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Renaissance & First Global Age. Review 3. Practice Questions come from 2010-2014. Renaissance Europe. Began in Italy due to coast for trade, Byzantine monks fled from Constantinople bringing Greek/Roman ideas Humanism – new way of thinking that emphasized

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Renaissance first global age

Renaissance & First Global Age

Review 3

Practice Questions come from 2010-2014


Renaissance europe
Renaissance Europe

  • Began in Italy due to coast for trade, Byzantine monks fled from Constantinople bringing Greek/Roman ideas

  • Humanism– new way of thinking that emphasized

    reasoning and logic; new secular interests

    • Protestant Reformation

    • Scientific Revolution

    • Commercial Revolution

    • Age of Exploration

    • Enlightenment

  • Art that moves away from purely religious themes – Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa, inventor and artist), Michelangelo (Sistine Chapel), Botticelli (Birth of Venus) – depicting nudes, human anatomy, portraiture – use oil and linear perspective (Brunelleschi)

  • Vernacular literature replaces solely in Latin (Shakespeare)


Jan 2010
Jan 2010

Humanism during the Italian Renaissance was

focused on

(1) the affairs of the church

(2) self-sufficiency

(3) the importance of the individual

(4) political theories


June 2010
June 2010

• Focus on individual achievement

• Use of classical Greek and Roman ideas

• Artistic works of Leonardo da Vinci

Which time period is most closely associated with

these characteristics?

(1) Hellenistic Golden Age

(2) Early Middle Ages

(3) European Renaissance

(4) Scientific Revolution


Aug 2010
Aug 2010

Which geographic factor contributed to the rise

of the Renaissance in Italian city-states?

(1) mountainous terrain of the Alps

(2) location near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea

(3) navigable waters of the Danube River

(4) ease of travel on the Northern European Plain


June 2011
June 2011

What was one ideal of Renaissance humanism?

(1) training as a knight and practicing chivalry

(2) obeying divine right monarchs and the church

(3) living apart from the world and taking monastic vows

(4) investigating areas of interest and fulfilling one’s potential


Aug 2011
Aug 2011

One reason the Renaissance began in Italy was that Italian city-states

(1) defeated the Spanish Armada

(2) were unified as a nation under the Pope

(3) were unaffected by the Commercial Revolution

(4) dominated key Mediterranean trade routes


Aug 2012
Aug 2012

During the Renaissance, humanist philosophers

emphasized the importance of

(1) individualism

(2) absolutism

(3) religious salvation

(4) technological advancements


Jan 2013
Jan 2013

• The world view shifted from other-worldly to secular.

• Greek and Roman ideas were revived.

• Improvements were made to the printing press.

Which occurrence is most closely associated with these aspects of the Renaissance?

(1) Gothic cathedrals became the focal point of town activities.

(2) Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope.

(3) Galileo Galilei published information about a heliocentric universe.

(4) Emperors used the Twelve Tables to bring about PaxRomana.


Aug 2013
Aug 2013

A reason the Renaissance began in the Italian city-states was that they

(1) rejected the power of the papacy

(2) were unified by Garibaldi

(3) had wealth gained from trade with Constantinople

(4) prevented guilds from functioning


Jan 20131
Jan 2013

The economic wealth of Calicut, Mogadishu, and

Venice in the 13th century was primarily

dependent on their

(1) fertile soil (3) gold mines

(2) iron ore (4) coastal locations


Jan 2014
Jan 2014

Which philosophy that was developed during the Renaissance is associated with a shift in focus away from religious subjects toward more secular subjects?

(1) humanism (3) communism

(2) absolutism (4) scholasticism


Protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation

  • Martin Luther wrote 95 Thesis to protest corruption of Catholic Church – especially indulgences.

  • Gutenberg’s printing press helps spread it.

  • John Calvin – predestination

  • Henry VIII – Act of Supremacy

  • Reformation will cause a permanent split (schism) in Christianity

Counter-Reformation will try to bring people back to Catholic Church: end indulgences at Council of Trent, Inquisitions for heresy (Isabella/Ferdinand), creates Jesuits, Index of banned books


Jan 20101
Jan 2010

Which individual’s work had the greatest impact

on the spread of Martin Luther’s ideas?

(1) Galileo Galilei

(2) Niccolò Machiavelli

(3) William Shakespeare

(4) Johannes Gutenberg


June 20101
June 2010

Which change to Christian church practice was

suggested by Martin Luther?

