Co 2 valuable source of carbon
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CO 2 : valuable source of carbon. Coordinator of the Working Group “Carbon Capture and Storage“ Italian Association Chemical Engineering (AIDIC) . Ezio Nicola D’Addario. April 16th, 2012 Rome – Campus Bio-Medico University. SUSTAINABILITY IN CARBON CAPTURE AND UTILIZATION. AGENDA.

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Co 2 valuable source of carbon

CO2: valuable source of carbon

Coordinator of the Working Group “Carbon Capture and Storage“

Italian Association Chemical Engineering (AIDIC)

Ezio Nicola D’Addario

April 16th,2012 Rome – Campus Bio-Medico University

SUSTAINABILITY IN CARBON CAPTURE AND UTILIZATION


Agenda

AGENDA

  • Main Options of Carbon Capture and Utilization

  • Direct Use of Solar Energy: photosynthesis, microalgae

  • Sustainability and Life Cycle Analysis

  • Biodiesel from Microalgae, Different LCA Literature Case Studies

  • Concluding Remarks


Uses of carbon dioxide

USES OF CARBON DIOXIDE

http://extsearch1.netl.doe.gov

  • DNV position paper 7-2011, * 5% liquid fuel replacement 50% CO2 saving, ** 10 % global building material demand,

  • *** 10 % total annual current emission


Ccu and resources requirement

CCU and RESOURCES REQUIREMENT

DNV position paper 7-2011

PROS: Revenues from captured CO2

CONS: Rather new compared to CCS, CO2 scarcely reactive, energy requirements to be determined


Direct use of solar radiation

DIRECT USE OF SOLAR RADIATION

EN

E

R

G

Y

&

C

H

E

MICALS

DIFFUSE CO2 SOURCES

Traffic, Residential, SME

TERRESTRIAL,

AQUATIC PLANT

and MACROALGAE

PHOTOSYNTHESYS

Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin

TRANSPORTATION

DISTRIBUTION

MICROALGAE

Lipids, Carbohydrates, Protein

CO2

CAPTURE

LARGE CO2 STATIONARY SOURCES

PG, Oil and Heavy Industry


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

EXAMPLES OF HIGH PRODUCTIVITY BIOMASS

M. Tredici. Symposium “ I Biocarburanti di seconda e terza generazione” Roma 14 April 2011


Sustainability and lca

SUSTAINABILITY AND LCA

I. Gavilan, BP Sustainability in biofuel, 2008


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

MAIN IMPACT CATEGORIES

GLOBAL

Greenhouse Gas Effect

Acid rain

LOCAL

Depletion

of ozone layer

Depletion of

no renewable

resources

Toxic emissions

Noise

Elettromagnetic

pollution

REGIONAL

Water

euthrophication

Visual pollution

Soil and groundwater

contamination

Photochemical oxidant

formation

Land Use Change


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

MAIN LCA INDICATORS

GHG Effect

(100 years)

[g CO2 eq]

GLOBAL WARMING

POTENTIAL

Σ GWPi * gi

CO2; CH4; N20…

[grams, gi]


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

TYPICAL DIAGRAM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM MICROALGAE

10*100*0.3 m

Concrete PVC

0.25 m/s

22.2 Wh/kg CO2

50 MW Coal Power Station, dehydration and compression

1000 ha ponds

Washing water

(each 2 months)

Water from dewatering

Dry extraction: feasible, Wet extraction: to be checked, consumptions proportional to inlet

L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, 2009


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

CULTIVATION OF Chlorella vulgaris BASIC DATA

Lipid content, growth rate and productivity in the range of typical literature sources

Protein content much lower in low Nitrogen cultures

Lower productivity showed by low N cultures balanced by their higher heating value

(photosynthetic efficiency almost the same)

L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, 2009


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

CULTIVATION OF Chlorella v. PRELIMINARY INVENTORY

Base 1 Kg Biodiesel

  • Lower mass downstream efficiency implies higher biomass production for wet cultures which requires

  • higher energy and fertilizer in comparison to dry cultivation

  • All configurations, except low N wet, have high energetic requirements compared to energy in the biofuel

  • (37.8 MJ/kg)

  • Overall balance negative only for normal dry option

L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, 2009


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

CUMULATIVE ENERGY DEMANDChlorella v. Base 1 MJ Biodiesel

Cumulative Energy Demand: Ecoinvent data base, Electricity produced with the European mix, Heat produced with natural gas, Buildings 30-year lifespan then dismantled and concrete landfilled, steel based materials and plastics recycled, Electrical engines changed every 10 years

Low N wet confirms the most favorable option (higher fertilizers and cultivation requirements not compensated by lower drying energy of low N dry)

L. Lardon et al. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 17, 2009


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF BIODIESEL AND PETROLEUM DIESEL Base 1 MJ Fuel

EU ref value: 83,8 gCO2 eq / MJ

  • Assessment carried out by using the CML method *, Reference fuel: Ecoinvent database, Rapeseed Europe, Palm Oil Malaysia, Soybean USA, Byproducts emissions allocated on the base of energy content

  • Algae show:

  • very low impacts for eutrophication (better control of fertilizers) and land use (higher biomass productivity),

  • worst impacts for GWP (except soybean), mineral resource, ozone depletion, ionizing radiation and photochemical oxidation (higher use of fertilizers and electricity including 30 % nuclear)

  • GHG reduction (58,7 g CO2 eq / MJ) in line with current EU targets (54.5 g CO2 eq / MJ), but lower than 2017 EU targets (41. 9 for exiting plants, and 33.5 g CO2 eq / MJ for new plants)

* Guine´e, J. B. Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment Springer: New York, 2002


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ENERGY DEMAND MJ/MJ Biodiesel

Lardon, 2009 low N dry case 2.32 MJ

H. H. Khoo et al Bioresource Technology 102 (2011) 5800–5807

R. Baliga and Susan E. Powers.Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates.International Journal of Chemical Engineering Volume 2010, Article ID 102179.

Algae biodiesel production in New York State (USA) based on life cycle energy and environmental impact parameters. Upstate NY was chosen as a challenging case for algae biodiesel production due to shorter days and cold temperatures during winter months.


Recent studies

RECENT STUDIES

Edward D Frank, et al.Methane and nitrous oxide emissions affect the life-cycle analysis of algal biofuels. Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) Article ID 014030. Accepted for publication 20 February 2012 Published 13 March 2012

Parameters included in the sensitivity: lipid content: 12, 25, 50 %, Productivity:12.5, 25, 50 g/m2/d, CHP electrical efficiency: 28, 33, 38 %, Mixing Power: 2, 48, 83 kWh/ha/d, …


Co 2 valuable source of carbon

CONCLUDING REMARKS

LCA case studies biodiesel production from microalgae confirm that environmental impacts depend on process and technology aspects as well as on energy supply options, location and possible scenarios

Helpful inputs for research still going on this subject could derive from preliminary LCA including indicators related to the depletion of non renewable resources and climate change as well as to water eutrophication, land requirements, toxicity (human and marine), etc.

These conclusions suggest that environmental aspects should be integrated in any technical economical studies usually carried out to compare different CCU research options

LCA appears an useful tools usable at this purpose


Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention

FOR MORE INFORMATION

Name Surname: Ezio Nicola D’Addario

Job Title: Freelancer

Contact: [email protected]


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