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International Year of Chemistry 2011 UN Declaration In December 2008, the 63rd General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution proclaiming 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, placing UNESCO and IUPAC at the helm of the event. Theme: “Chemistry – our life, our future.”.

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International Year of Chemistry 2011

UN Declaration

In December 2008, the 63rd General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution proclaiming 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry, placing UNESCO and IUPAC at the helm of the event.

Theme:

“Chemistry – our life, our future.”


The year 2011 marks the 100th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Chemical Societies, as well as the year Madame Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize – which celebrates the contributions of women to science.


Marie Curie, née Sklodowska ( the International Association of Chemical Societies, as well as the year Madame Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize – which celebrates the contributions of women to science.7 November 1867 - 4 July 1934)

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911 was awarded to Marie Curie "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element".

(Together with her husband, she was awarded half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, for their study into the spontaneous radiation discovered by Becquerel, who was awarded the other half of the Prize. Her son-in-law and daughter (Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie) were also awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935 "in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements”).


  • International year in other subjects: the International Association of Chemical Societies, as well as the year Madame Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize – which celebrates the contributions of women to science.

  • 2005 was the International Year of Physics

  • 2000 was the International Year of Mathematics (which was called as

  • World Mathematical Year 2000)


The International year of Chemistry 2011 celebrates all of the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humankind.

The Year will give a global boost to chemical science, and hopefully increase the interest in chemistry among young people.

It aims to increase the public appreciation of chemistry in meeting world needs and to promote the future development of chemistry.


Chemistry the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humankind. is the science of matter and the changes it undergoes.

It is concerned with the composition, behaviour (or reaction), structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.

It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, and which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes.


Periodic Table the achievements of chemistry and its contributions to the well-being of humankind.

Periodic Table


Disciplines within Chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include:

Many more specialized disciplines have also emerged, such as:


Chemistry is sometimes called “ the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include:the central science" because it plays an important part in all of the other natural sciences, basic and applied.


The contribution of Chemistry to mankind is enormous. the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include:

Food: The world’s food production increased due to the discovery of hybrid varieties, insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers.

Health: Chemistry brought about medical revolution by discovering and synthesizing drugs (medicines). These advances resulted in improving people’s health and increasing the average life expectancy.

Quality of life: Quality of life on earth became better due to the discovery of dyes, plastics, cosmetics and other materials needed for modern life.

Excessive use and misuse of chemicals should be avoided to

eliminate/alleviate ill effects of Chemistry


PROFESSOR C. N. R. RAO, Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister, said:

  • Chemistry, India's best performing subject, promises solutions to some of today's most pressing problems, including sustainable energy and climate change.

  • Hydrogen-fuelled cars and artificial photosynthesis to combat carbon emissions could be some of the most important chemistry-led innovations in the coming decades.

  • Despite the exciting research opportunities that chemistry presents, the subject is “under-recognized” in India and often taught in a “restrictive manner”.

  • Creative teaching is the key to encouraging students to opt for the subject.



  • Research: research and teaching must be given equal importance and emphasis.

  • Synthetic Chemistry (both organic and inorganic) will continue to be the most important field of research so as to develop easy, cost-effective and environment – friendly methods for synthesizing target molecules like drugs, catalysts, polymers, surfactants, etc. The importance of synthetic chemistry can be realized from the Nobel prizes awarded in this field:

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 was awarded jointly to Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichiNegishi and Akira Suzuki"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005 was awarded jointly to Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001 was awarded jointly to William S. Knowles and RyojiNoyori"for their work on chirallycatalysed hydrogenation reactions" and the other haf to K. Barry Sharpless"for his work on chirallycatalysed oxidation reactions“.


  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry research and teaching must be given equal importance and emphasis.1994 was awarded to George A. Olah"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990 was awarded to Elias James Corey"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979 was awarded jointly to Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis“.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973 was awarded jointly to Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965 was awarded to Robert B. Woodward "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis“.


  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry research and teaching must be given equal importance and emphasis.1950 was awarded jointly to Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis“.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912 was awarded jointly to Victor Grignard"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry" and Paul Sabatier"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910 was awarded to Otto Wallach"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds".


Why carbon (element on the logo of IYC) containing molecules are so important:

Carbon-carbon bonds are a prerequisite for all life on earth and they are found in proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Plants and animals mainly consist of organic molecules in which carbon atoms bind to each other.

We human beings are to a large extent built up by carbon-carbon bonds.

In living organisms bonds between carbon atoms are created via Nature’s own pathways utilising various enzyme systems.

To create new organic molecules in an artificial manner that can be used as medicines, plastics, and various other materials, we need new efficient methods for synthesising carbon-carbon bonds in our laboratories.

