U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

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LATIN AMERICA. COLD WAR TIMELINE : . EISENHOWER 1953-1961. What are secret activities by the CIA designed to undermine governments considered unfriendly to the American interests called ? . COVERT OPERATIONS. CIA. Central Intelligence AgencyEst. by National Security Act of 1947Collects infoCond

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U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

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1. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY 1945-2000

2. LATIN AMERICA

3. COLD WAR TIMELINE : EISENHOWER 1953-1961

4. What are secret activities by the CIA designed to undermine governments considered unfriendly to the American interests called ? COVERT OPERATIONS

5. CIA Central Intelligence Agency Est. by National Security Act of 1947 Collects info Conducts secret operations Protect U.S. national security During Cold War Espionage & covert operations To weaken & overthrow unfriendly govt’s

6. Covert Operations Examples during the Cold War : Iran MIDDLE EAST (1953) Guatemala LATIN AMERICAN (1954) Vietnam ASIA (1954) Congo AFRICA (1960) During the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency engineered pro-American political coups in both Iran and Guatemala

7. LATIN AMERICA RELATIONS Cold War Era EISENHOWER

8. Eisenhower 1954 – Guatemala CIA trained an army to overthrow the President of Guatemala when he gave American-owned land to peasants Military Junta

9. Central America and Caribbean Policy during the Cold War U.S. opposed left-leaning and socialist governments in favor of governments friendly to the United States

10. Eisenhower 1954 – Guatemala CIA trained an army to overthrow the President of Guatemala when he gave American-owned land to peasants Military Junta

11. Latin American Relations anger toward the United States had intensified because of extended massive aid to Europe and little to Latin America continued to intervene in Latin American affairs support of bloody dictators who claimed to be fighting communism

12. 1954 : Guatemala the CIA-directed coup

13. 1959: Cuba Fidel Castro overthrew Fulgencio Batista, the dictator of the regime the United States at first saw him as a welcome replacement cut back the quota of Cuban sugar that could be exported to the United States at a favored price severed diplomatic relations with Castro when he became too friendly with the Soviet Union

14. What was the name given to developing nations in the Cold War (where the Super Powers competed for influence) ? THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES

15. COLD WAR TIMELINE : KENNEDY 1961-1963

16. 1961: The Bay of Pigs Refers to the failed Kennedy approved CIA plan to overthrow the pro-Soviet government of Fidel Castro by invading Cuba

17. 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy took a strong stand with Castro and the Soviet Union by demanding that Soviet nuclear missile bases be dismantled on Cuba The blockade and negotiations wit Khrushchev ended the crisis that brought the world to brink of a nuclear war

18. Lyndon B. JOHNSON 1963-1969

19. Who was the republican party candidate who ran against LBJ in the 1964 presidential election ? Barry Goldwater

20. What suggestions did Barry Goldwater make during the 1964 presidential election that frightened many Americans? Suggestions of using nuclear weapons on Cuba and North Vietnam.

23. President Carter’s foreign policy guiding principle = human rights believed fundamental problem of the American economy in the late 1970s was U.S. dependence on foreign oil signed treaties restoring Panamanian sovereignty over the Canal Zone 1978 treaty that would go into effect 1999 established formal diplomatic relations with mainland China (1979)

25. Jimmy Carter supported a US foreign policy that would promote what throughout the world HUMAN RIGHTS

26. How did President Carter put his foreign policy philosophy into practice ? Cut off military aid to countries that had imprisoned or tortured thousand of their own citizens Also established a Bureau of Human Rights in the State Department

27. What problems did critics have with Carter’s foreign policy philosophy? It undercut Cold War alliances (like Nicaragua which was a dictatorial but anti-Communist country) Was inconsistent in its treatment of dictators (supported dictators in South Korea and Philippines)

28. What was one of the key features of the treaty signed by the United States with Panama that improved relationship between the United States and Latin American in 1978? Turned over control of the Panama Canal to Panama on December 31, 1999

29. Nicaragua US helped dictator Anastasio Somoza come to power whose family continued to rule the country for 42 years Sandinistas – rebels attempting to overthrow the Somoza regime 1979 : Sandinistas won the Civil War

31. 1979 - Carter recognized the new Sandinista regime 1981 – Reagan supported the Contras (rebels) against the Sandinista regime 1983- The Boland Amendment banned US military aid to the Contras 1990 –Elections gave Nicaragua a Contra leader

32. The Reagan Doctrine of American activism in the Third World was most particularly exercised in GRENADA and NICARAGUA During Ronald Reagan’s presidency, United States troops invaded Grenada

33. GRENADA

34. IRAN-CONTRA SCANDAL The scandal seriously damaged the Reagan administration’s reputation when it revealed that the U.S. used the money from the sale of arms to Iran to aid the contras in Nicaragua The Iran-contra investigations revealed Ronald Reagan as a president who napped through cabinet meetings (pages 985-986) ????????????????????

36. PANAMA The result of President Bush’s decision to send American troops to Panama in 1989 was the overthrow of the unpopular military leader, Manuel Noriega

37. Nicaragua US helped dictator Anastasio Somoza come to power whose family continued to rule the country for 42 years Sandinistas – rebels attempting to overthrow the Somoza regime 1979 : Sandinistas won the Civil War; Carter recognized the new Sandinista regime 1981 – Reagan supported the Contras (rebels) against the Sandinista regime 1983- The Boland Amendment banned US military aid to the Contras 1990 –Elections gave Nicaragua a Contra leader

38. Nicaragua US helped dictator Anastasio Somoza come to power whose family continued to rule the country for 42 years Sandinistas – rebels attempting to overthrow the Somoza regime 1979 : Sandinistas won the Civil War

39. 1979 - Carter recognized the new Sandinista regime 1981 – Reagan supported the Contras (rebels) against the Sandinista regime 1983- The Boland Amendment banned US military aid to the Contras 1990 –Elections gave Nicaragua a Contra leader

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