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Catch Them Before They Fall  Early Identification and Intervention to Prevent Reading Failure for Young Children Dr. Joseph K. Torgesen Florida State University and Florida Center for Reading Research Durango, Colorado, March, 2007. First Reader By Billy Collins.

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Catch them before they fall

Catch Them Before They Fall 

Early Identification and Intervention to Prevent Reading Failure for Young Children

Dr. Joseph K. Torgesen

Florida State University and

Florida Center for Reading Research

Durango, Colorado, March, 2007


Catch them before they fall

First Reader

By Billy Collins

I can see them standing politely on the wide pages that I was still learning to turn, Jane in a blue jumper, Dick with his crayon-brown hair, playing with a ball or exploring the cosmos of the backyard, unaware they are the first characters, the boy and girl who begin fiction.

Beyond the simple illustrations of their neighborhood, the other protagonists were waiting in a huddle: frightening Heathcliff, frightened Pip, Nick Adams carrying a fishing rod, Emma Bovary riding into Rouen.

But I would read about the perfect boy and his sister even before I would read about Adam and Eve, garden and gate, and before I heard the name Gutenberg, the type of their simple talk was moving into my focusing eyes.


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It was always Saturday and he and she were always pointing at something and shouting, “Look!” pointing at the dog, the bicycle, or at their father as he pushed a hand mower over the lawn, waving at aproned mother framed in the kitchen doorway, pointing toward the sky, pointing at each other.

They wanted us to look but we had looked already and seen the shaded lawn, the wagon, the postman. We had seen the dog, walked, watered and fed the animal, and now it was time to discover the infinite, clicking permutations of the alphabet’s small and capital letters. Alphabetical ourselves in the rows of classroom desks, we were forgetting how to look, learning how to read.


Beginning with the end in mind our ultimate goal for prevention of reading difficulties

Beginning with the End in Mind: Our Ultimate Goal for Prevention of Reading Difficulties


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To provide instruction and supports that will enable every child to:

Read text written at their grade level with good comprehension and fluency

Examples:

Pick up a piece of fiction and read it with enjoyment and good comprehension of plot, characters, and action

Read expository, or non-fiction text and grasp the main ideas as well as their connection to supporting details so that new concepts and information are understood and learned.


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From the “science

of reading”

Practices from

Schools

Making Significant

Gains

Information about the individual components of instruction and assessment that are most effective in preventing reading difficulties.

Provides information about school and classroom systems that are effective in improving achievement.

The essential elements for success


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From the “science

of reading”

Information about the individual components of instruction and assessment that are most effective in preventing reading difficulties.

The essential elements for success

Part I:

The science of Reading and Reading Instruction


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The top 5 discoveries

1. Skilled, fluent reading by third grade depends on the development of many thousands of highly specifiedorthographic representations for words

The orthography of a language refers to the way the language is represented in print

An orthographic representation is a representation of a word’s spelling that is stored in memory

A fully developed, or fully specified, orthographic representation contains information about all of the letters, and allows a word to be read accurately “at a single glance”


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These are iNTirEStinG and cHallinGinG times for anyone whose pRoFEshuNle responsibilities are rEelaTed in any way to liTiRucY outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new NaWLEGe about reading and reading iNstRukshun, there is a wide-spread concern that public EdgUkAshuN is not as eFfEktIve as it shood be in tEecHiNg all children to read.


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The report of the National Research Council pointed out that these concerns about literacy derive not from declining levels of literacy in our schools but rather from recognition that the demands for high levels of literacy are rapidly accelerating in our society.


Catch them before they fall

The report ofthe National Research Council pointed out that these concerns about literacy derive notfrom declining levels of literacy inour schools but rather from recognition that the demands forhigh levels of literacy are rapidly accelerating in our society.


Catch them before they fall

The report of the National Research Council pointed out that these concerns about literacy derive not from declining levels of literacy in our schools but rather from recognition that the demands for high levels of literacy are rapidly accelerating in our society.


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Which is the real word?

smoaksmoke

circuscercus

wagonwagun

firstferst

traidtrade


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The top 5 areas of discovery

1. Skilled, fluent reading by third grade depends on the development of many thousands of highly specified orthographic representations for words

2. Early establishment of efficient phonemic decoding skills is critical to the development of later accurate and fluent reading

3. Many children struggle in learning in acquiring phonics skills because they are slow to develop phonemic awareness

4. Skilled reading by third grade also depends upon the development of extensive word knowledge (vocabulary)-this becomes particularly important to comprehension performance at about third grade

5. Skilled reading by third grade also depends on skill in the use of a variety of comprehension strategies and thinking skills


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Taught by methods that are…

Identifying words accurately and fluently

Constructing meaning once words are identified

engaging & motivating

Effective early reading instruction must build reading skills in five important areas by providing instruction that is both engaging and motivating.

