brand names as defaults (e.g., for oil change, drive to Jiffy Lube which will use Pennzoil when changing your oil and filter)

    • Advertisements to make an activity easier


  • Taxanomical structure where exemplars are organized into categories

  • Levels

    • Superordinate

    • Basic

    • Subordinate

    • Category members (exemplars)

  • In general, the basic category level is recognized faster than superordinate and subordinate

Graded Structure

  • Some exemplars are “better” examples of category than others

    • E.g., for the category of dog, a Germen Shepherd is a better example than a Yorkshire Terrier

    • Better examples are retrieved more easily


  • The “perfect” example

  • May not correspond with reality

  • Often more abstracted (simplified)

Blurring of product category and brand name distinctions

  • Some commonly used category descriptors and verbs not intended to refer to the specific brand

    • Xerox (photo copy)

    • Kleenex (facial tissue)

    • To “FedEx” a package (possibly with another carrier)

  • Implications of brand name misuse

    • Possible loss of trademark protection in extreme cases (“genericide”)

    • Default choice in the product category

    • Positioning against the prototype

Knowledge flexibility

  • Goal derived categories--e.g.,

    • Things to eat and do while on a diet

    • Baby care items

  • Construal level: The generality or specificity with which a goal is described

  • Influences on categorization

    • Culture (“Women, fire, and dangerous things”)

    • Expertise

Memory and retrieval

  • Sources of failure

    • Decay (knowledge has been left unaccessed for a long period of time)

      • Geographical directions

      • Lock combinations

      • Foreign languages

      • Activities and associated needs (including brand information)

  • Interference

    • Proactive: Existing knowledge interferes with learning new info

    • Retroactive: New knowledge dominates over earlier knowledge

  • Timing

    • Primacy

    • Recency

  • Retrieval errors

  • Stimuli Characteristics and Memory

    • Some stimuli are better remembered

      • Salience

      • Prototypicallity

      • Redundancy

      • Medium of processing (combination of sensory input)

    • Retrieval cues

      • Stimuli that facilitate activation of memory

        • Situations (goals)

        • Colors and shapes

        • Fit with product function (e.g., Mr. Clean)

    Consumer characteristics and memory

    • Mood (congruence)

    • Expertise

  • Login