Exploratory design research
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EXPLORATORY DESIGN RESEARCH. Interaction Design South America 2011. Elizabeth Goodman, University of California, Berkeley. SCHEDULE. Introductions The nature of exploratory research Our project for today Asking initial questions Method 1: “Walking tour” Lunch Discussion

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Exploratory design research

EXPLORATORY DESIGN RESEARCH

Interaction Design South America 2011

Elizabeth Goodman, University of California, Berkeley


Schedule

SCHEDULE

  • Introductions

  • The nature of exploratory research

  • Our project for today

  • Asking initial questions

  • Method 1: “Walking tour”

  • Lunch

  • Discussion

  • Method 2: Probes

  • Method 3: Co-creation

  • Method 4: Games


Introductions

INTRODUCTIONS

  • What’s your first name?

  • What is your job?

  • What would you like to learn at this workshop?


About me

ABOUT ME

Urban exploration interfaces and games

User research handbook

geolocated chatting

Ethnography of interaction design

Community garden studies


The nature of exploratory design research

THE NATURE OF EXPLORATORY DESIGN RESEARCH

What’s

exploratory?

What’s

research?


Exploratory design research

The researcher uses these methods

not to answer precisely framed questions,

but in order to generate the questions themselves,

in directions he or she does not control:

in order to find the blind spots.

“Mapping the Experiential Context of Product Use”

Pieter Jan Stappers, FroukjeSleeswijkVisser, and Ianus Keller


Dimensions of exploration

DIMENSIONS of EXPLORATION

inspiration

behavior

“Art”

“Engineering”

meaning

information


Desk research

DESK RESEARCH

!!!

  • Make things

  • Read a lot

  • Talk to many experts

  • Question assumptions

Photo:Lalo de Almeida for The New York Times


Clues to a good project

CLUES TO A GOOD PROJECT

“Doing my I’s and O’s”

“He’s a troll”

“We never do that here”

“That’s not punk rock”

“Skydiving is crazy”

Tricks of the Trade

Howard Becker

Basics of Qualitative Research

Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin

Jargon/slang

Evocative imagery

Absolutes

Group definition and exclusion

Accusations of insanity or stupidity


Looking for relationships between people places and objects

LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects

From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches

Elizabeth Sanders, 2002

Say

Think

Do

Use

Know

Feel

Dream


Looking for relationships between people places and objects1

LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects

Say

Do

Make

From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches

Elizabeth Sanders, 2002

Say

Think

Do

Use

Know

Feel

Dream


Looking for relationships between people places and objects2

LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects

Say

Do

Make

Surveys

Interviews

Diaries

Observation

Probes/games

Co-creation

“From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches”

Elizabeth Sanders

Say

Think

Do

Use

Know

Feel

Dream


Looking for relationships between people places and objects3

LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects

Say

Do

Make

Surveys

Interviews

Diaries

Observation

Probes/games

Co-creation

From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches

Elizabeth Sanders

Say

Think

Do

Use

Know

Feel

Dream


Exploratory design research

Thoughtless Acts? Observations on Intuitive Design

Jane Fulton Suri and IDEO

The key is looking carefully at what people actually do in various situations and asking ourselves questions such as these…

Why has someone placed this object here?

What are those people doing and why are they grouped like that?

Why is it that people apparently avoid being here?

Curiosity will reveal meaning behind these nonspectacular interactions that take place around us all the time.


Observation framework

OBSERVATION FRAMEWORK

“Ethnography in the field of design”

Christina Wasson (Doblin)

Activities: What are people doing?

Environments: Where is the action happening?

Interactions: What operations are being carried out?

Objects: What things are being put to use?

Users: Which people are involved?


Experiential encounters

EXPERIENTIAL ENCOUNTERS

Traces

Workarounds

Paths

Feelings

Territories

Goals

Talk

http://www.flickr.com/photos/loxea/4045627675/in/pool-thoughtlessacts


Observation to make keep

OBSERVATION: TO MAKE/KEEP

  • Notes

  • Photos/Drawings

  • Maps

  • Souvenirs


Observation belo horizonte

OBSERVATION Belo Horizonte

  • Pick a spot as a group

  • Inside or outside hotel

  • Stay there for at least 15 minutes

  • Don’t hide, but try not to stand out – especially if you are taking photographs

  • If anyone asks, you’re “doing this for a class assignment”

  • If people ask you to leave, move along.

  • Even if it’s boring – especially if it’s boring — stay in the place you chose for at least 15 minutes. Ask yourself: why do you think this boring? What’s happening during the “boring parts”?

 Lunch


Observation discussion

OBSERVATION Discussion

As other people talk, write down: what PEOPLE, ACTIVITIES, or TOOLS would be interesting to explore further?

In your groups, pick 3 of your most interesting or surprising observations. Pick one person to present your 3 observations. You have 10 minutes.

Tell us about them! Each group has 3 minutes.


