Outcome 4
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OUTCOME 4. MEETINGS. What does the term ‘Meeting’ mean?. A gathering together of people for a purpose. Are meetings necessary in this hi-tech communications age?. Yes When people are required to work and co-operate with each other, they must meet with each other

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OUTCOME 4

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Outcome 4

OUTCOME 4

MEETINGS


What does the term meeting mean

What does the term ‘Meeting’ mean?

  • A gathering together of people for a purpose


Are meetings necessary in this hi tech communications age

Are meetings necessary in this hi-tech communications age?

  • Yes

    • When people are required to work and co-operate with each other, they must meet with each other

    • Meetings provide an opportunity for people to have face-to-face discussion

    • Meetings allow the exchange of information and views


Are meetings necessary in this hi tech communications age1

Are meetings necessary in this hi-tech communications age?

  • Yes

    • Meetings provide the opportunity for the delegation of tasks and responsibilities

    • Meetings allow for a shared approach to problem solving and DECISION MAKING

    • Meetings usually produce better ideas, plans and decisions than when individuals work on their own


What is the first rule of effective meetings

What is the first rule of EFFECTIVE meetings?

  • ONLY HOLD A MEETING IF IT IS NECESSARY

  • Sometimes a letter, memo, telephone call or simple conversation between 2 people is sufficient


When might a meeting be required

When might a meeting be required?

  • Where persuasion or encouragement is required

  • Where exchange of ideas and opinions is required

  • Where a problem needs to be solved

  • Where there is a significant amount of information to be given to a number of people


For a meeting to be effective it must be

For a meeting to be EFFECTIVE it must be:

  • Well organised

  • Well run


Who have an important role to play

Who have an important role to play?

  • The Secretary

  • The Chairperson


Meetings fall into 2 categories

Meetings fall into 2 categories:

  • Informal meetings

    • Very common in business

    • No specified procedures or rules followed

    • Often led by group leader

    • Notes of meeting not always necessary

    • Examples?

      • Staff talking over coffee

      • Weekly sales team meeting


Outcome 4

  • Formal meetings

    • Normally held for a SPECIFIC purpose at regular intervals

    • Specified procedures followed – certain rules and regulations are followed

      • Very often set out in formal document called a Constitution

    • Minutes (formal notes) taken as a record of discussion and decisions taken

    • Examples?

      • AGM

      • Board Meeting


What are the most common types of formal business meetings

What are the most common types of formal business meetings?

  • Annual General Meeting (AGM)

    • Held by plcs

    • All shareholders are invited

    • Required by law to be held

    • Regulations laid down in Companies Acts

    • Shareholders given opportunity to discuss the performance of the company over the last year, discuss future plans of company and elect office bearers for coming year


What are the most common types of formal business meetings1

What are the most common types of formal business meetings?

  • Extraordinary General Meeting (EGM)

    • Called to discuss special business of an urgent nature, egs

      • Rival company wants to buy the business

      • Company is in financial difficulty

    • Open to all shareholders to attend


What are the most common types of formal business meetings2

What are the most common types of formal business meetings?

  • Board Meeting

    • Held by Directors (who are responsible for managing the company between AGMs)

    • Board of Directors meet to discuss and decide company policy

    • Board of Directors can delegate powers/duties to Committees which are formed to carry out certain tasks and report back to Board


Types of committee

Types of Committee:

  • EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

    • eg Board of Directors

    • Can make binding decisions

  • ADVISORY COMMITTEE

    • Set up to look at certain issues and then make recommendations to the Board of Directors, eg

      • whether or not to relocate business

      • whether or not to expand into a new market


Types of committee1

Types of Committee:

  • JOINT COMMITTEE

    • Formed to co-ordinate the activities of 2 or more committees

    • Can be temporary or permanent

    • Can improve communications between committees

  • STANDING COMMITTEE

    • Permanently in existence to deal with certain assigned matters, eg Social committee


Types of committee2

Types of Committee:

  • AD HOC COMMITTEE

    • Formed for a PARTICULAR task, eg

      • To plan a special event

      • To solve a particular problem

    • Dissolved once purpose has been achieved

  • SUB-COMMITTEE

    • Formed as part of another committee to look at a particular aspect of the main committee’s work

