Chapter 2
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Chapter 2. Powerpoint Questions. Q1. Neuroscience. A1. A branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue. Q2. Computed tomography (CT). A2. Brain imaging method using computer controlled x-rays of the brain. Q3. Dendrites.

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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Powerpoint Questions


Chapter 2

Q1

  • Neuroscience


Chapter 2

A1

  • A branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue


Chapter 2

Q2

  • Computed tomography (CT)


Chapter 2

A2

  • Brain imaging method using computer controlled x-rays of the brain


Chapter 2

Q3

  • Dendrites


Chapter 2

A3

  • Branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons


Chapter 2

Q4

  • Soma


Chapter 2

A4

  • The part of the neuron called the cell body that keeps the entire cell alive and functioning


Chapter 2

Q5

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


Chapter 2

A5

  • Brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain


Chapter 2

Q6

  • Sympathetic divisions (fight or flight)


Chapter 2

A6

  • Part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful evens and bodily arousal


Chapter 2

Q7

  • Agonists


Chapter 2

A7

  • Chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell


Chapter 2

Q8

  • Input into the nervous system is accomplished by


Chapter 2

A8

  • Sensory neurons/ afferent neurons


Chapter 2

Q9

  • Nerves


Chapter 2

A9

  • Bundles of axons coated in myelin that travel together through the body.


Chapter 2

Q10

  • Action potential


Chapter 2

A10

  • The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon


Chapter 2

Q11

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)


Chapter 2

A11

  • A recording of the electrical activity of large groups of cortical neurons just below the skull, most often using scalp electrodes.


Chapter 2

Q12

  • The smallest of glial cells that engulf and break down dead and dying neurons


Chapter 2

A12

  • microglia


Chapter 2

Q13

  • SSRI


Chapter 2

A13

  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor


Chapter 2

Q14

  • Antagonists


Chapter 2

A14

  • Chemical substances that block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters


Chapter 2

Q15

  • Function of the brain


Chapter 2

A15

  • Interprets and stores information and sends orders to muscles, glands, organs


Chapter 2

Q16

  • What muscles are impacted by acetylcholine


Chapter 2

A16

  • Skeletal muscles are stimulated; cardiac muscle is slowed


Chapter 2

Q17

  • Three parts to a neuron


Chapter 2

A17

  • 1) Soma, 2) dendrites, 3) axons


Chapter 2

Q18

  • Positron emission tomography


Chapter 2

A18

  • Brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain


Chapter 2

Q19

  • Parasympathetic division


Chapter 2

A19

  • Part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day to day functioning of the organs and glands.


Chapter 2

Q20

  • Hypothalamus


Chapter 2

A20

  • Small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex


Chapter 2

Q21

  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of what two further divisions


Chapter 2

A21

  • Autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system


Chapter 2

Q22

  • Enzymatic degradation


Chapter 2

A22

  • Process by which structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor.


Chapter 2

Q23

  • The defining feature of the central nervous system


Chapter 2

A23

  • The components are encased in bone


Chapter 2

Q24

  • Endocrine glands


Chapter 2

A24

  • Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into bloodstream


Chapter 2

Q25

  • Three functions of the nervous system are


Chapter 2

A25

  • 1) Input, 2) processing, 3) output

  • Or 1) receive information, 2) integrate information, 3) guide actions


Chapter 2

Q26

  • Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)


Chapter 2

A26

  • Neuroimaging method that is similar to PET but uses a different radioactive tracer and can be used to examine brain blood flow


Chapter 2

Q27

  • Processing in the nervous system is accomplished by


Chapter 2

A27

  • Interneurons/ association neurons


Chapter 2

Q28

  • Motor neurons are sometimes called


Chapter 2

A28

  • Efferent neurons


Chapter 2

Q29

  • Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into bloodstream


Chapter 2

A29

  • Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands


Chapter 2

Q30

  • Interneurons are stimulated by


Chapter 2

A30

  • Sensory neurons, other interneurons, or both


Chapter 2

Q31

  • Produces myelin for neurons in the body (PNS)