Phonemic Awareness

Phonics

Fluency

Vocabulary

Comprehension strategies


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LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION

Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

LANGUAGE STRUCTURES

VERBAL REASONING

LITERACY KNOWLEDGE

SKILLED READING:

fluent execution and

coordination of word

recognition and text

comprehension.

increasingly

strategic

WORD RECOGNITION

PHON. AWARENESS

DECODING (and SPELLING)

SIGHT RECOGNITION

increasingly

automatic

The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading

(Scarborough, 2001)

Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.


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What we know from science about the growth of reading skills:

1. It is very important to get off to a strong start in learning to read during early elementary school

2. It is critical that children acquire skill in use of the alphabetic principle to help accurately identify unknown words early in development of reading skill

“From all these different perspectives, two inescapable conclusions emerge. The first is that mastering the alphabetic principle is essential to becoming proficient in the skill of reading….”(Rayner, et al., 2001)

Raynor, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. 2001. How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2: 31-73.


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Children vary enormously in their talent and preparation for acquiring proficient phonemic decoding skills


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The nature of the underlying difficulty for most children who struggle in learning to read words accurately and fluently

Weaknesses in the phonological area of language competence

inherent, or intrinsic, disability

lack of opportunities to learn in the pre-school environment

Expressed primarily by delays in the development of phonemic awareness and phonics skills


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What is Phonemic Awareness?

Oral Language Skill


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A functional definition of phonemic awareness:

it involves the ability to notice, think about, or manipulate, the individual sounds in words.

Torgesen, J.K., & Mathes, P. (2000). A Basic Guide to Understanding, Assessing, and Teaching Phonological Awareness. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.


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Words are composed of strings of phonemes. A phoneme is the

smallest unit of sound in a word that makes a differences to its

identity

big

dig

bog

bin


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Words are composed of strings of phonemes. A phoneme is the

smallest unit of sound in a word that makes a differences to its

identity

b i g

dig

bog

bin


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When children acquire awareness of phonemes in words…

It helps them understand how print is used to represent words


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Development of phonological sensitivity is influenced by preschool experiences related to socio-economic stratus

  • We compared the performance of 250 children from higher income families to 170 children from lower income families.

  • Children were between two- and five-years of age.


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Why is it important for children to acquire good phonemic decoding skills (phonics) early in reading development?

Because learning to read involves everyday encounters with words the child has never before seen in print.

Phonemic analysis provides the most important single clue to the identity of unknown words in print.


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The most efficient way to make an “accurate first attempt” at the identity of a new word is:

First, do phonemic analysis and try an approximate pronunciation

Then, close in on the exact right word by finding one containing the right sounds, that also makes sense in the sentence.

(chapter 10, Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (2000)


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The connection to reading fluency:

To be a fluent reader, a child must be able to recognize most of the words in a passage “by sight”


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December, 3rd Grade

Correct word/minute=60

19th percentile

The Surprise Party

My dad had his fortieth birthday last month, so my mom planned a big surprise party for him. She said I could assist with the party but that I had to keep the party a secret. She said I couldn’t tell my dad because that would spoil the surprise.

I helped mom organize the guest list and write the invitations. I was responsible for making sure everyone was included. I also addressed all the envelopes and put stamps and return addresses on them…..


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December, 3rd Grade

Correct word/minute=128

78th percentile

The Surprise Party

My dad had his fortieth birthday last month, so my mom planned a big surprise party for him. She said I could assist with the party but that I had to keep the party a secret. She said I couldn’t tell my dad because that would spoil the surprise.

I helped mom organize the guest list and write the invitations. I was responsible for making sure everyone was included. I also addressed all the envelopes and put stamps and return addresses on them…..


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The connection to reading fluency:

To be a fluent reader, a child must be able to recognize most of the words in a passage “by sight”

Children must correctly identify words 3-8 times before they become “sight words”

Children must make accurate first attempts when they encounter new words, or the growth of their “sight word vocabulary” will be delayed—they will not become fluent readers


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animal

faster

happy

never

time

sleep

rabbit

Words likely to be encountered for the first time in first grade


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amaze

beach

comfortable

example

interesting

grease

stiff

sweep

Words likely to be encountered for the first time in second grade


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Passage from 3rd grade reading comprehension test

______the middle ____, it was the ______for a ______ to wear his full set of _____ whenever he ________ in ______ – even in times of______! When a ______ believed he was _____ friends, he would ______ his ______. This ______ of __________ showed that the ______ felt ______ and safe.