    • Can be either Standing or Ad hoc


Legal and regulatory requirements

Legal and Regulatory Requirements

  • Formal meetings have to comply with various LEGAL requirements, eg

    • AGMs and EGMs (which are both statutory meetings) must be run according to regulations set out in the Companies Acts


To be valid legal a meeting must be

To be valid (legal) a meeting must be:

  • PROPERLY CONVENED – relevant amount of notice given to all entitled to attend

  • PROPERLY CONSTITUTED – Chairperson must be present and suitable quorum must also be present

  • Held in accordance with rules and regulations of organisation, egs

    • a company’s Articles of Association

    • a club’s Constitution

    • a local authority’s Standing Orders


What is involved in the election of the office bearers of a company

What is involved in the election of the office bearers of a company?

  • Must be in accordance with the company’s Articles of Association

  • Office bearers are usually appointed or reappointed at AGM

  • Nominations for each position are proposed and seconded

  • Vote is taken when more than one person is nominated


Roles and responsibilities of main office bearers

Roles and Responsibilities of main office bearers:

  • CHAIRPERSON

    • Responsible for keeping order at meeting

    • Responsible for generally taking charge

  • SECRETARY

    • Part of the role of Administrative Assistant

    • Provides administrative support

  • TREASURER (or Finance Director/Chief Accountant in a company)

    • Responsible for preparing financial reports

    • Responsible for presenting these at meeting


The chairperson has a very important role to play

The Chairperson has a very important role to play:

  • Takes charge of the meeting

  • Ensures meeting achieves what it set out to achieve


Responsibilities of the chairperson

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHAIRPERSON:

  • To make sure that the meeting is set up and run according to the rules of the organisation

    • Should be familiar with the organisation’s Standing Orders (including rules of running meetings) – in case of a dispute about procedure

  • To ensure, in liaison with the Secretary, that the previous Minutes are a correct record


Responsibilities of the chairperson1

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHAIRPERSON:

  • To start meeting on time

  • To sign the Minutes as a correct record once all members of the meeting/committee present have agreed – dealt with near the start of meeting

  • To work consistently through the Agenda explaining clearly the item being discussed

  • To try to ensure that everyone has the opportunity to speak and that discussion is kept to the point


Responsibilities of the chairperson2

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHAIRPERSON:

  • To ensure that all speakers address the Chair, ie talk to the meeting as a whole by raising points through the Chairperson – otherwise could not keep control if several conversations were taking place at once

  • To decide when discussion has gone on long enough, and sum up conclusions reached in an unbiased manner


Responsibilities of the chairperson3

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHAIRPERSON:

  • To put matters to the vote, where necessary, declare the results of voting and clearly summarise decisions so that they are recorded properly – so that there is no doubt about what has been agreed

  • To close or adjourn a meeting formally

  • To make decisions, normally in consultation with the Secretary, between meetings and generally act on behalf on the Committee

  • To take any appropriate follow-up action required, as agreed


Responsibilities of the chairperson4

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CHAIRPERSON:

  • To liaise with the Secretary regarding the preparation of the draft Minutes

  • To liaise with the Secretary regarding the preparation of the next Agenda


Qualities of a good chairperson

Qualities of a good Chairperson

  • Competent

  • Tactful

  • Impartial

  • Firm

  • Fair

    Natural ability? Learned skill?


The secretary also has a very important role to play

The Secretary also has a very important role to play:

  • Also responsible for the smooth running and success of the meeting


The secretary s volume of work in organising the meeting depends on

The Secretary’s volume of work in organising the meeting depends on:

  • Reason for the meeting

  • Type of meeting, eg formal/informal

  • The number of people likely to attend

  • The venue

  • Organising an AGM at a large hotel involves much more work than a short Sales Team meeting for a small group of people


Duties of the secretary before a meeting

Duties of the Secretary before a Meeting:

  • Book appropriate venue/accommodation –

    • On the premises?

    • In a hotel or conference centre?

