# Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes. Utilizing your notes and past knowledge answer the following questions: What are the four forces of flight? Describes what happens to an aircraft when the CG moves rearward. What is the axis of flight that runs from the nose tip to the tail of the aircraft?

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Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes

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### Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes

• What are the four forces of flight?

• Describes what happens to an aircraft when the CG moves rearward.

• What is the axis of flight that runs from the nose tip to the tail of the aircraft?

• Describe what is CG.

• What is the axis of flight that controls yaw?

### Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes

• What are the four forces of flight?

• Describes what happens to an aircraft when the CG moves rearward.

• What is the axis of flight that runs from the nose tip to the tail of the aircraft?

• Describe what is CG.

• What is the axis of flight that controls yaw?

### Lift and Basic Aerodynamics

• Four forces act upon an aircraft in relation to straight-and-level, unaccelerated flight.

• These forces are thrust, lift, weight, and drag.

### Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes

• What are the four forces of flight?

• Describes what happens to an aircraft when the CG moves rearward.

• What is the axis of flight that runs from the nose tip to the tail of the aircraft?

• Describe what is CG.

• What is the axis of flight that controls yaw?

### Lift and Basic Aerodynamics

• The position of the CG of an aircraft determines the stability of the aircraft in flight.

• As the CG moves rearward (towards the tail) the aircraft becomes more and more dynamically unstable.

### Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes

• What are the four forces of flight?

• Describes what happens to an aircraft when the CG moves rearward.

• What is the axis of flight that runs from the nose tip to the tail of the aircraft?

• Describe what is CG.

• What is the axis of flight that controls yaw?

### Lift and Basic Aerodynamics

• The longitudinal or roll axis extends through the aircraft from nose to tail, with the line passing through the CG.

### Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes

• What are the four forces of flight?

• Describes what happens to an aircraft when the CG moves rearward.

• What is the axis of flight that runs from the nose tip to the tail of the aircraft?

• Describe what is CG.

• What is the axis of flight that controls yaw?

### Lift and Basic Aerodynamics

• One of the most significant components of aircraft design is CG.

• It is the specific point where the mass or weight of an aircraft may be said to center; that is, a point around which, if the aircraft could be suspended or balanced, the aircraft would remain relatively level.

### Warm-Up – 9/5 – 10 minutes

• What are the four forces of flight?

• Describes what happens to an aircraft when the CG moves rearward.

• What is the axis of flight that runs from the nose tip to the tail of the aircraft?

• Describe what is CG.

• What is the axis of flight that controls yaw?

### Lift and Basic Aerodynamics

• The vertical, or yaw, axis passes through the aircraft vertically, intersecting the CG.

### THIS DAY IN AVIATION

• September 5

• 1908 — The first flight of a full-size triplane, the French “Goupy,” is made.

• Built by AmbroiseGoupy, it has three sets of wings; each stacked above the others and is powered by 50-hp Renault engine.

### THIS DAY IN AVIATION

• September 5

• 1923 — Two condemned naval vessels sunk by Army bombing tests.

September 2013

Chapter 2 – Aircraft Structure

FAA – Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge

### Today’s Mission Requirements

• Mission:

• Describe in writing the major components of an aircraft.

• Describe in writing the subcomponents of an aircraft.

• EQ:

Describe the importance of Aeronautical Knowledge for the student pilot learning to fly.

### Major Components

• Although airplanes are designed for a variety of purposes, most of them have the same major components.

• Most airplane structures include a fuselage, wings, an empennage, landing gear, and a powerplant.

### Major ComponentsFuselage

• The fuselage is the central body of an airplane and is designed to accommodate the crew, passengers, and cargo.

• Older types of aircraft design utilized an open truss structure constructed of wood, steel, or aluminum tubing.

### Major ComponentsFuselage

• The most popular types of fuselage structures used in today’s aircraft are the monocoque (French for “single shell”) and semimonocoque.

### Major ComponentsWings

• The wings are airfoils attached to each side of the fuselage and are the main lifting surfaces that support the airplane in flight.

### Major ComponentsWings

• Wings may be attached at the top, middle, or lower portion of the fuselage.

• These designs are referred to as high-, mid-, and low-wing, respectively.

### Major ComponentsWings

• Airplanes with a single set of wings are referred to monoplanes, while those with two sets are called biplanes.

### Major ComponentsWings

• Many high-wing airplanes have external braces, or wing struts, which transmit the flight and landing loads through the struts to the main fuselage structure.

### Major ComponentsWings

• Since the wing struts are usually attached approximately halfwayout on the wing, this type of wing structure is called semi-cantilever.

• A few high-wing and most low-wing airplanes have a full cantilever wing designed to carry the loads without external struts.

### Major ComponentsWings

• The principal structural parts of the wing are spars, ribs, and stringers.

• These are reinforced by trusses, I-beams, tubing, or other devices, including the skin.

### Major ComponentsWings

• The wing ribs determine the shape and thickness of the wing (airfoil).

### Major ComponentsWings

• In most modern airplanes, the fuel tanks are either an integral sealed compartment part of the wing’s structure itself, orthey consist of flexible containers mounted inside of the wing.

### Major ComponentsWings

• Attached to the rear or trailing edges of the wingsare two types of control surfaces referred to as ailerons and flaps.

### Major ComponentsWings

• Ailerons extend from about the midpoint of each wing outward toward the tip, and move in opposite directions to create aerodynamic forces that cause the airplane to roll.

### Major ComponentsWings

• Flaps extend outward from the fuselage to near the midpoint of each wing.

### Major ComponentsWings

• The flaps are normally flush with the wing’s surface during cruising flight.

• When extended, the flaps move simultaneously downward to increase the lifting force of the wing for takeoffs and landings.