Toward a New Worldview. 1540-1715 Chapter 18. Chapter Overview. Scientist and Intellectual transform people’s understanding of their universe and their place in it. They ask questions & create methods for answering Scientific revolution Replaced medieval reliance on authorities
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This illustration of the Copernican System from the published text of Copernicus's treatise On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) shows the earth and the planets revolving around the sun. Copernicus challenged traditional astronomy and its earth-centered universe. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY)
This 1624 engraved portrait by Ottavio Mario Leoni (1578-1630) of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) shows the Italian scientist in full vigor at age 60, before he was hounded by the Roman Inquisition. (Courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum)
When Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) published the results of his telescopic observations of the moon, he added these paintings to illustrate the marvels he'd seen. (Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence/Art Resource, NY)
Gabrielle-Emilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Chatelet (1706-1749) was an intellectually gifted women from the high aristocracy with a passion for science. She was fascinated by the new world system of Isaac Newton. She helped to spread Newton's ideas in France by translating his Principia and by influencing Voltaire, her companion for fifteen years until her death. (Giraudon/Art Resource, NY)