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Passage from 3rd grade reading comprehension test

During the middle ages, it was the custom for a knight to wear his full set of armor whenever he appeared in public – even in times of peace ! When a knight believed he was among friends, he would remove his helmet. This symbol of friendship showed that the knight felt welcome and safe.


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What we know about the growth of reading skills:

1. It is very important to get off to a strong start in learning to read during early elementary school

2. It is critical that children acquire skill in use of the alphabetic principle to help accurately identify unknown words early in development of reading skill

3. Children who are delayed in the development of alphabetic understanding and skill struggle to become fluent readers


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Paths to poor reading fluency in 3rd grade

1. Children who do not learn phonemic decoding strategies are usually inaccurate readers, and they don’t read independently because there are too many words they can’t decode on their own.

2. Students who don’t learn to use phonemic decoding strategies until mid second or early third grade miss out on 1 or 2 years of productive reading practice.

3. Some students learn phonemic decoding skills early and well, but they don’t read very much text. Thus, they miss out on practice that can help them learn to recognize 1000’s of words at a single glance.


Catch them before they fall

What we know about the growth of reading skills:

1. It is very important to get off to a strong start in learning to read during early elementary school

2. It is critical that children acquire skill in use of the alphabetic principle to help accurately identify unknown words early in development of reading skill

3. Children who are delayed in the development of alphabetic understanding and skill struggle to become fluent readers

4. Accurate and fluent word reading skills contribute importantly to the development of reading comprehension


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The very best teachers of children who struggle in learning to read are

Relentless

in their pursuit of every child


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The first commandment of

Relentlessness

Let no child “escape” from first grade without being proficient in phonemic decoding skills


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Making Sense of Phonics:

The Hows and Whys

Isabel Beck: Guilford (2006)


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The second commandment of

Relentlessness

As children become accurate and independent readers, encourage, cajole, lead, beg, support, demand, reward them for reading as broadly and deeply as possible


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Osborn, J., Lehr, F., & Hiebert, E.H. (2003). A Focus on Fluency. Monograph published by Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Copies available at www.prel.org/programs/rel/rel.asp

Hudson, R.F., Lane, H.B., & Pullen, P.C. (2005). Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How?. The Reading Teacher, 58, 702-714.


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What we know about the growth of reading skills:

5. Oral language vocabulary and other forms of verbal and conceptual knowledge also contribute importantly to the development of reading comprehension.

6. Children must also develop and actively use a variety of comprehension monitoring and comprehension building strategies to reliably construct the meaning of text.

As students develop, reading comes more and more to be…

“Thinking guided by print”


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The third commandment of

Relentlessness

Beginning in Kindergarten, teach vocabulary and thinking skills as intensely, and robustly as possible


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Bringing Words to Life

Isabel Beck

M. McKeown

L. Kucan

Guilford Press


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Big ideas from “Bringing Words to Life”

First-grade children from higher SES groups know about twice as many words as lower SES children

Poor children, who enter school with vocabulary deficiencies have a particularly difficult time learning words from “context”

Research has discovered much more powerful ways of teaching vocabulary than are typically used in classrooms – generalization to reading comprehension

A “robust” approach to vocabulary instruction involves directly explaining the meanings of words along with thought-provoking, playful, interactive follow-up.


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Four Critical Elements for More Robust Vocabulary Instruction

Select the right words to teach – Tier 2 words

absurd

fortunate

ridiculous

Develop child-friendly definitions for these words

Engage children in interesting, challenging, playful activities in which they learn to access the meanings of words in multiple contexts

Find a way to devote more time during the day to vocabulary instruction


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Summary of Part I:

What should comprehension instruction be instruction of? - Mike Pressley

1. Teach decoding skills

2. Encourage the development of sight words

3. Teach students to use semantic context cues to evaluate whether decodings are accurate

4. Teach vocabulary meanings

5. Encourage extensive reading

6. Teach self-regulated use of comprehension strategies

Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M.L. Kamil, P.B.Mosenthal, P.D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (vol. III, pp. 545–561).Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


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A reason to be relentless….