Our project for today

OUR PROJECT FOR TODAY

Imagine that you have been asked to explore tourism in Belo Horizonte in order to design a new product or service. Where would you start?


Cultural probes encourage imaginative personal reflection through structured but playful activities

CULTURAL PROBESEncourage imaginative personal reflection through structured, but playful, activities

Image: Mena Design Research


About cultural probes

About CULTURAL PROBES

Photos: J Deruna/Flickr


Making a cultural probe

Making a CULTURAL PROBE

ASK PEOPLE TO

ACTIVITIES

Photography

Drawing

Mapping

Listing

Collecting

  • IMAGINE possibilities, dreams, nightmares

  • CONNECT emotions and memories to places and products

  • INVITE fantasy, humor, whimsy

Photo: GCBB/Flickr

ON THEIR OWN, USING A KIT YOU GIVE THEM


Exploratory design research

  • CULTURAL PROBE Tasks

“Put a red dot on things you dislike and take a photo.”

“Tell us about your dreams as soon as you wake up.”

“Write a letter to your future self about your life now.”

“Draw your path to school. Where do you feel safest?”

Stickers

Voice recorder

Postcard

Maps

“Cultural Probes”

Bill Gaver, Tony Dunne, and

Elena Pacenti


Exploratory design research

TOOLS FOR CULTURAL PROBES

Camera

Postcard

Photo: GCBB/Flickr

  • Postcards

  • Stickers

  • Maps

  • Cameras

  • Voice recorders

  • Card decks

  • … et cetera!

Stickers

Maps

Photo: J Deruna/Flickr


Cultural probes how to

CULTURAL PROBES HOW-TO

Design the probe kit

Give it to people

Wait for them to return it

Interpret for inspiration!


Probes are not diaries

PROBES are not DIARIES


Cultural probe exercise

CULTURAL PROBE EXERCISE

In your groups, invent 3 activities for a cultural probe of tourism in Belo Horizonte.

  • Who is the audience for your probe?

    You have 15 minutes.


Cultural probe discussion

CULTURAL PROBE DISCUSSION

Each group has 3 minutes to present their ideas, with 3 minutes for group comments.


Cultural probe tips

CULTURAL PROBE TIPS

  • Embrace personal interpretations

  • Schedule follow-up interviews to discuss with participants

  • Promise design inspiration, not informational recommendations

“Cultural Probes and Uncertainty”

Bill Gaver, Andrew Boucher, Sarah Pennington, and Brendan Walker.


Co creation with participants

CO-CREATION with participants

Photos: Felipe Sarmiento


What is co creation

What is CO-CREATION?

Generative techniques that allow people to tell stories about their experiences using creative play with objects

Activities that involve non-designers in the design process

Diabetes journey map: Gloria Murillo


Co creation toolkit

CO-CREATION TOOLKIT

  • Image collection

    • different subjects and styles, some more literally related, some more figurative or poetic

  • Cut-outs of paper, fabric, foam in geometric shapes

  • Scissors and glue

  • Colored markers

Stickers from Wayne Chung


Co creation principles

CO-CREATION PRINCIPLES

ACTIVITIES

  • “Day in the life”

  • Timelines/cycles

  • Autobiographies

  • Spatial maps

  • Mood boards/collages

  • Sticker-placing

  • Model-making

  • Prompt discussion about dreams, fears, beliefs

  • Ask people to express thoughts and emotions

  • Support creativity with ambiguous prompts

  • Focus on describing experiences rather than identifying features

  • Don’t reward polish or demand artistic skill


Co creation exercise

CO-CREATION EXERCISE

Make a timeline of your Belo Horizonte trip thus far.

Then, discuss it with a partner.


Co creation exercise part 1

CO-CREATION EXERCISE Part 1

Take a sheet from the big pad and draw a horizontal line across it. This is your journey to BH.

Now, take a look at the objects we have given you. Take any of them that seem to represent those steps and start gluing them along the line. You don’t have to use all the shapes – just use what makes sense to you. Use the pens to add any explanations or details that will complete the picture of your journey. Feel free to use the scissors to cut new shapes if you like.

You have 10 minutes.


Co creation exercise part 2

CO-CREATION EXERCISE Part 2

  • Ask your partner to explain their journey map to you. You might ask:

    • What does each shape mean?

    • Why did you pick that shape?

    • What did you learn about your journey in making this map?

      … or anything else.

  • After 5 minutes, it will be your partner’s turn to ask questions.

    Each person will have 5 minutes to talk.


Co creation tips

CO-CREATION TIPS

  • Schedule as a group workshop or as part of interviews

  • Using the same people to evaluate prototypes later gives consistency

  • Can be taken literally, for information, or as a source of inspiration.

  • Works well with cultural probes

Spatial map of a kitchen activity

FroukjeSleesjwikVisser


Break 15 minutes

BREAK – 15 MINUTES


Games and play

GAMES and PLAY


What makes a game

WHAT MAKES A GAME?

