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Chapter 2. Powerpoint Questions. Q1. Neuroscience. A1. A branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue. Q2. Computed tomography (CT). A2. Brain imaging method using computer controlled x-rays of the brain. Q3. Dendrites.

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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Powerpoint Questions


Q1

  • Neuroscience


A1

  • A branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue


Q2

  • Computed tomography (CT)


A2

  • Brain imaging method using computer controlled x-rays of the brain


Q3

  • Dendrites


A3

  • Branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons


Q4

  • Soma


A4

  • The part of the neuron called the cell body that keeps the entire cell alive and functioning


Q5

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


A5

  • Brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain


Q6

  • Sympathetic divisions (fight or flight)


A6

  • Part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful evens and bodily arousal


Q7

  • Agonists


A7

  • Chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell


Q8

  • Input into the nervous system is accomplished by


A8

  • Sensory neurons/ afferent neurons


Q9

  • Nerves


A9

  • Bundles of axons coated in myelin that travel together through the body.


Q10

  • Action potential


A10

  • The release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon


Q11

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)


A11

  • A recording of the electrical activity of large groups of cortical neurons just below the skull, most often using scalp electrodes.


Q12

  • The smallest of glial cells that engulf and break down dead and dying neurons


A12

  • microglia


Q13

  • SSRI


A13

  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor


Q14

  • Antagonists


A14

  • Chemical substances that block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters


Q15

  • Function of the brain


A15

  • Interprets and stores information and sends orders to muscles, glands, organs


Q16

  • What muscles are impacted by acetylcholine


A16

  • Skeletal muscles are stimulated; cardiac muscle is slowed


Q17

  • Three parts to a neuron


A17

  • 1) Soma, 2) dendrites, 3) axons


Q18

  • Positron emission tomography


A18

  • Brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain


Q19

  • Parasympathetic division


A19

  • Part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day to day functioning of the organs and glands.


Q20

  • Hypothalamus


A20

  • Small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex


Q21

  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of what two further divisions


A21

  • Autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system


Q22

  • Enzymatic degradation


A22

  • Process by which structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor.


Q23

  • The defining feature of the central nervous system


A23

  • The components are encased in bone


Q24

  • Endocrine glands


A24

  • Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into bloodstream


Q25

  • Three functions of the nervous system are


A25

  • 1) Input, 2) processing, 3) output

  • Or 1) receive information, 2) integrate information, 3) guide actions


Q26

  • Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)


A26

  • Neuroimaging method that is similar to PET but uses a different radioactive tracer and can be used to examine brain blood flow


Q27

  • Processing in the nervous system is accomplished by


A27

  • Interneurons/ association neurons


Q28

  • Motor neurons are sometimes called


A28

  • Efferent neurons


Q29

  • Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into bloodstream


A29

  • Chemicals released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands


Q30

  • Interneurons are stimulated by


A30

  • Sensory neurons, other interneurons, or both


Q31

  • Produces myelin for neurons in the body (PNS)


A31

  • Schwann cells


Q32

  • Resting potential


A32

  • The state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse


Q33

  • Glial cells that provide physical support to neurons and clean up debris


A33

  • astrocytes


Q34

  • Produces myelin for neurons in brain and spinal cord (CNS)


A34

  • oligodendrocytes


Q35

  • Where is acetylcholine found


A35

  • In the synapse between neurons and muscle cells


Q36

  • Pituitary gland


A36

  • Gland located in the brain that secretes human growth hormone and influences all other hormone-secreting glands (also known as the master gland)


Q37

  • Interneurons are sometimes called


A37

  • Association neurons


Q38

  • Biological psychology or behavioral neuroscience


A38

  • Branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes, behavior, and learning


Q39

  • What dictates the structure of a cell


A39

  • The purpose of the cell


Q40

  • The white matter of the brain is made of


A40

  • Fiber tracts (axons)


Q41

  • The Central Nervous System is made up of what two components


A41

  • Brain and Spinal Cord


Q42

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)


A42

  • MRI-based brain imaging method that allows for functional examination of brain areas through changes in brain oxygenation


Q43

  • Output in the nervous system is accomplished by


A43

  • Motor neurons/ efferent neurons


Q44

  • Two types of glial cells that produce myelin


A44

  • Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells


Q45

  • Where are interneurons found


A45

  • Exclusively in the spinal cord and brain


Q46

  • Medulla


A46

  • The first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate.


