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Today is Wednesday, May 29 th , 2013. Homework: - Work on Rocket Design (you MUST show me your design by Friday) - LAST HOMEWORK PACKET (Due Monday, June 3 rd ) Warm UP: - Get ready for the Apollo Program! Shhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!. Goal for Today.

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Today is wednesday may 29 th 2013

Today is Wednesday, May 29th, 2013

Homework:

- Work on Rocket Design (you MUST show me your design by Friday)

- LAST HOMEWORK PACKET (Due Monday, June 3rd)

Warm UP:

- Get ready for the Apollo Program! Shhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Goal for today

Goal for Today

  • SWBAT understand the technological advancements made and the power of the human spirit of exploration that got humankind to the Moon (and back!) safely.


The moon

The Moon…..

…..Getting there! The Apollo Program and how humans got to the Moon!

  • Remember: This all started because of the Space Race.

    • What was the Space Race?

      • U.S.A. v.s. Soviet Union (Russia’s Empire) = “My space rocket is better than your space rocket!” type of “war”/competition


Apollo 1

Apollo 1

  • Date of Test: January 27, 1967

  • Astronauts:

    Edward White, Command Pilot, RIP

    Virgil "Gus" Grissom, Commander, RIP

    Roger Chaffee, Pilot, RIP

  • Mission:

  • Full countdown sequence test with Apollo capsule on top of Saturn V rocket (the most powerful rocket ever launched to date – designed to carry a heavy payload out of terrestrial orbit)

  • Outcome:

  • Disaster!

  • Operational countdown sequence test ONLY!!!! Rocket HAD NO FUEL IN IT!

  • Spark in the capsule caused a fire, hatch was inward-opening and could not be opened because of pressure differential between inside and outside air and the cumbersome process of ratcheting open latches (outwardly-opening exploding hatches were removed during Project Mercury but were then reinstalled after the Apollo 1 disaster)

  • All astronauts died, Project Apollo manned flights put on hold for a year and a half and safety changes were made to the capsule and its components


Apollo 1 training

Apollo 1 Training


Apollo 1 after the fire

Apollo 1 after the fire….


Apollo 2 and 3

Apollo 2 and 3

  • There were no missions ever designated Apollo 2 and 3


Apollo 4

Apollo 4

  • Launched: November 9, 1967

  • Astronauts:

    Unmanned

  • Mission:

  • Full countdown sequence and launch test with Apollo capsule on top of Saturn V rocket (the most powerful rocket ever launched to date – designed to carry a heavy payload out of terrestrial orbit)

  • Test Command Module re-entry

  • Outcome:

  • Successful!

  • “All-up test” of Saturn V launch vehicle and payload (minus astronauts)

  • Complete test of Saturn V rocket and Command Module re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere (at estimated lunar return speed).

  • All three stages of the rocket fired at launch and placed the Command Module in a very distant 190km terrestrial orbit (“parking orbit” – easy to break free from with minimal fuel – this would be used for the real missions)

  • Unmanned capsule re-entered Earth’s atmosphere successfully at 11,139m/s and splashed down in the Pacific 16km off of Midway Island


Crescent earth apollo 4 picture

Crescent Earth (Apollo 4 picture)


Apollo 5

Apollo 5

  • Launched: January 22, 1968

  • Astronauts:

    Unmanned

  • Mission:

  • Test the Lunar Excursion Module’s (LEM’s) engines in space (ascent, descent, and abort)

  • Outcome:

  • Successful despite very minor engine programming problems.

  • Saturn IB (smaller than Saturn V) carried the payload into a low Earth orbit.

  • LEM disconnected from the Command Module, performed descent, ascent, and abort engine tests

  • Parts were left in space and re-entered Earth’s atmosphere several weeks later (one burned up, the other crashed into the Pacific near Guam)


Apollo 6

Apollo 6

  • Launched: April 4, 1968

  • Astronauts:

    Unmanned

  • Mission:

  • Test Trans-Lunar Injection capability of the Saturn V rocket and then direct-abort of Command Module to test re-entry again (very similar to Apollo 4 test)

  • Outcome:

  • Successful despite performance loss due to pogo oscillation (like “semi-backfire” in a rocket…sort of like letting go of a blown up balloon and it whizzes around the room because the air comes out in spurts instead of evenly).