(1) increasing the sale of indulgences

(2) installing statues of saints in churches

(3) saying the mass in Latin so the faithful would learn it

(4) printing the Bible in the vernacular so all could read it


Aug 20101
Aug 2010

Which action led most directly to divisions in Christianity in western Europe?

(1) Pope Urban II calling for the Crusades

(2) King John signing the Magna Carta

(3) German cities establishing the Hanseatic League

(4) Martin Luther posting the Ninety-five Theses


Jan 2012
Jan 2012

One impact Gutenberg’s printing press had on

western Europe was

(1) the spread of Martin Luther’s ideas

(2) a decrease in the number of universities

(3) a decline in literacy

(4) the unification of the Holy Roman Empire


June 2012
June 2012

Speaker A: The chief problem with the Roman Catholic Church is the practice of selling indulgences. The only way for Christians to receive salvation is through faith alone.

Speaker B: If Christians want to be saved, they should perform good deeds and ask for forgiveness of sins. The granting of indulgences allows Christians to be excused for their sins.

Speaker C: It is true that the Bible, and not members of the clergy, is the ultimate source of religious truth. However, God has already decided who will be saved and who will not.

Speaker D: Since the Pope does not agree with my position, I have decided to separate from the Roman Catholic Church. I am now not only the head of England but also of the Anglican Church.

15 Which speaker most closely reflects the ideas of Martin Luther?

16 Which speaker best supports the idea of predestination taught by John Calvin?


Aug 20121
Aug 2012

Which statement about the Protestant Reformation is an opinion rather than a fact?

(1) German princes revolted against the Holy Roman Emperor.

(2) Membership in the Catholic Church declined in northern Europe.

(3) European religious unity was disrupted by the newly established religions.

(4) Henry VIII led a stronger religious reform movement than Martin Luther did.


June 2013
June 2013

One way in which Martin Luther’s Ninety-five

Theses and Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy are

similar is that both

(1) emphasize the importance of the Bible

(2) caused the Thirty Years War

(3) challenge the authority of the Catholic Church

(4) helped to unify Christendom


Jan 20102
Jan 2010

One way in which the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and the Versailles Conference (1918–1919) are similar is that they both attempted to

(1) restore stability after a period of conflict or disorder

(2) address economic concerns by lowering tariffs

(3) defend human rights by establishing written codes of law

(4) encourage cultural development through the creation of universities


Jan 20141
Jan 2014

One result of the Protestant Reformation was

(1) fewer challenges to Church authority

(2) a decline in religious unity in western Europe

(3) the disbanding of the Jesuit order

(4) a weakening of the Inquisition


Aug 20131
Aug 2013

Which situation was a direct challenge to the

political and religious authority of the Catholic

Church?

(1) passage of the Act of Supremacy under Henry VIII

(2) death sentence given to Joan of Arc

(3) Reconquista of Spain conducted by Ferdinand and Isabella

(4) establishment of the Jesuit order under Ignatius Loyola


Thematic jan 2012
Thematic – Jan 2012

Theme: Change—Individuals

Throughout history, various circumstances have led individuals to develop or

modify ideas. These ideas have often affected societies

Task:

Select two individuals from your study of global history and for each

• Describe the historical circumstances that led this individual to develop or modify an idea

• Explain an action taken by this individual as a result of this idea

• Discuss how this individual’s idea affected a society

You may use any individual from your study of global history and geography.

Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Pericles, Martin Luther,

Queen Elizabeth I,


Scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution

  • Change from science based on faith and Bible to experimentation

  • Francis Bacon – scientific method

  • Copernicus – heliocentricmodel of universe

  • Galileo – proved Copernicus right with telescope, will be charged with heresy

  • Isaac Newton – calculus and laws of motion


Aug 20102
Aug 2010

Which pair of ideas were central to the Scientific

Revolution?

(1) social stability and economic self-sufficiency

(2) observation and experimentation

(3) technology and military expansion

(4) scarcity and interdependence



Jan 20103
Jan 2010

Which statement about the Scientific Revolution in Europe is accurate?

(1) The existence of natural laws was rejected.

(2) Scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the universe.

(3) New ideas supported the geocentric theory of Ptolemy.

(4) The Bible was used to justify new scientific findings.


June 20121
June 2012

Galileo Galilei and Sir Issac Newton are most

closely associated with

(1) initiating religious reforms

(2) leading political revolutions

(3) conducting investigative experiments

(4) engaging in foreign conquests



Aug 20132
Aug 2013

One way in which the contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton are similar is that each

(1) challenged the heliocentric theory of the universe

(2) based his work on Enlightenment principles of social contract

(3) practiced observation and experimentation in his work

(4) supported the work of the Inquisition


Dbq jan 2011
DBQ – Jan 2011

Throughout history, ideas have shaped and influenced various societies and regions.

