Textiles
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Textiles. Natural Man-made Synthetic . Fibers. Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like.

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Textiles

Textiles

Natural

Man-made

Synthetic


Fibers

Fibers

  • Basic Unit of all Textile Products- tiny hair like.

  • All fibers have their own characteristics and properties, depending upon their source, chemical composition, and quality. No fiber is perfect. Each has some good, fair, and poor qualities that may make it suitable or unsuitable for certain uses.


Fibers con t

Fibers con’t

  • The basic characteristics of a fiber can be slightly altered but never totally changed. The fiber may be short, long, straight, or curly. These fiber characteristics greatly affect the appearance, and performance of the fabrics they are made into.

  • The Characteristics you look for in children’s clothing is totally different that you would look for in evening wear for yourself.

  • Thus an understanding of fibers, yarns, and fabrics if basic to the study of apparel.


Yarns

Yarns

  • Formed by a continuous strand of fibers usually twisted together.


Fabrics

Fabrics

  • Are formed when yarns are combined. Fabrics may be constructed using a variety of different methods such as:

  • Weaving

  • Knitting

  • Felting


Fiber sources

Fiber Sources

  • Natural- Plant or Animal fiber that grows in nature. Two categories: Cellulosic Fibers (plant), and Protein Fibers (animal). Include: Cotton, Linen, Wool, Silk, Ramie, Hemp, Jute, Bamboo, Leather


Fiber sources con t

Fiber Sources (con’t)

  • Man-made- Made from a Natural material called Cellulose. The cellulose is turned into a liquid and poured through a spinneret. Includes: Acetate, Rayon, Triacetate, Lyocell.

  • Spinneret- Like a showerhead, that sprays out chemicals that harden into long strands called filament fibers.


Fiber sources con t1

Fiber Sources (con’t)

  • Synthetic- Made from chemicals, petroleum, coal, and natural gas. All of these fibers are manufactured from different combinations of petroleum, natural gas, air and water. They are poured through a spinneret. Include: Acrylic, Polyester, Nylon, Modacrylic, Spandex, and Olefin.


Fiber structures

Fiber Structures

  • Staple Fibers- Short & Fuzzy- Usually between 1” and 4” long. These tiny fibers already exist in a plant or animal. The fibers just need to be cleaned up, sorted, and purified before they are used for fabrics.

    • Short

    • Look lumpy and bumpy under a microscope

    • Include all natural fibers, except silk


Fiber structures con t

Fiber Structures (con’t)

  • Filament Fibers- Long and smooth (like fishing line)

    • Include all man-made, and synthetic fibers

    • Include Silk

      Spinneret- All man-made and Synthetic fibers are poured through a Spinneret to create the fiber.


Natural fibers

Natural Fibers

  • Cotton

  • Flax (Linen)

  • Wool

  • Silk

  • Hemp

  • Bamboo

  • Ramie

  • Leather


Natural fibers sources

Natural Fibers- Sources

  • Plants and animals sources that grow in nature

  • Cellulosic- Plant fibers

  • Cotton

  • Linen (flax)

  • Ramie

  • Hemp

  • Bamboo

  • Ramie

  • Protein- Animal fibers

  • Wool

  • Silk

  • Leather


General characteristics of natural fibers

General Characteristics of Natural Fibers

  • Absorbent- able to take up moisture

  • Porous- able to breathe, air passes through

  • Biodegradable- able to break down

  • Most wrinkle easily

  • Tend to be more expensive

  • Staple fibers which look


Cotton advantages

Cotton advantages

  • Strong, durable

  • Soft

  • Absorbs moisture

  • Breathes well

  • Washes easily

  • Dyes well


Cotton disadvantages

Cotton disadvantages

  • Mildews

  • Does not spring back into shape

  • Wrinkles easily

  • Burns readily

  • Shrinks


Clothing fashion uses

Blouses

Dresses

Skirts

Underwear

Shirts

Jeans

Sportswear

Clothing/Fashion uses


Care of cotton

Care of Cotton

  • Wash in washer and dry

  • Iron at high temperature


Flax linen advantages

Flax (Linen) Advantages

  • STRONG

  • Absorbs moisture

  • Comfortable in warm weather

  • Washes easily


Linen disadvantages

Linen disadvantages

  • Mildews

  • WRINKLES

  • Burns easily


Clothing fashion uses1

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Blouses

  • Dresses

  • Skirts

  • Suits


Care of linen

Care of Linen

  • Wash or Dry Clean, CHECK LABEL

  • Washing will change the “hand of the fabric making it soft and wrinkled in appearance

  • Iron at HIGH temperature with moisture


Wool advantages

Wool Advantages

  • WARM

  • Durable

  • ABSORBENT

  • Resilient (returns to original shape quickly)