Defined Constraints + Defined Objectives (Points optional)

Urban transportation roleplaying game by AlidehGhanpour

Homo Ludens

Johan Huizinga

Man, Play and Games

Roger Caillois

Rules of Play

Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman


Games are not gamification

GAMES are not GAMIFICATION


Using games to ask questions

USING GAMES TO ASK QUESTIONS

PATTERNS

  • What-if

  • Role-playing

  • Buying and selling

  • Matching/grouping

  • Collecting

  • Races

    … et cetera

TACTICS

  • Make a new game

  • Use an existing game

  • Modify a research activity to make it more game-like

“Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI”

Michael Muller

“Design Games”

Donna Spencer


Technique 1 freelisting

Technique 1 FREELISTING

ASK

Constraints

Under __ minutes

In teams

No points given for words shared with other teams

Outcome

The most items receives a prize

List all the words you can think of that describe…

Take as many photographs as you can of….


Technique 2 the magic if

Technique 2 THE MAGIC IF

Ask

Constraints

Reversal of the usual

Exaggeration of what exists now

Absence of something you expect

Presence of something new

What would your day be like if…

How would you respond if…

Where would your life improve if…


Technique 3 roleplay bodystorm

Technique 3 ROLEPLAY (Bodystorm)

Try

Constraints

Under __ minutes

In teams

Outcome

Empathize with potential users.

Identify appropriate sites for intervention.

Generate ideas for new interactions.

Act out an activity that relates to your topic, using everyday objects as props.

How does your body feel? Where do you encounter an obstacle? What causes the obstacle? Consider how you could change the situation to remove it.


Technique 4 reframing

Technique 4 REFRAMING

Ask

Constraints

Under __ minutes

In teams

Outcome

Present the stories to the group

People vote for the best idea

Make a superhero for the situation. What are his/her special powers? Design the costume.

Pitch a TV show about the lives of the people you’re interested in. Is it a comedy? A drama? Give it a name and describe the major characters.


Acting out part 1

ACTING OUT Part 1

Pick an activity relevant to tourism.

Choose people to act out all the roles in the situation.

  • If there are more people than roles, replay the scene with other people in the same roles.

  • If you need a prop, make one out of paper or use an available object as a substitute.

    Choose one person to act as the note-taker.


Acting out part 2

ACTING OUT Part 2

Now, act it out! Move your body as the people in the situation move, and say what you remember them saying. If you feel a problem, obstacle, or moment of joy in the role you are playing, say “FREEZE!” and tell the note-taker about it. Then keep going.

If you have time, try to solve the problems that you discovered while acting.

You have 15 minutes to play.


Exploratory analysis

EXPLORATORYANALYSIS

ASK

  • Where were/are the blind spots in your approach?

  • What would change this situation for the better?

  • What other situations are relevant to this research?

  • Where are the digital tools? Do you care?

  • What other questions do you have now?

TOOLS

  • WRITE Thick/rich description of action

  • IDENTIFY recurring problems and responses

  • MAP Cycles of activity

  • Presence/absence

  • FOLLOW linear processes, growth

  • LIST Ecologies of tools


Methods summary

METHODS SUMMARY


Final discussion

FINAL DISCUSSION

Is there anything you’d like to talk more about?

Anything that I didn’t mention?

Any thoughts you’d like to share?


Thanks

THANKS!

More questions and comments?

[email protected]

@egoodman, +egoodman

www.confectious.net

A complete list of references is at the end of this presentation. The presentation is available (for workshop members only, please) at: www.confectious.net/ixda-sa/exploratory-design-workshop.pptx


Prompts

PROMPTS


Prompts1

PROMPTS


Aeiou handout

AEIOU HANDOUT


Desk research sources

DESK RESEARCH SOURCES

  • Flickr memes: “Day in the Life”; “What’s in your bag”

  • Forums and blogs

  • Read academic papers from the ACM: portal.acm.org

  • Non-fiction books, of course

  • Textbooks and educational materials

  • Memoirs and oral histories


References asking questions

REFERENCES Asking Questions

Tricks of the TradeHoward Becker

Basics of Qualitative Research

Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin


References observation

REFERENCES Observation

Ethnography in the field of design. Christina Wasson

Participant ObservationJames P Spradley

IDEO Thoughtless Acts Flickr Pool


References co creation

REFERENCES Co-creation

Understanding anyone’s social network in 60 minutes

Paul Adams

Maketools

Elizabeth Sanders

ID-StudioLab Delft

information and many helpful publications

“Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI”

Michael Muller


References cultural probes

REFERENCES Cultural probes

“Cultural Probes”

Bill Gaver, Tony Dunne, and Elena Pacenti

“Cultural Probes and the value of uncertainty.”Bill Gaver, Andy Boucher, Sarah Pennington, and Brendan Walker

Flickr Design probes group


References games

REFERENCES Games

Man, Play and Games

Roger Caillois

Homo Ludens

Johan Huizinga

40 Social Mechanics for Social Games

RaphKoster

“Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI”

Michael Muller

Rules of Play

Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman

“Design Games”

Donna Spencer


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