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Questions/Discussion


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Practices from

Schools

Making Significant

Gains

Provides information about the school and classroom systems that are effective in improving achievement.

The essential elements for success

Part II:

Applications of science in classrooms and schools


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How much difference does high quality implementation make?

Student outcomes in reading are influenced by two main variables

Student abilities and attitudes plus influences in the home and neighborhood

The quality and quantity of instruction they receive in school


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63

75

82

86

91

96

72

66

61

58

53

51

Relationship of “school challenge” to student performance

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1

4

2

3

5

6

Increasing Challenge

587 RF schools in Florida

% of 1-3 Students Performing At Grade Level at the End of Year

Decreasing Performance

Average % at GL

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Level of School Challenge based on % of students qualifying for FR lunch


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85

80

72

Approx. 20%

73

67

64

57

53

Approx. 27%

46

46

40

35

Top 15% Schools

Low 15% schools

The Adult Learning and Performance Gap

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

63

75

82

91

85

96

% of 1-3 Students Performing At Grade Level at the End of Year

1 2 3 4 5 6

Level of School Challenge based on % of students qualifying for FR lunch


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The prevention of reading difficulties: three areas in which we must become stronger each year

1. Increase the quality, consistency, and reach of instruction in every K-3 classroom

2. Conduct timely and valid assessments of reading growth to identify struggling readers. Use this data to improve school level and instructional planning

3. Provide more intensive interventions to help struggling readers “catch up” to grade level standards in each grade K-3.


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

1. Efforts to help increase the quality, consistency, and reach of instruction in every K-3 classroom

a. Insuring teachers have excellent professional development, including appropriate materials to guide and support instruction

b. Monitoring and supporting classroom instruction through leadership walkthroughs


Improving fidelity and consistency of classroom instruction principal walkthroughs

The purpose of a classroom visit is to help teachers improve their instruction and identify the best teaching practices in your school. Observation visits reflect your interest in instruction and in your staff's professional growth. (Blase & Blase, 1998; Scholastic, 2005)

Improving fidelity and consistency of classroom instruction: Principal walkthroughs

Purposes of the walkthrough


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

1. Efforts to help increase the quality, consistency, and reach of instruction in every K-3 classroom

a. Insuring teachers have excellent professional development, including strong training in use of the core program to guide instruction

b. Monitoring and supporting classroom instruction through principal walkthroughs

Are teachers providing explicit, systematic, and motivating whole group instruction?

Is small group instruction differentiated appropriately by student need?


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Increasing the quality and power of teacher-led, small-group, differentiated instruction

Instruction should be differentiated to meet the needs of individual students in at least four ways

Frequency and duration of meeting in small groups – every day, three times per week, etc.

Size of instructional group – 3 students, 6 students, 8 students, etc.

Focus of instruction – work in phonemic awareness in phonics, work in fluency and comprehension, etc.

Lesson format – guided reading vs. skills focused lessons


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Download at:

http://www.fcrr.org/assessment/pdf/smallGroupAlternativeLessonStructures.pdf

Or, just go to the FCRR website (www.fcrr.org) and its listed on the home page under the new stuff


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Four good, books for instructional ideas

Making Sense of Phonics:The Hows and Whys

Isabel Beck: Guilford (2006)

Bringing Words to Life:Robust Vocabulary Instruction

Beck, McKeown, & Kucan: Guilford (2002)

Vocabulary Handbook

Consortium on Reading Excellence(2006)

Comprehension Process Instruction:

Creating Success in Grades K-3

Block, Rogers, & Johnson (2004)


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

1. Efforts to help increase the quality, consistency, and reach of instruction in every K-3 classroom

a. Insuring teachers have excellent professional development, including strong training in use of the core program to guide instruction

b. Monitoring and supporting classroom instruction through principal walkthroughs

Are teachers providing explicit, systematic, and motivating whole group instruction?

Is small group instruction differentiated appropriately by student need?

Are other students engaged in independent learning activities that are appropriate and engaging


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Are these students working productively on appropriate practice activities?