  • Resists wrinkling

  • Fire Retardant


Wool disadvantages

Wool Disadvantages

  • Requires special care

  • Shrinks sometimes if washed, or dried in dryer

  • Absorbs odors

  • Requires protection against insects


Clothing fashion uses2

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Knit garments

  • Sweaters

  • Gloves

  • Skirts

  • Coats

  • Sportswear

  • Socks

  • Suits

  • slacks


Care of wool

Care of Wool

  • Dry Clean or Hand Wash and Dry flat

  • Iron at low temperature


Silk advantages

Silk Advantages

  • Smooth

  • Lustrous

  • Strong

  • Dries quickly


Silk disadvantages

Silk Disadvantages

  • Shows water spots

  • Iron at low temperature

  • Expensive


Care of silk

Care of silk

  • Dry clean or hand wash, check label

  • Iron at low temperature


Clothing fashion uses3

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Skirts

  • Blouses

  • Dresses

  • Neckties

  • Scarves

  • Lingerie

  • Sweaters


Man made fibers

Man-made Fibers

  • Acetate

  • Lyocell (Tencel®)

  • Rayon


Man made fibers1

Man-made Fibers

  • Made from petrochemicals

  • Characteristics

    • Hydrophobic (water resistant)

    • Promote static cling

    • Heat Sensitive

    • Many types pill

    • Most are wrinkle resistant


Acetate advantages

Acetate Advantages

  • Soft

  • Drapeable

  • Dries quickly

  • Resistant to shrinking


Acetate disadvantages

Acetate Disadvantages

  • Can wrinkle

  • Low abrasion resistance

  • Heat sensitive

  • Damaged by acetone


Acetate care

Acetate- care


Clothing fashion uses4

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Skirts

  • Blouses

  • Dresses

  • Scarves

  • Linings


Synthetic fibers

Synthetic Fibers

  • Acrylic

  • Nylon

  • Polyester

  • Spandex (Lycra)

  • Aramid (Kevlar, Nomex)

  • Olefin

  • Triacetate

  • Modacrylic


Acrylic advantages

Acrylic Advantages

  • Soft

  • Warm

  • Wool-like

  • Light weight

  • Wrinkle resistant

  • Resistant to moths and sunlight


Acrylic disadvantages

Acrylic Disadvantages

  • Pills

  • Static electricity

  • Heat sensitive


Care of acrylic

Care of Acrylic

  • Dry Cleaned or laundered

  • Iron at low temperature


Clothing fashion uses5

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Sweaters

  • Knit garments

  • Faux Fur

  • Coats

  • Pants

  • Skirts

  • Shoe soles


Nylon advantages

Nylon Advantages

  • Very Strong

  • Resilient

  • Lustrous

  • Dries quickly


Nylon disadvantages

Nylon disadvantages

  • May yellow or gray

  • Heat Sensitive

  • Low moisture absorbency


Care of nylon

Care of Nylon

  • Easily laundered

  • Iron at low temperature


Clothing fashion uses6

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Sportswear

  • Jackets

  • Raincoats

  • Backpacks

  • Purses


Polyester advantages

Polyester advantages

  • Excellent WRINKLE RESISTANCE

  • Resistant to abrasion

  • Dries quickly

  • Blends well with other fibers

  • Retains heat-set pleats and creases


Polyester disadvantages

Polyester disadvantages

  • Absorbs oily stains

  • Low absorbency of moisture


Care of polyester

Care of Polyester

  • Easily laundered

  • Needs little or no pressing


Clothing fashion uses7

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Pants

  • Shirts

  • Suits

  • Sportswear

  • Skirts


Rayon advantages

Rayon advantages

  • Soft and comfortable

  • High moisture absorbency

  • drapeable


Rayon disadvantages

Rayon disadvantages

  • May wrinkle or shrink unless treated

  • May mildew


Clothing fashion uses8

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Dresses

  • Skirts

  • Lingerie

  • Blouses


Care of rayon

Care of Rayon

  • Usually dry cleaned, sometimes washable

  • Iron at low temperature


Spandex advantages

Spandex advantages

  • Excellent elasticity and recovery

  • Stronger and more durable than rubber

  • Light weight

  • Resistant to body oils


Spandex disadvantages

Spandex disadvantages

  • Damaged by chlorine bleach

  • Damaged by heat


Clothing fashion uses9

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Pants

  • Shirts

  • Jeans

  • Sportswear

  • Underwear

  • Socks

  • Bras

  • Tights


Aramid kevlar nomex advantages

Aramid (Kevlar & Nomex) advantages

  • Exceptional strength

  • Exceptional heat and flame resistance

  • Resistant to stretch and abrasion


Aramid disadvantages

Aramid disadvantages

  • Not absorbent


Clothing fashion uses10

Clothing/Fashion uses

  • Kevlar

    • Bullet Proof Vests

    • Cut/Heat and Chemical resistant Gloves

  • Nomex

    • Fireman Uniforms

    • Racing Apparel


The end

The End…


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