Urinary system test review
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Urinary System Test Review. Medical Terminology. Parts of the Kidney. medulla. Cortex. hilum. -outer protective portion. Medulla. -inner soft portion. Hilum.

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Urinary system test review

Urinary System Test Review

Medical Terminology


Parts of the kidney

Parts of the Kidney

medulla

  • Cortex

hilum

-outer protective portion

  • Medulla

-inner soft portion

  • Hilum

-a depression located in the middle of the concave side of the kidney where blood vessels, nerves, and the ureters enter and exit the kidneys

cortex

Structure and Function

kidney

Parts of the kidneys


Structure and function

Structure and Function

  • The ureter (ureter/o), carries urine (urin/o) from the kidney (ren/o, nephro/o) to the urinary bladder (cyst/o).

  • A person feels the urge to urinate (-uria) when the bladder has 1 cup of urine (urin/o)


Flow of urine

Flow of Urine

glomerulus

renal tubules

renal pelvis

renal calices

Structure and Function

Flow of Urine

Nephron

Renal artery

Renal vein

Ureter

Renal medulla

Renal capsule

Renal cortex

Filtered blood exits the kidneys via the renal vein.

The renal tubules carry urine to ducts in the renal cortex.

ureters


Structure and function1

Structure and Function

Blood Flow

Glomeruli

Urine Flow

Structure and Function

  • Blood flows through the glomerulus at a constant rate.

  • Each glomerulus is surrounded by a capsule known as Bowman’s capsule.

  • Blood then passes into the renal tubules where some substances are reabsorbed and the remaining become urine.


Structure and function2

Structure and Function

  • There are more than 1 million nephrons in each kidney (nephr/o, ren/o).

Urine is produced by filtration of:

  • creatine

  • uric acid

  • sugar

  • urea

  • water

  • salts


Terms and meanings

Terms and Meanings

  • Anuria:Anwithout

    -uriaurination

  • Anuria means without urine

  • Dysuria: Dysdifficult/painful

    -uria urine/urination


Combining forms and abbreviations

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Calix, cup like structure

bladder

glomerulus

Meatus, opening

kidney

renal pelvis

kidney

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Combining Forms

Meaning

cali(o)

cyst(o)

glomerul(o)

meato

nephr(o)

pyel(o)

ren(o)


Combining forms trigon o

Combining Forms [trigon(o)]

trigone

urine

ureter

urethra

bladder

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Meaning

Combining Forms

trigon(o)

urin(o)

ureter(o)

urethr(o)

vesic(o)


Combining forms adh

Combining Forms [ADH]

antidiuretic hormone

albumin/globulin

acute glomerulonephritis

acute renal failure

acute tubular nephrosis

bladder neck obstruction

blood urea nitrogen

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Meaning

Abbreviation

ADH

A/G

AGN

ARF

ATN

BNO

BUN


Combining forms capd

Combining Forms [CAPD]

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

catheter

chlorine

chronic renal failure

cystoscopy

end-stage renal disease

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

CAPD

Cath

Cl

CRF

cysto

ESRD

ESWL


Combining forms hd

Combining Forms [HD]

hemodialysis

intravenous pyelogram

potassium

kidney, ureter, bladder

sodium

power of hydrogen concentration

phenylketonuria

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Meaning

Abbreviation

HD

IVP

K+

KUB

Na+

pH

PKU


Combining forms rp

Combining Forms [RP]

retrograde pyelogram

specific gravity

urinalysis

urinary tract infection

voiding cystourethrogram

Combining Forms and Abbreviations

Abbreviation

Meaning

RP

SG

UA

UTI

VCU


Blood tests

Blood Tests

Diagnostic, Procedural and

Laboratory Terms

Blood Tests

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

  • Creatinine Clearance Test

The presence of high amounts of urea or creatinine in the blood shows that the kidney is not properly filtering these substances.


Imaging tests

Imaging Tests

Diagnostic, Procedural and

Laboratory Terms

Imaging Tests

  • Cystoscopy

-tubular instrument used to examine the bladder

  • Intravenous Pyelogram

-x-rays of the urinary tract after a contrast medium is injected into the bloodstream

  • KUB

-x-ray of three parts of the urinary tract (kidney, ureter, and bladder)

  • Renal Scan

-radioactive imaging used to diagnose kidney disorders


Urinary tract procedures

Urinary Tract Procedures

Diagnostic, Procedural and

Laboratory Terms

Dialysis solution

Urinary Tract Procedures

Dialysis

  • Hemodialysis

  • -the process of filtering blood outside the body in an artificial kidney machine that returns the blood back to the body after filtering.

  • Peritoneal dialysis (pictured)

  • -the insertion and removal of a dialysis solution into the peritoneal cavity.

Peritoneal cavity

Solution draining out

Catheter

Drained solution


Inflammatory infectious disorders

Inflammatory & Infectious Disorders

Pathological Terms

Urinary Tract Infection

Glomerulonephritis

Inflammatory

&

Infectious Disorders

Nephritis

Nephrosis

Polycystic kidney disease

Hydronephrosis

Cystitis

Nephroblastoma


Pathological terms

Pathological Terms

Pathological Terms

Terms Used to Describe Difficulties in Urination

anuresis

polyuria

  • Excessive urination

  • No urinary output

incontinence

dysuria

  • Involuntary discharge of urine or feces

  • Painful urination

enuresis

oliguria

  • Lack of bladder control

  • Scanty urination


Surgical terms

Surgical Terms

Surgical Terms

Parts of the urinary system may be surgically removed

  • Nephrectomy- removal of a kidney

  • Ureterectomy- removal of a ureter

  • Cystectomy- removal of the bladder

Surgical repair procedures

  • Pyeloplasty- repair of the renal pelvis

  • Cystoplasty- repair of the bladder

  • Urethroplasty- repair of the urethra

A urostomy is the creation of an artificial opening in the abdomen through which urine exits the body.


Other surgical procedures

Other Surgical Procedures

Surgical Terms

Other Surgical Procedures

Nephrolysis

  • Removal of an adhesion in the kidney

Nephrolithotomy

  • Removal of a kidney stone

Nephropexy

  • Surgical fixation of the kidney

Nephrorrhaphy

  • Suturing of a damaged kidney


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