    • Consider special needs requirements, eg wheelchair access

    • Confirm booking in writing

    • Allow extra time at start and end of meeting to allow for checking room before meeting and to allow for the meeting over-running

  • Make a note in diary

    • Date

    • Time

    • Place

    • Type of meeting


Duties of the secretary before a meeting1

Duties of the Secretary before a Meeting:

  • Open file for the meeting into which any papers/notes to do with the meeting can be placed

  • Draft a Notice of Meeting and Agenda for approval by Chairperson

  • Prepare and distribute the approved Notice of Meeting and Agenda to those members entitled to attend

    • Attach any additional papers which are to be sent out plus the Minutes of the last meeting if not previously circulated


Duties of the secretary before a meeting2

Duties of the Secretary before a Meeting:

  • Make extra copies of the Agenda, any additional papers and the Minutes of the last meeting as backup at the actual meeting

  • Any apologies for absence should be carefully noted

    • The Chairperson may request that you obtain statements/documents from members who are going to be absent, as their knowledge and opinions are important

  • Arrange for name cards if the people present are not known to each other and organise a seating plan as necessary


Duties of the secretary before a meeting3

Duties of the Secretary before a Meeting:

  • Arrange, as appropriate, refreshments, audio visual aids, car parking spaces, special needs requirements

  • Prepare Chairperson’s Agenda

  • Place a copy of the Minutes of the last meeting in the Minute Book, ready for Chairperson’s signature at the forthcoming meeting

  • Have an Attendance Register prepared for completion at the meeting – especially if a large meeting is taking place


Duties of the secretary before a meeting4

Duties of the Secretary before a Meeting:

  • Make sure there are supplies of:

    • pencils

    • paper

    • Notebooks

  • Look out documents/files required for reference at the meeting

  • If the meeting is a public one, notify the Press


Duties of the secretary on the day of the meeting before it starts

Duties of the Secretary on the day of the meeting – before it starts:

  • Notify Reception of meeting and provide them with a list of those attending

  • Put up direction signs to the meeting room

  • Place a ‘Meeting in Progress’ notice on the door

  • Check room before the meeting to ensure that it is appropriately organised with suitable

    • Heating

    • Lighting

    • Ventilation


Duties of the secretary on the day of the meeting before it starts1

Duties of the Secretary on the day of the meeting – before it starts:

  • Check that the following are in position:

    • Water jugs and glasses

    • Stationery

    • Audio visual aids

  • Check that refreshments will be served at an appropriate time

  • Confirm parking arrangements

  • Arrange for switchboard to re-route calls or take messages for the duration of the meeting


Duties of the secretary on the day of the meeting before it starts2

Duties of the Secretary on the day of the meeting – before it starts:

  • Collect all necessary files/documents which might be needed during the meeting including:

    • Attendance register

    • Spare copies of Agenda

    • Spare copies of the Minutes of the previous meeting

  • Greet people on arrival at meeting


Duties of the secretary on the day of the meeting during the meeting

Duties of the Secretary on the day of the meeting – during the meeting:

  • Read the Minutes of the previous meeting (unless previously circulated and taken as read), letters of apology and any other correspondence

  • Ensure that the Chairperson signs the previous Minutes and signs any alterations

  • Assist the Chairperson throughout the meeting with files, papers, Agenda, etc


Duties of the secretary on the day of the meeting during the meeting1

Duties of the Secretary on the day of the meeting – during the meeting:

  • Take notes summarising all the proceedings at the meeting so that the Minutes can be drafted after the meetingOR

  • Take a note of the action to be taken, by whom and for what date if only Action Minutes are required

  • Make a separate note of any action to be taken by you and/or Chairperson

  • Check that the Attendance Register has been signed by all those present


Duties of the secretary after the meeting

Duties of the Secretary After the Meeting:

  • Remove the ‘Meeting in Progress’ sign and direction signs

  • Clear the room and leave it tidy – and nothing left behind

  • If necessary, notify the catering staff that dishes and unused refreshments can be collected

  • Notify the switchboard that meeting has ended

  • DRAFT THE MINUTES of the meeting as soon after the meeting as possible when discussion is still fresh in mind

  • Check the draft Minutes with the Chairperson


Duties of the secretary after the meeting1

Duties of the Secretary After the Meeting:

  • Send out the agreed Minutes before the next meetingOR

  • Keep Minutes aside to be sent out with the Notice of Meeting and Agenda for the next meeting

  • Prepare a note of any issues to be dealt with by the Chairperson and pass to Chairperson

  • Remind any members who have agreed to take any action following on from the meeting