There were 5 Nobel prizes to reward the synthesis of carbon-carbon bonds.


  • Physical / Theoretical Chemistry will also continue to be important, since in

  • this branch of Chemistry we try to understand and explain how different

  • reactions / processes / phenomena take place. “Understanding of Chemistry is Physical Chemistry.”

  • Many Nobel prizes were awarded for providing theoretical explanations and developing experimental methods to understand chemical reactions and to determine structures of important molecules.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920 was awarded to Walther Nernst "in recognition of his work in thermochemistry".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949 was awarded to William F. Giauque"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968 was awarded to Lars Onsager"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes“.


  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry important, since in 1977 was awarded to IlyaPrigogine"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures“.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999 was awarded to Ahmed Zewail"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998 was divided equally between Walter Kohn"for his development of the density-functional theory" and John A. Pople"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry“.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981 was awarded jointly to Kenichi Fukui and RoaldHoffmann"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions“

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007 was awarded to Gerhard Ertl"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces“.


  • Understanding the Chemistry of important, since in Colours:

  • White light from the sun contains all the wavelengths.

  • When it impacts on an object some of its wavelengths are absorbed and some reflected.

  • Coloured chemicals absorb electromagnetic waves in the visible part of the spectrum.

  • Many absorb ultra-violet radiation. Chemicals which absorb UV radiation are colourless (unless they fluoresce).


The energy changes when molecules of a coloured compound and of a colourless compound absorb light are illustrated below:



Why molecules absorb light? complementary colour

Quantum mechanics explains the existence of quantized energy levels. Using a simplest model of one-dimensional box model, it has been shown that the energy values of the quantized energy levels are given by the expression

_________

_________

_________

, n = 1, 2, 3, …..

The difference between the energy levels is given by

As the length of a molecule, l, increases energy gap decreases. A molecule absorbs visible light when 0.6 nm < l < 0.8 nm


The tomato is red because of the carotenoid complementary colourlycopene, which contains 11 conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds.


The pigment present in carrots is the complementary colourbetacarotene, with 9 linear conjugated double bonds, less than in lycopene so they are no red but orange (smaller wavelength than red).


What makes a leaf green? complementary colour

The molecule responsible for green colour of leaf is chlorophyll (C55H70MgN4O6). It absorbs red and blue light from the sunlight. The light reflected from chlorophyll appears green. Chlorophyll is not a very stable compound.

Another pigment found in the leaves of many plants is carotene (C40H36). It absorbs blue-green and blue light. The light reflected from carotene appears yellow. Carotene is much more stable than chlorophyll. When chlorophyll disappears from a leaf, the remaining carotene causes the leaf to appear yellow.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915 was awarded to Richard Willstätter "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll“.


Cyanidin-based compounds make fruits and flowers colourful.

Cl

OH

Like acid-base indicators this compound changes colour with pH.

Some flowers and fruits have cyanidins with varying numbers of –OH groups. A cyanidin with attached sugars is called anthocyanin and is responsible for red colour of roses.



Chemistry of Cleaning

How soap cleans?

There are substances which can be dissolved in water (salt for example), and others that can't (for example oil). Water and oil don't mix together, so if we try to clean an oily stain from a cloth or from the skin, water is not enough. We need soap.

Soap is formed by molecules with a "head" which likes water (hydrophilic) and a long chain which hates it (hydrophobic).


Natural Surfactants (Biosurfactants):

Phospholipids

Cell membranes

Bile Salts

These are surfactants produced in the liver and stored in the gall-bladder (e.g. sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate) responsible for digestion

Pulmonary surfactant

Surfactants responsible to decrease the surface tension at the lung walls (Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC))

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)


Synthetic Surfactants: AnionicCationic NonionicZwitterionic (Ampholytic)Bolaform

Gemini (Dimeric)

Bolaform

gemini


Sodium lauryl sulfate (a single chain anionic surfactant)

Sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT) : A double – chain anionic surfactant


Because of this dualism, soap molecules act like a diplomat, improving the relationship between water and oil.


They form improving the relationship between water and oil. micelles, with the oily material absorbed inside and trapped.

An emulsion of oil in water is then formed, this means that the oil particles become suspended and dispersed into the water. Thus, those oil particles are liberated from the cloth or the skin, and the emulsion is taken away with the rinsing.


Teaching Thermodynamics: improving the relationship between water and oil.

First law:

;

Second law:


Clausius inequality: improving the relationship between water and oil.

(for equilibrium process)

(for spontaneous process)


Concept of free energy: improving the relationship between water and oil.



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