Q47

  • Pineal gland


A47

  • Endocrine gland located near the base of the cerebrum, secretes melatonin


Q48

  • Hippocampus


A48

  • Curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects


Q49

  • Pons


A49

  • The larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal


Q50

  • Sensory neurons are sometimes called


A50

  • Afferent neurons


Q51

  • Thyroid gland


A51

  • Endocrine gland found in the neck, regulates metabolism


Q52

  • Amygdala


A52

  • Brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear


Q53

  • Pancreas


A53

  • Endocrine gland; controls the levels of sugar in the blood


Q54

  • Occipital lobe


A54

  • Section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain


Q55

  • Cortex


A55

Outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input.


Q56

  • Two bulb-like projections just under the front of the brain that receive information from the receptors near the nose


A56

  • Olfactory bulb


Q57

  • Neurons exiting the spinal cord


A57

  • Efferent Neurons


Q58

  • The autonomic nervous system is made up of what two divisions


A58

  • Parasympathetic division and sympathetic division


Q59

  • Cerebral hemispheres


A59

  • The two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain


Q60

  • An area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention, alertness, and arousal.


A60

  • Reticular formation


Q61

  • Function of the spinal cord


A61

  • Pathway connecting the brain and the peripheral nervous system; receives signals such as pain and touch from the senses and passes those signals to the brain


Q62

  • Corpus callosum


A62

  • Thick band of neurons that connects the right and left hemispheres


Q63

  • Cerebellum


A63

  • Part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement.


Q64

  • Parietal lobes


A64

  • Sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations.


Q65

  • Temporal lobes


A65

  • Areas of the cortex located just behind the temples containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech.


Q66

  • Limbic system


A66

  • A group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation


Q67

  • Four types of glial cells


A67

  • 1) Oligodendrocyes, 2) schwann cells, 3) astrocytes, 4) microglia


Q68

  • Stem cells


A68

  • Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear


Q69

  • Most cells have these three parts in common


A69

  • 1) Nucleus, 2) cell body, 3) cell membrane


Q70

  • Frontal lobes


A70

  • Areas of the cortex located in the front and top of the brain, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech


Q71

  • Synaptic vesicle


A71

  • Saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals


Q72

  • How many interneurons does the human brain contain


A72

  • Approximately 100 billion


Q73

  • Motor cortex


A73

  • Section of the frontal lobe located at the back, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous system


Q74

  • Axon


A74

  • Tube-like structure that carries the neural message to other cells


Q75

  • Reuptake


A75

  • Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles


Q76

  • Thalamus


A76

  • Part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to the proper areas.


Q77

  • Plasticity


A77

  • The remarkable property of the central nervous system whereby neurons have the ability to strengthen neural connections at synapses as well as establish new connections


Q78

  • Diffusion


A78

  • Process of molecules moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration


Q79

  • Neurons make up what percent of cells in the brain


A79

  • 10%


Q80

  • Mirror neurons


A80

  • Neurons that fire when an animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes the same action being performed by another


Q81

  • Santiago Ramon y Cajal


A81

  • The first person to theorize that the nervous system was made up of individual cells. He came to this conclusion after studying slides of brain tissue.


Q82

  • Neurotransmitter


A82

  • Chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell


Q83

  • Association areas


A83

  • Areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information as well as higher mental processing


Q84

  • Broca’s aphasia


A84

  • Condition resulting from damage to Broca’s area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly.


Q85

  • Wernicke’s aphasia


A85

  • Condition resulting from damage to Wernicke’s area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language


Q86

  • Neurons


A86

  • The basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within that system


Q87

  • Spatial neglect


A87

  • Condition produced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or bod parts in the left visual field.


Q88

  • Cerebrum


A88

  • The upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them.