Duties of the secretary after the meeting2

Duties of the Secretary After the Meeting

  • Record the date and any other important information about the next meeting in both the Chairperson’s and your own diaries

  • If electronic diaries are used you may be responsible for updating the diaries of relevant members


Duties of the secretary after the meeting3

Duties of the Secretary After the Meeting:

  • Make a note in your diary as a reminder of when the next Notice of Meeting and Agenda should be sent out for the next meeting

  • Begin to draft the Agenda for the next meeting

  • Attend to any necessary correspondence and prepare thank you letters, as appropriate, for the Chairperson’s signature


Terminology used at meetings especially formal ones

Terminology used at meetings, especially formal ones:

  • ABSTAIN

    • Where a member does not vote for or against a motion

  • ADDRESS THE CHAIR

    • Anybody wishing to speak at a meeting must go through the Chairperson (Madam Chairperson/Mr Chairman)


Terminology used at meetings

Terminology used at meetings:

  • ADJOURNMENT

    • If a meeting is running out of time it may have to be adjourned to a later date

  • AMENDMENT

    • A change to a proposed motion by the addition, deletion or modification of words. Amendment is proposed, seconded and voted upon in the usual way

  • BALLOT

    • Written secret vote


Terminology used at meetings1

Terminology used at meetings:

  • CASTING VOTE

    • An additional vote, usually held by the Chairperson, to enable a decision to be made if the votes “for” and “against” a motion are equal

  • MAJORITY

    • The greater number of members either vote “for” or “against” a motion

  • MOTION

    • A proposal put forward by a member for discussion


Terminology used at meetings2

Terminology used at meetings:

  • POINT OF ORDER

    • A query raised by a member regarding procedure or relating to the standing orders/constitution

      • eg absence of a quorum

  • PROPOSER

    • The member putting forward a motion for discussion at the meeting


Terminology used at meetings3

Terminology used at meetings:

  • QUORUM

    • The minimum number of members necessary for a meeting to be held

      • This will be specified in the regulations/constitution

  • RESOLUTION

    • The name given to a motion once it has been passed


Terminology used at meetings4

Terminology used at meetings:

  • SECONDER

    • Person supporting the Proposer of a motion

  • UNANIMOUS

    • When all members of a meeting have voted in favour of a motion, ie motion is carried unanimously

  • VERBATIM

    • Word for word record of what was said


Notice of meeting and agenda

NOTICE OF MEETING AND AGENDA

  • Prepared and distributed so that relevant people know about the meeting

    • Notice of Meeting

      • Date

      • Time

      • Place

    • Agenda

      • Items to be discussed


Notice of meeting

NOTICE OF MEETING

  • What type of meeting is to be held

  • Where it is to be held

  • When it is to be held

  • Length notice depends on type of organisation and is laid out in Standing Orders


Agenda

AGENDA

  • Gives structure to the meeting

  • Outlines what is to be discussed at meeting

  • Gives those attending time to prepare

  • Contributes to an effective and successful meeting


Agenda items the usual ones

AGENDA ITEMS. The usual ones:

  • Apologies for absence

  • Minutes of the previous meeting

  • Matters arising

  • Correspondence

  • Any other competent business

  • Date and time of next meeting


Agenda items additional items in the middle

AGENDA ITEMS. Additional items in the middle:

  • Depends on the type of meeting

  • Depends on what is to be discussed

    • Chairperson must not select too many items – otherwise meeting might be rushed and decisions reached too hastily

    • Items must be clearly defined so that members know exactly what is to be discussed

    • Items must be in logical order – most important first


Notice of meeting and agenda1

NOTICE OF MEETING AND AGENDA

  • Usually issued together

  • Sometimes Notice sent first, eg if no Agenda yet ready or if there is a long time between meetings

  • Any other relevant documents relating to Agenda items should be issued at the same time

    • to give people a chance to prepare and

    • to save time

  • Agenda should clearly identify who is to talk on a particular item


Chairperson s agenda

CHAIRPERSON’S AGENDA

  • Has more information so that he/she can chair meeting effectively

  • Has extra space for notes and information

  • Normal Agenda is more spaced out and has an extra “Notes” column

  • Any relevant information would be entered in the Notes column by the Chairperson and Secretary


What problems could occur if the meeting is not properly planned

WHAT PROBLEMS COULD OCCUR IF THE MEETING IS NOT PROPERLY PLANNED?