  • Complete test of Saturn V Rocket and its Trans-Lunar Injection capability for a payload

  • All three stages of the rocket fired at launch, with some engine glitches, and placed the Command Module in less than optimal 173km x 360km elliptical orbit as opposed to the desired 190km circular “parking orbit”

  • Unmanned capsule re-entered Earth’s atmosphere successfully (though slower than desired) at 10,000m/s and splashed down in the Pacific 80km North of Hawaii


Trans lunar injection tli

Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI)

  • Essentially “flinging” a spacecraft into the Moon’s gravitational sphere of influence from a near-circular “parking orbit” (easy to break free from) around Earth (large TLI engine burn begins at red dot).


Apollo 7

Apollo 7

  • Launched: April 4, 1968

  • Astronauts:

    Walter M. Schirra, Commander

    Donn F. Eisele, Command Module Pilot

    R. Walter Cunningham, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • 11 day complete test of all mission systems and sequences in low Earth orbit

  • Outcome:

  • Complete success despite the fact that crew got head colds and became “snappy” as the result.

  • Living, eating, and mission tasks were performed in near-Earth orbit

  • LEM was NOT taken on this mission

  • Commander got a bad head cold, gave to the rest of the crew, everyone became “snappy” and irritable and none of the astronauts ever flew again as the result.

  • Splashdown on October 22, 1968 in Atlantic 370km Southwest of Bermuda


Commander schirra with his cold

Commander Schirra with his cold…


Apollo 8

Apollo 8

  • Launched: December 21, 1968

  • Astronauts:

    Frank Borman, Commander

    James (Jim) Lovell, Command Module Pilot

    William Anders, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • Command Module only Lunar orbital flight

  • Outcome:

  • Successful!

  • Complete test of all systems except for actual Moon landing

  • First humans to ever have an entire view of the planet Earth

  • Set a record speed for human travel (10,822m/s) at Trans-Lunar Injection

  • Traveled to the Moon in three days, orbited the Moon 10 times in the course of 20 hours

  • First humans to see the “Dark Side” of the Moon

  • Described the Moon’s appearance as “grayish beach sand”

  • Christmas Eve (Western Hemisphere) broadcast reading the first 10 verses of The Book of Genesis while in orbit

  • Splashdown on December 27, 1968 just South of Hawaii


First image ever of the whole earth apollo 8

First image EVER of the whole Earth (Apollo 8)


Apollo 8 mission course

Apollo 8 Mission Course


Apollo 9

Apollo 9

  • Launched: March 3, 1969

  • Astronauts:

    James A. McDivitt, Commander

    David R. Scott, Command Module Pilot

    Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • 10 day test in low Earth orbit to test extracting, docking, and piloting the LEM, as well as spacewalking

  • Outcome:

  • Successful

  • Splashdown was March 13, 1969, 290km East of The Bahamas


Apollo 10

Apollo 10

  • Launched: May 18, 1969

  • Astronauts:

    Thomas P. Stafford, Commander

    John W. Young, Command Module Pilot

    Eugene A. Cernan, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • “Dry run” at the Moon to test all systems (including LEM) in Lunar orbit without actually landing on the Moon.

  • Outcome:

  • Successful

  • World Record speed of human travel set! 11,080m/s during return from Moon

  • All systems functioned properly in Lunar orbit

  • Splashdown at May 26, 1969 in North Pacific


Apollo 11

Apollo 11

  • Launched: July 20, 1969

  • Astronauts:

    Neil Armstrong, Commander

    Michael Collins, Command Module Pilot

    Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • First mission to land on Moon!

  • Outcome:

  • Successful!

  • “One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”

  • Lunar sample collected (Moon rocks)


Apollo 111

Apollo 11


Lem just after separation

LEM just after separation


Armstrong and aldrin

Armstrong and Aldrin!


Apollo 12

Apollo 12

  • Launched: November 14, 1969

    Astronauts:

    Pete Conrad, Commander

    Richard F. Gordon, Command Module Pilot

    Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • Visited Moon probe Surveyor 3 and brought some parts back to Earth

  • Outcome:

  • Successful


Apollo 13

Apollo 13

  • Launched: April 11, 1970

  • Astronauts:

    James (Jim) Lovell, Commander

    Ken Mattingly (replaced by Jack Swiggert at last minute), Command Module Pilot

    Fred Haise, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • Intended to explore the Fra Mauro Highlands on the Moon’s surface

  • Outcome:

  • Successful failure

  • 2 days into the mission Oxygen Tank 2 exploded on a routine stir

  • Power was shut down

  • Crew gave an extra burn (to boost speed) to abort the mission on a free-return trajectory around the Moon (“slingshot back”)

  • No one died and photos of the Moon were taken while “slingshotting” back

  • Splashdown on April 17, 1970


Apollo 13 s actual return flight

Apollo 13’s actual return flight


Apollo 13 damaged command module

Apollo 13 Damaged Command Module


Mission control during an apollo 13 video broadcast fred haise is seen on the screen

Mission Control during an Apollo 13 video broadcast….Fred Haise is seen on the screen


Apollo 14

Apollo 14

  • Launched: January 31, 1971

    Astronauts:

    Alan B. Shepard, Commander

    Stuart A. Roosa, Command Module Pilot

    Edgar D. Mitchell, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • Visited the Fra Mauro Highlands (as intended for Apollo 13).

  • Outcome:

  • Successful

  • Spent 33 hours TOTAL on the surface of the Moon – 9.5 of those hours were actually outside the LEM walking around.

  • 42kg of Moon rocks brought back to Earth

  • Seismic activity measured

  • Played golf (testing/proving Newton’s Laws under the Moon’s gravitational pull)

  • Brought several hundred seeds to the Moon which then germinated upon arrival back to Earth (“Moon Trees”)

  • Splashdown February 9, 1971

  • Reception in American Samoa and last lunar astronauts to be quarantined


Apollo 14 on splashdown south pacific 1 410km south of american samoa

Apollo 14 on Splashdown – South Pacific 1,410km South of American Samoa


Apollo 15

Apollo 15

  • Launched: July 26, 1971

    Astronauts:

    David R. Scott, Commander

    Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot

    James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • Visited The Marsh of Decay (Palus Putredinus) and was the most scientifically focused Moon mission yet

  • Lunar Rover taken with them

  • Lunar Satellite deployed at end of mission to continue orbiting the Moon

  • Outcome:

  • Very Successful!

  • Spent 3 days on the Moon, including 18.5 hours actually outside on the Moon’s surface.

  • Brought a Lunar Rover with them which allowed them greater exploration distances

  • 77kg of lunar samples collected

  • Extensive geological training done on Earth before mission

  • Alfred Worden studied the Moon’s surface from the Command Module using a panoramic camera, gamma-ray spectrometer, mapping camera, laser altimeter, mass spectrometer, and deploying a satellite at the end of the mission


Apollo 15 at launch

Apollo 15 at launch


Jim irwin of apollo 15

Jim Irwin of Apollo 15


Scientific instrument module used by worden in the command capsule

Scientific Instrument Module used by Worden in the Command Capsule


Artist s conception of satellite deployment at end of mission

Artist’s conception of satellite deployment at end of mission


Apollo 16

Apollo 16

  • Launched: April 16, 1972

    Astronauts:

    John W. Young, Commander

    Ken Mattingly, Command Module Pilot

    Charles M. Duke, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • Visited the Descartes Highlands to gather what was thought to be geologically older rock samples that were thought to be volcanic.

  • Outcome:

  • Very Successful!

  • Spent just under 3 days on the Moon, including 20.25 hours actually outside on the Moon’s surface.

  • Brought a Lunar Rover with them which allowed them greater exploration distances

  • 95.8kg of lunar samples collected

  • Extensive geological training done on Earth before mission

  • Mattingly observed from above

  • Hypothesis of volcanic rock disproven


Apollo 17

Apollo 17

  • Launched: December 7, 1972

    Astronauts:

    Eugene A. Cernan, Commander

    Ronald E. Evans, Command Module Pilot

    Harrison H. Schmitt, Lunar Module Pilot

  • Mission:

  • Final mission to the Moon! Very scientifically focused.

  • Outcome:

  • Very Successful!

  • Spent just over 3 days on the Moon, including 20 hours actually outside on the Moon’s surface.

  • Brought a Lunar Rover with them which allowed them greater exploration distances

  • Tested for any traces of atmosphere, dryness of soil (proven to be EXTREMELY dry), light-flash phenomenon, and subsurface structures of the moon down to 1.3km through electrical impulses


Apollo 17 lunar rover

Apollo 17 Lunar Rover


End of apollo

End of Apollo

  • Apollo officially ended two years after Apollo 17

  • Apollo 17 was the last manned flight to the Moon


Today is wednesday may 29 th 2013

Farwell, Moon! Until next time!


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