Memory
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Memory. The persistence of learning over time Retrieval: The process of remembering or accessing what was previously stored. Sensory Working (WM)—encoded and kept for further use Long Term Memory (LTM) Episodic (autobiographical) memory Semantic memory. More Memory Issues.

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Memory

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Memory

Memory

  • The persistence of learning over time

  • Retrieval: The process of remembering or accessing what was previously stored

  • Sensory

  • Working (WM)—encoded and kept for further use

  • Long Term Memory (LTM)

  • Episodic (autobiographical) memory

  • Semantic memory


More memory issues

More Memory Issues

  • Implicit vs. explicit

  • Memory enhancement

    • Recognition

    • Recall

    • Elaboration

  • Some communication strategies to enhance memory

    • Chunking

    • Rehearsal

    • Recirculation

    • Elaboration


Knowledge

Knowledge

  • Information already learned and stored

  • Knowledge structure: How knowledge is stored and organized

  • Schema: Associations between entities (e.g., brands, product categories, experiences)

  • Associative Network of Knowledge—knowledge elements—when accessed--trigger other elements

  • Priming: Increased sensitivity to associations due to prior implicit memory


Specific schemas

Specific Schemas

  • Brand image: associations with the brand

  • “Brand Personality:” The way the brand would have been described if it were a person (anthropomorphism)—e.g.,

    • Sincerity

    • Competence

    • Ruggedness


Associate network of knowledge

Associate Network of Knowledge

SANDWICH

MITT

ROMNEY

PEANUT

BUTTER

FAT

PEANUTS

REPUBICAN

PARTY

ELEPHANT

7 BLIND MEN

TRUNK

ZOO

GIRAFFE

MEDICINE

TIGER


Scripts

Scripts

  • Knowledge of steps needed to carry out an activity

    • Make it easier to carry out routine activities with limited conscious involvement

    • For novel or infrequent experiences, lack of a script can make these difficult

  • Practical implications

    • Inclusion of specific brand names as defaults (e.g., for oil change, drive to Jiffy Lube which will use Pennzoil when changing your oil and filter)

    • Advertisements to make an activity easier


Categorization

Categorization

  • Taxanomical structure where exemplars are organized into categories

  • Levels

    • Superordinate

    • Basic

    • Subordinate

    • Category members (exemplars)

  • In general, the basic category level is recognized faster than superordinate and subordinate


Graded structure

Graded Structure

  • Some exemplars are “better” examples of category than others

    • E.g., for the category of dog, a Germen Shepherd is a better example than a Yorkshire Terrier

    • Better examples are retrieved more easily


Prototypicality

Prototypicality

  • The “perfect” example

  • May not correspond with reality

  • Often more abstracted (simplified)


Blurring of product category and brand name distinctions

Blurring of product category and brand name distinctions

  • Some commonly used category descriptors and verbs not intended to refer to the specific brand

    • Xerox (photo copy)

    • Kleenex (facial tissue)

    • To “FedEx” a package (possibly with another carrier)

  • Implications of brand name misuse

    • Possible loss of trademark protection in extreme cases (“genericide”)

    • Default choice in the product category

    • Positioning against the prototype


Knowledge flexibility

Knowledge flexibility

  • Goal derived categories--e.g.,

    • Things to eat and do while on a diet

    • Baby care items

  • Construal level: The generality or specificity with which a goal is described

  • Influences on categorization

    • Culture (“Women, fire, and dangerous things”)

    • Expertise


Memory and retrieval

Memory and retrieval

  • Sources of failure

    • Decay (knowledge has been left unaccessed for a long period of time)

      • Geographical directions

      • Lock combinations

      • Foreign languages

      • Activities and associated needs (including brand information)

  • Interference

    • Proactive: Existing knowledge interferes with learning new info

    • Retroactive: New knowledge dominates over earlier knowledge

  • Timing

    • Primacy

    • Recency

  • Retrieval errors


  • Stimuli characteristics and memory

    Stimuli Characteristics and Memory

    • Some stimuli are better remembered

      • Salience

      • Prototypicallity

      • Redundancy

      • Medium of processing (combination of sensory input)

    • Retrieval cues

      • Stimuli that facilitate activation of memory

        • Situations (goals)

        • Colors and shapes

        • Fit with product function (e.g., Mr. Clean)


    Consumer characteristics and memory

    Consumer characteristics and memory

    • Mood (congruence)

    • Expertise


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