Chapter 2

A31

  • Schwann cells


Chapter 2

Q32

  • Resting potential


Chapter 2

A32

  • The state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse


Chapter 2

Q33

  • Glial cells that provide physical support to neurons and clean up debris


Chapter 2

A33

  • astrocytes


Chapter 2

Q34

  • Produces myelin for neurons in brain and spinal cord (CNS)


Chapter 2

A34

  • oligodendrocytes


Chapter 2

Q35

  • Where is acetylcholine found


Chapter 2

A35

  • In the synapse between neurons and muscle cells


Chapter 2

Q36

  • Pituitary gland


Chapter 2

A36

  • Gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland)


Chapter 2

Q37

  • Interneurons are sometimes called


Chapter 2

A37

  • Association neurons


Chapter 2

Q38

  • Biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience


Chapter 2

A38

  • Branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior, and learning


Chapter 2

Q39

  • What dictates the structure of a cell


Chapter 2

A39

  • The purpose of the cell


Chapter 2

Q40

  • The white matter of the brain is made of


Chapter 2

A40

  • Fiber tracts (axons)


Chapter 2

Q41

  • The Central Nervous System is made up of what two components


Chapter 2

A41

  • Brain and Spinal Cord


Chapter 2

Q42

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)


Chapter 2

A42

  • MRI-based brain imaging method that allows for functional examination of brain areas through changes in brain oxygenation


Chapter 2

Q43

  • Output in the nervous system is accomplished by


Chapter 2

A43

  • Motor neurons/ efferent neurons


Chapter 2

Q44

  • Two types of glial cells that produce myelin


Chapter 2

A44

  • Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells


Chapter 2

Q45

  • Where are interneurons found


Chapter 2

A45

  • Exclusively in the spinal cord and brain


Chapter 2

Q46

  • Medulla


Chapter 2

A46

  • The first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate.


Chapter 2

Q47

  • Pineal gland


Chapter 2

A47

  • Endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum, secretes melatonin


Chapter 2

Q48

  • Hippocampus


Chapter 2

A48

  • Curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects


Chapter 2

Q49

  • Pons


Chapter 2

A49

  • The larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal


Chapter 2

Q50

  • Sensory neurons are sometimes called


Chapter 2

A50

  • Afferent neurons


Chapter 2

Q51

  • Thyroid gland


Chapter 2

A51

  • Endocrine gland found in the neck, regulates metabolism


Chapter 2

Q52

  • Amygdala


Chapter 2

A52

  • Brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear


Chapter 2

Q53

  • Pancreas


Chapter 2

A53

  • Endocrine gland; controls the levels of sugar in the blood


Chapter 2

Q54

  • Occipital lobe


Chapter 2

A54

  • Section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain


Chapter 2

Q55

  • Cortex


Chapter 2

A55

Outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input.


Chapter 2

Q56

  • Two bulb-like projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors near the nose


Chapter 2

A56

  • Olfactory bulb


Chapter 2

Q57

  • Neurons exiting the spinal cord


Chapter 2

A57

  • Efferent Neurons


Chapter 2

Q58

  • The autonomic nervous system is made up of what two divisions


Chapter 2

A58

  • Parasympathetic division and sympathetic division


Chapter 2

Q59

  • Cerebral hemispheres


Chapter 2

A59

  • The two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain


Chapter 2

Q60

  • An area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention, alertness, and arousal.


Chapter 2

A60

  • Reticular formation


Chapter 2

Q61

  • Function of the spinal cord


Chapter 2

A61

  • Pathway connecting the brain and the peripheral nervous system; receives signals such as pain and touch from the senses and passes those signals to the brain


Chapter 2

Q62

  • Corpus callosum


Chapter 2

A62

  • Thick band of neurons that connects the right and left hemispheres


Chapter 2

Q63

  • Cerebellum


Chapter 2

A63

  • Part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement.


Chapter 2

Q64

  • Parietal lobes


Chapter 2

A64

  • Sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations.


Chapter 2

Q65

  • Temporal lobes


Chapter 2

A65

  • Areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech.