  • If all those entitled to attend did not receive the Notice of Meeting and Agenda?

    • May be insufficient numbers

    • Quorum might not be reached

    • Meeting would need to be postponed!!


What problems could occur if the meeting is not properly planned1

WHAT PROBLEMS COULD OCCUR IF THE MEETING IS NOT PROPERLY PLANNED?

  • If the Agenda was not carefully planned?

    • The meeting might not cover topics it should be covering

    • Meeting might overrun


What problems could occur if the meeting is not properly planned2

WHAT PROBLEMS COULD OCCUR IF THE MEETING IS NOT PROPERLY PLANNED?

  • If the Chairperson was not well briefed?

    • Would affect quality of discussion

    • May lead to poor decisions being made


What problems could occur if the meeting is not properly planned3

WHAT PROBLEMS COULD OCCUR IF THE MEETING IS NOT PROPERLY PLANNED?

  • If the venue booked was unsuitable?

    • Room might be too big or too small

    • Room might not be set up appropriately

    • Room might be double booked!!


What problems could occur if the meeting is not properly planned4

WHAT PROBLEMS COULD OCCUR IF THE MEETING IS NOT PROPERLY PLANNED?

  • If essential information is not available at meeting?

    • Could lead to ill-informed decisions


What problems could occur if the meeting is not properly planned5

WHAT PROBLEMS COULD OCCUR IF THE MEETING IS NOT PROPERLY PLANNED?

  • If some people did not receive the Notice of Meeting, Agenda and/or additional papers prior to the meeting?

    • Discussion and decisions may have to be postponed to a later meeting


What problems could occur if the meeting is not properly planned6

WHAT PROBLEMS COULD OCCUR IF THE MEETING IS NOT PROPERLY PLANNED?

  • PEOPLE ATTENDING THE MEETING COULD FEEL THAT THEIR TIME HAS BEEN WASTED – TIME IS MONEY IN BUSINESS


Methods of recording key issues and decisions at meetings

METHODS OF RECORDING KEY ISSUES AND DECISIONS AT MEETINGS:

  • Informal meetings

    • Summary of what has been discussed and agreed

  • Formal meetings

    • Minutes


Minutes

MINUTES

  • Written record of what was discussed and decided at meeting

  • They should be:

    • Brief

    • Accurate

    • Clear

  • Secretary is responsible for taking notes during meeting from which Minutes are then prepared


Practical hints suggestions of taking notes at meetings

PRACTICAL HINTS/SUGGESTIONS OF TAKING NOTES AT MEETINGS

  • The Secretary should:

    • Have an outline of main points pre-prepared with space left to record discussions/decisions

    • Have a note of pre-prepared information he/she wishes to state

    • Have a note of those due to attend (and tick off those present)

    • Have a note of names of absentees/apologies


Practical hints suggestions of taking notes at meetings1

PRACTICAL HINTS/SUGGESTIONS OF TAKING NOTES AT MEETINGS

  • The Secretary should:

    • Write notes in double-line spacing so that he/she can go back and insert words/phrases as required

    • Write legibly

    • Try to avoid taking down every word said, but

    • record fullyany important decisions

    • Try to pick up key words/phrases to act as reminders when preparing Minutes


Practical hints suggestions of taking notes at meetings2

PRACTICAL HINTS/SUGGESTIONS OF TAKING NOTES AT MEETINGS

  • The Secretary should:

    • Try to be familiar with each person’s name and use their initials in the left margin against something they say

    • Note correctly the date and time of the next meeting


Minutes should include

MINUTES SHOULD INCLUDE:

  • The name of the organisation

  • The type of meeting

  • The place of the meeting

  • The date of the meeting

  • The time of the meeting


Minutes should include1

MINUTES SHOULD INCLUDE:

  • The names of those present

    • The name of the Chairperson first

    • The name of the Secretary last

    • The other members arranged in alphabetical order


Minutes should include2

MINUTES SHOULD INCLUDE:

  • Each Agenda item with:

    • a brief note of what was discussed/decided

    • RESOLUTIONS must contain the exact wording given at the meeting

  • The date and time of the next meeting

  • Space for the Chairperson to sign and date the Minutes once they are agreed as a correct record at the next meeting