Q89

  • Thin membranous covering of neurons found in the body


A89

  • neurilemma


Q90

  • Make up 90% of the brain


A90

  • Glial cells


Q91

  • Task of Sensory/ Afferent Neurons


A91

  • Carry messages from the senses to the spinal cord


Q92

  • Why is neurilemma important


A92

  • It can repair nerve fibers


Q93

  • Neuroplasticity


A93

  • The ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma


Q94

  • The gray matter of the brain is made of


A94

  • Nuclei (clusters of soma)


Q95

  • There are estimated to be how many different kinds of interneurons


A95

  • At least hundreds


Q96

  • Cluster of cells bodies of the sensory neurons found next to the spinal cord


A96

  • ganglia


Q97

  • Peripheral nervous system


A97

  • All nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself


Q98

  • Where is neurilemma not found


A98

  • Brain and spinal cord


Q99

  • Endorphins


A99

  • Inhibitory neural regulators; involved in pain relief


Q100

  • True or False: Neurons at rest are still electrically charged


A100

  • True


Q101

  • Somatic nervous system


A101

  • Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body


Q102

  • Electrical Stimulation of the Brain


A102

  • A milder current is sent through a wire that does not kill the cells; can be used to assess for seizure risk prior to surgery


Q103

  • Neurons accessing the spinal cord


A103

  • Afferent neurons


Q104

  • Function of serotonin


A104

  • Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in mood, sleep, and appetite


Q105

  • Function of the parasympathetic division of Autonomic nervous system


A105

  • Maintains body functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy



Q154

  • Function of Norepinephrine


A106

  • Mainly excitatory; involved in arousal and mood


Q107

  • Neurons either fire at full strength or don’t fire at all


A107

  • All or none principle


Q108

  • Task of motor/ efferent Neurons


A108

  • Carry messages from the central nervous system to muscles and glands


Q109

  • Glial cells


A109

  • Grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processing, and during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neurons.


Q110

  • Autonomic nervous system


A110

  • Division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands


Q111

  • Nervous System


A111

  • An extensive network of specialized cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body.


Q112

  • Synapse (synaptic gap)


A112

  • Microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic know of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell


Q113

  • Enzymatic degradation


A113

  • Process by which structure of neurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor


Q114

  • Deep lesioning


A114

  • Insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire


Q115

  • Excitatory synapse


A115

  • Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire


Q116

  • Function of Dopamine


A116

  • Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure


Q117

  • Reuptake


A117

  • Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles


Q118

  • Motor neurons are stimulated by


A118

  • Interneurons but sometimes rarely they are stimulated directly by sensory neurons


Q119

  • The number of identified neurotransmitters


A119

  • At least 100


Q120

  • Sensory pathway


120

  • Nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons


Q121

  • Function of the sympathetic division


A121

  • Prepares the body to react and expend energy in times of stress


Q122

  • The first neurotransmitter to be identified


A122

  • acetylcholine


Q123

  • Function of the autonomic nervous system


A123

  • Automatically regulates glands, internal organs, blood vessels, pupils, digestion, and blood pressure


Q124

  • Function of acetylcholine


A124

  • Excitatory or inhibitory; involved in arousal, attention, memory, and controls muscle contractions


Q125

  • The Nervous System is made up of what two parts that are then further divided.


A125

  • Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System


Q126

  • Motor Pathway


A126

  • Nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles, consisting of efferent neurons


Q127

  • Synaptic knob (or terminal button)


A127

  • Rounded area on the end of the axon terminal


Q128

  • Function of Glutamate


A128

  • Major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in learning, memory formation, nervous system development, and synaptic plasticity


Q129

  • Receptor sites


A129

  • 3-D proteins on the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters.


Q130

  • Inhibitory synapse


A130

  • Synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing


Q131

  • Why is it important that the reflex arc occurs without the direction of the brain


A131

  • The process occurs much more quickly


Q132

  • Axon terminal


A132

  • Branches at the end of the axon


Q133

  • Reflex Arc


A133

  • The connection of the sensory neuron to the interneurons to the motor neurons which results in a reflex action


Q134

  • Neural regulators, neural peptides, endorphins


A134

  • Control the release of other neurotransmitters


Q135

  • Function of GABA


A135

  • Major inhibitory neurotransmitter; involved in sleep and inhibits movement


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