Chapter 2

Q66

  • Limbic system


Chapter 2

A66

  • A group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation


Chapter 2

Q67

  • Four types of glial cells


Chapter 2

A67

  • 1) Oligodendrocyes, 2) schwann cells, 3) astrocytes, 4) microglia


Chapter 2

Q68

  • Stem cells


Chapter 2

A68

  • Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear


Chapter 2

Q69

  • Most cells have these three parts in common


Chapter 2

A69

  • 1) Nucleus, 2) cell body, 3) cell membrane


Chapter 2

Q70

  • Frontal lobes


Chapter 2

A70

  • Areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech


Chapter 2

Q71

  • Synaptic vesicle


Chapter 2

A71

  • Saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals


Chapter 2

Q72

  • How many interneurons does the human brain contain


Chapter 2

A72

  • Approximately 100 billion


Chapter 2

Q73

  • Motor cortex


Chapter 2

A73

  • Section of the frontal lobe located at the back, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system


Chapter 2

Q74

  • Axon


Chapter 2

A74

  • Tube-like structure that carries the neural message to other cells


Chapter 2

Q75

  • Reuptake


Chapter 2

A75

  • Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles


Chapter 2

Q76

  • Thalamus


Chapter 2

A76

  • Part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to the proper areas.


Chapter 2

Q77

  • Plasticity


Chapter 2

A77

  • The remarkable property of the central nervous system whereby neurons have the ability to strengthen neural connections at synapses as well as establish new connections


Chapter 2

Q78

  • Diffusion


Chapter 2

A78

  • Process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration


Chapter 2

Q79

  • Neurons make up what percent of cells in the brain


Chapter 2

A79

  • 10%


Chapter 2

Q80

  • Mirror neurons


Chapter 2

A80

  • Neurons that fire when an animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes the same action being performed by another


Chapter 2

Q81

  • Santiago Ramon y Cajal


Chapter 2

A81

  • The first person to theorize that the nervous system was made up of individual cells. He came to this conclusion after studying slides of brain tissue.


Chapter 2

Q82

  • Neurotransmitter


Chapter 2

A82

  • Chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell


Chapter 2

Q83

  • Association areas


Chapter 2

A83

  • Areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information as well as higher mental processing


Chapter 2

Q84

  • Broca’s aphasia


Chapter 2

A84

  • Condition resulting from damage to Broca’s area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly.


Chapter 2

Q85

  • Wernicke’s aphasia


Chapter 2

A85

  • Condition resulting from damage to Wernicke’s area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language


Chapter 2

Q86

  • Neurons


Chapter 2

A86

  • The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within that system


Chapter 2

Q87

  • Spatial neglect


Chapter 2

A87

  • Condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or bod parts in the left visual field.


Chapter 2

Q88

  • Cerebrum


Chapter 2

A88

  • The upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them.


Chapter 2

Q89

  • Thin membranous covering of neurons found in the body


Chapter 2

A89

  • neurilemma


Chapter 2

Q90

  • Make up 90% of the brain


Chapter 2

A90

  • Glial cells


Chapter 2

Q91

  • Task of Sensory/ Afferent Neurons


Chapter 2

A91

  • Carry messages from the senses to the spinal cord


Chapter 2

Q92

  • Why is neurilemma important


Chapter 2

A92

  • It can repair nerve fibers


Chapter 2

Q93

  • Neuroplasticity


Chapter 2

A93

  • The ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma


Chapter 2

Q94

  • The gray matter of the brain is made of


Chapter 2

A94

  • Nuclei (clusters of soma)


Chapter 2

Q95

  • There are estimated to be how many different kinds of interneurons


Chapter 2

A95

  • At least hundreds


Chapter 2

Q96

  • Cluster of cells bodies of the sensory neurons found next to the spinal cord


Chapter 2

A96

  • ganglia


Chapter 2

Q97

  • Peripheral nervous system


Chapter 2

A97

  • All nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself


Chapter 2

Q98

  • Where is neurilemma not found


Chapter 2

A98

  • Brain and spinal cord


Chapter 2

Q99

  • Endorphins


Chapter 2

A99

  • Inhibitory neural regulators; involved in pain relief


Chapter 2

Q100

  • True or False: Neurons at rest are still electrically charged


Chapter 2

A100

  • True


Chapter 2

Q101

  • Somatic nervous system


Chapter 2

A101

  • Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body


Chapter 2

Q102

  • Electrical Stimulation of the Brain


Chapter 2

A102

  • A milder current is sent through a wire that does not kill the cells; can be used to assess for seizure risk prior to surgery