Action minutes

ACTION MINUTES

  • An alternative way of recording the key decisions at a meeting

    • Prepared layout is completed with details:

      • Action required

      • Who is is carry out each task

      • Target date by which each task is to be completed


The benefits of recording minutes and action minutes

THE BENEFITS OF RECORDING MINUTES AND ACTION MINUTES:

  • Proof is provided of what was discussed

  • Decisions made are recorded

  • Any action required to be taken by members is highlighted – a useful reminder

  • Inform absentees, or interested non-members, about what took place at the meeting


Minutes1

MINUTES

  • At the beginning of the next meeting:

    • The Chairperson seeks agreement that the Minutes are a correct record, and then

    • Chairperson signs and dates the Minutes

  • This prevents anyone at a later date arguing about what was agreed

  • This also satisfies any legal requirements


Methods of recording attendance

METHODS OF RECORDING ATTENDANCE:

  • The Notice and Agenda is a form of invitation to a meeting

    • Apologies for absence should be sent to Secretary

    • This gives Secretary a good idea as to who will be attending

    • At the meeting, the Secretary should have an Attendance Register or a sheet for completion by those present


The impact of technology

THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY

  • There are a number of advantages which the development of Information and Communication Technology has had for those arranging and taking part in meetings.

These include:


E mail

E-MAIL

  • A very quick, easy way of communicating with participants, and for sending documentation etc.

  • Meetings can be set up quickly and group addresses (distribution lists) can be created for regular meetings.


Electronic diaries and calendars

ELECTRONIC DIARIES AND CALENDARS

  • Used for setting up meetings and making automatic entries into the participants’ diaries

  • The organiser of the meeting can view participants’ diaries and choose a common ‘free’ date and time, send invitations to attend by email and, upon receipt, the details are entered into everyone’s diaries.

A timesaving, efficient tool for arranging meetings!


Videoconferencing vc

VIDEOCONFERENCING (VC)

  • A very useful tool for meetings when participants are spread across various locations and travel time is an issue (especially for short meetings)

  • Equipment can be static –for large-scale meetings – or mobile, desktop equipment – for smaller meetings.


Videoconferencing vc1

VIDEOCONFERENCING (VC)

  • Using a VC system eliminates the need for people to actually be there, whilst still allowing full participation, as users can see each other and simultaneously work on the same document

  • Slight time lapse and effect of bad weather on video links can affect the quality of reception


Audioconferencing

AUDIOCONFERENCING

  • Is the ability for a number of parties to speak to one another

  • Especially useful if the nature or length of the discussion does not require a face-to-face meeting

  • Loud speakers are often used for larger meetings to enable everyone to be heard and take an active part


Videophones

VIDEOPHONES

  • Allow a number of people to communicate with each other without meeting in one place

  • Useful for those who cannot access video-conferencing technology


Networks

NETWORKS

  • A Network is a connection of computers in order to share information and communicate online

    • LANs, WANs and the Internet are examples

  • It is through the use of Networks that video-conferencing and email can be set up and used for meetings


The internet

THE INTERNET

  • The Internet can be used to set up secure user groups

    • Areas on the web that can be set up and used for communication between members of a group.

  • The members may not ever meet face-to-face, but they can set up discussions, send each other documents, leave comments or messages

  • The information and communication between the group is kept secure by the use of passwords


Collaborative whiteboarding

COLLABORATIVE WHITEBOARDING

  • This technology allows for people at different locations to view and operate the same computer programme simultaneously over a computer network.

  • One computer acts as host for a particular application, which everyone else can then see on their screens


Collaborative whiteboarding1

COLLABORATIVE WHITEBOARDING

  • The whiteboarding software allows people to highlight text, draw symbols etc without changing the original data.

  • Particularly useful for discussion, brainstorming and troubleshooting

  • Often used to complement video- or audioconferencing

Our Net Support School is an example of Collaborative Whiteboarding


Online application sharing

ONLINE APPLICATION SHARING

  • Often known as groupware

  • Allows participants to access diaries, calendars etc

  • Also allows for shared document management

    • Uses a secure network

    • Participants can view a common document, revise and edit the document and ensure changes are tracked

    • In this way, people can liaise or collaborate on documentation without having to meet


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