Resource teacher and group of 3

Classroom teacher and group of 4

Independent Learning Activity (4)

Independent Learning Activity (4)

Independent Learning Activity (3)

Organization of a classroom during small group instruction

Something that might be helpful: FCRR has developed 240 ISA’s for K-2 and 170 for 2-3 –


A source for high quality independent student learning activities

A source for high quality independent student learning activities

To download up to 240 independent student learning activities for K-1 classrooms, and up to 170 activities for students in grades grades 2-3, go to

http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/studentCenterActivities.htm

There is also a teacher resource manual providing directions for classroom management during small group instruction, and approximately 70 minutes of video training


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

2. Be sure school-level assessment plan is working, and provide leadership in use of data to plan instruction at the school and classroom level

Beginning of the year screening tests

Progress monitoring tests during the year

Diagnostic tests

End-of-year outcome tests


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Guidance on how to establish a comprehensive assessment plan for grades K-3

http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/K-3%20reading%20assessment.pdf


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

2. Be sure school-level assessment plan is working, and provide leadership in use of data to plan instruction at the school and classroom level

Two important uses of student data

1. School level planning involves identifying needs for materials, personnel, time – takes place in spring or early summer-has budget implications


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

2. Be sure school-level assessment plan is working, and provide leadership in use of data to plan instruction at the school and classroom level

Two important uses of student data

1. School level planning involves identifying needs for materials, personnel, time – takes place in spring or early summer-has budget implications

2. Provide leadership for the use of data to make adjustments and increase power of instruction for those who need it –attend important data meetings


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

3. Provide powerful interventions to students who need them for as long as they need them

A. Developing a school schedule that allows sufficient time for interventions


Example of staggered reading blocks with walk and read

Example of Staggered Reading Blocks with “Walk and Read”


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Are these students working productively on appropriate practice activities?

Resource teacher and group of 3

Classroom teacher and group of 4

Independent Learning Activity (4)

Independent Learning Activity (4)

Independent Learning Activity (3)

Organization of a classroom during small group instruction

Something that might be helpful: FCRR has developed 240 ISA’s for K-2 and 170 for 2-3 –


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

3. Provide powerful interventions to students who need them for as long as they need them

A. Developing a school schedule that allows sufficient time for interventions

B. Identifying or providing sufficient personnel to deliver the intervention instruction

C. Providing appropriate programs and materials to support the intervention instruction

Will need something for early reading accuracy-phonics

Will need something for fluency growth

Will also likely need a supplement for vocabulary


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Essential Practices in Successful, High Challenge Schools

3. Provide powerful interventions to students who need them for as long as they need them

A. Developing a school schedule that allows sufficient time for interventions

B. Identifying or providing sufficient personnel to deliver the intervention instruction

C. Providing appropriate programs and materials to support the intervention instruction

D. Oversight, energy, follow-up – use data meetings to ask about students, make decisions to increase support, etc.


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Guidance on essential procedures for implementing effective interventions with young children

http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Principals%20guide%20to%20intervention.pdf


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Obtain copy at:

http://www.fcrr.org/Interventions/pdf/teachingAllStudentsToReadComplete.pdf

Or,

Go to www.fcrr.org

Click on Interventions for struggling readers (in right column)

You will see the title of the document


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Evidence from one school that we can do substantially better than ever before

School Characteristics:

70% Free and Reduced Lunch (going up each year)

65% minority (mostly African-American)

Elements of Curriculum Change:

Movement to a more balanced reading curriculum beginning in 1994-1995 school year (incomplete implementation) for K-2, then improved implementation in 1995-1996

Implementation in Fall of 1996 of screening and more intensive small group instruction for at-risk students


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Screening at beginning of first grade, with extra instruction for those in bottom 30-40%

31.8

20.4

10.9

6.7

3.7

Hartsfield Elementary Progress over five years

Proportion falling below the 25th percentile in word reading ability at the end of first grade

30

20

10

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Average Percentile 48.9 55.2 61.4 73.5 81.7

for entire grade (n=105)


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31.8

30

Proportion falling below the 25th Percentile

20.4

20

10.9

10

6.7

3.7

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Average Percentile 48.9 55.2 61.4 73.5 81.7

30

Hartsfield Elementary Progress over five years

Proportion falling below the 25th Percentile

20

14.5

9.0

10

5.4

2.4

1996 1997 1998 1999


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40

35

30

25

20

15

10

FCAT Performance in Spring, 2003

Level 2

Level 1

Hartsfield Elem.State Average

http://www.fcrr.org/TechnicalReports/Hartsfieldnew.pdf


A final concluding thought

A final concluding thought….

There is no question but that “leaving no child behind in reading” is going to be a significant challenge…

It will involve professional development for teachers, school reorganization, careful assessments, and a relentless focus on the individual needs of every child…

But, its not the most difficult thing we could be faced with…


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Thank You

To obtain this powerpoint presentation, go to

www.fcrr.org

Science of reading section


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