Chapter 2

Q103

  • Neurons accessing the spinal cord


Chapter 2

A103

  • Afferent neurons


Chapter 2

Q104

  • Function of serotonin


Chapter 2

A104

  • Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in mood, sleep, and appetite


Chapter 2

Q105

  • Function of the parasympathetic division of Autonomic nervous system


Chapter 2

A105

  • Maintains body functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy


Chapter 2

Q106


Chapter 2

Q154

  • Function of Norepinephrine


Chapter 2

A106

  • Mainly excitatory; involved in arousal and mood


Chapter 2

Q107

  • Neurons either fire at full strength or don’t fire at all


Chapter 2

A107

  • All or none principle


Chapter 2

Q108

  • Task of motor/ efferent Neurons


Chapter 2

A108

  • Carry messages from the central nervous system to muscles and glands


Chapter 2

Q109

  • Glial cells


Chapter 2

A109

  • Grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processing, and during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neurons.


Chapter 2

Q110

  • Autonomic nervous system


Chapter 2

A110

  • Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands


Chapter 2

Q111

  • Nervous System


Chapter 2

A111

  • An extensive network of specialized cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body.


Chapter 2

Q112

  • Synapse (synaptic gap)


Chapter 2

A112

  • Microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic know of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell


Chapter 2

Q113

  • Enzymatic degradation


Chapter 2

A113

  • Process by which structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor


Chapter 2

Q114

  • Deep lesioning


Chapter 2

A114

  • Insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire


Chapter 2

Q115

  • Excitatory synapse


Chapter 2

A115

  • Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire


Chapter 2

Q116

  • Function of Dopamine


Chapter 2

A116

  • Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure


Chapter 2

Q117

  • Reuptake


Chapter 2

A117

  • Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles


Chapter 2

Q118

  • Motor neurons are stimulated by


Chapter 2

A118

  • Interneurons but sometimes rarely they are stimulated directly by sensory neurons


Chapter 2

Q119

  • The number of identified neurotransmitters


Chapter 2

A119

  • At least 100


Chapter 2

Q120

  • Sensory pathway


Chapter 2

120

  • Nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons


Chapter 2

Q121

  • Function of the sympathetic division


Chapter 2

A121

  • Prepares the body to react and expend energy in times of stress


Chapter 2

Q122

  • The first neurotransmitter to be identified


Chapter 2

A122

  • acetylcholine


Chapter 2

Q123

  • Function of the autonomic nervous system


Chapter 2

A123

  • Automatically regulates glands, internal organs, blood vessels, pupils, digestion, and blood pressure


Chapter 2

Q124

  • Function of acetylcholine


Chapter 2

A124

  • Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in arousal, attention, memory, and controls muscle contractions


Chapter 2

Q125

  • The Nervous System is made up of what two parts that are then further divided.


Chapter 2

A125

  • Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System


Chapter 2

Q126

  • Motor Pathway


Chapter 2

A126

  • Nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles, consisting of efferent neurons


Chapter 2

Q127

  • Synaptic knob (or terminal button)


Chapter 2

A127

  • Rounded area on the end of the axon terminal


Chapter 2

Q128

  • Function of Glutamate


Chapter 2

A128

  • Major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in learning, memory formation, nervous system development, and synaptic plasticity


Chapter 2

Q129

  • Receptor sites


Chapter 2

A129

  • 3-D proteins on the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.


Chapter 2

Q130

  • Inhibitory synapse


Chapter 2

A130

  • Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing


Chapter 2

Q131

  • Why is it important that the reflex arc occurs without the direction of the brain


Chapter 2

A131

  • The process occurs much more quickly


Chapter 2

Q132

  • Axon terminal


Chapter 2

A132

  • Branches at the end of the axon


Chapter 2

Q133

  • Reflex Arc


Chapter 2

A133

  • The connection of the sensory neuron to the interneurons to the motor neurons which results in a reflex action


Chapter 2

Q134

  • Neural regulators, neural peptides, endorphins


Chapter 2

A134

  • Control the release of other neurotransmitters


Chapter 2

Q135

  • Function of GABA


Chapter 2

A135

  • Major inhibitory neurotransmitter; involved in sleep and inhibits movement


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