These ideas include heliocentrism, natural rights, and Marxism.

Task:

Choose two ideas mentioned in the historical context and for each

• Explain the idea

• Discuss how this idea influenced societies or regions


Capitalism commercial revolution
Capitalism – Commercial Revolution

  • Hanseatic League, guilds, and rise of towns replace manorialism

  • Medici – Florentine banking and political family

  • Commercial Revolution – rise of capitalism (laissez-faire), joint-stock companies, and bourgeoisie


June 20102
June 2010

Between 1300 and 1600, which economic system began to develop as a result of the transformation in global trade?

(1) socialism (3) communism

(2) capitalism (4) manorialism


June 20111
June 2011

During the European Middle Ages, guilds were

created to

(1) obtain better working conditions in factories

(2) standardize goods and prices

(3) regulate the money supply

(4) increase competition


Aug 20111
Aug 2011

Which statement represents a central idea of

laissez-faire economics

(1) Class struggles are based on inequities.

(2) Workers should form unions to better their conditions.

(3) Prices are best determined by supply and demand.

(4) The government should own all means of production.


Jan 20122
Jan 2012

How did the Commercial Revolution change economic practices in Europe?

(1) The manorial system was established.

(2) A capitalist economy was developed.

(3) The Church became a major economic power.

(4) Colonies were granted independence.


June 20122
June 2012

What was one result of the Commercial

Revolution in Europe?

(1) decrease in the size of the middle class

(2) expansion of the manor system

(3) development of financial institutions

(4) wider use of the barter system


June 20131
June 2013

What was one result of the European Commercial Revolution?

(1) a decline in the spice trade

(2) the destruction of the papacy

(3) the development of capitalism

(4) an increased reliance on bartering


Jan 20142
Jan 2014

The development of banking during the Commercial Revolution in western Europe was significant because it

(1) provided capital resources to merchants for investment

(2) allowed peasant farmers to finance the construction of new homes

(3) enabled the proletariat to challenge the bourgeoisie

(4) created pensions for retired workers


Age of exploration imperialism
Age of Exploration - Imperialism

  • Mercantilism – colonies established for providing motherland with colonies for raw materials and markets for manufactured goods – desired favorable balance of trade.

  • Motives – “God, Glory & Gold”

  • Inspired because of the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by Ottomans (Mehmet II) and desire for new route to India and Spice Islands

  • New Technology – astrolabe, compass, caravel, cartography


June 20103
June 2010

The combined usage of the caravel, compass, and astrolabe in the late 1400s helped bring about the

(1) migration of the Bantu

(2) exploration of the Americas

(3) introduction of Buddhism to East Asia

(4) voyages of Zheng He


Aug 20103
Aug 2010

Advances in navigation technology and the desire

of Europeans to obtain goods from Asia are most

closely associated with the

(1) rise of feudalism

(2) Agricultural Revolution

(3) Age of Exploration

(4) Age of Reason


Aug 20104
Aug 2010

A key objective of a mercantilist policy was to

(1) establish colonies for trade benefits

(2) promote warfare throughout Europe

(3) develop assembly lines in factories

(4) support the spread of communist ideas



June 20112
June 2011

During the first Global Age (A.D. 1450–1770),

European countries obtained both a source of

raw materials and a reliable market for their

finished goods by developing

(1) the policy of mercantilism

(2) laissez-faire principles

(3) trade cooperatives

(4) forts along the Silk Roads


June 20123
June 2012

In the late 1400s and early 1500s, what was a

major reason for the European voyages of

exploration?

(1) introduction of Enlightenment ideas

(2) desire to control Constantinople

(3) rapid industrialization

(4) need for alternate trade routes


Aug 20123
Aug 2012

Europeans considered mercantilism a successful policy because it

(1) encouraged self-sufficiency in less developed nations

(2) led to alliances with Asian countries

(3) protected traditional social practices

(4) created wealth for the colonial powers


Jan 20132
Jan 2013

Which idea is most closely associated with the

economic concept of mercantilism?

(1) Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for a colonial power.

(2) Wealth and power are based on land exchanged between nobles.

(3) Goods and services are traded without government interference.

(4) Property is owned collectively and administered by the state.


Jan 20133
Jan 2013

Which situation was an immediate cause for the

collapse of the Aztec civilization?

(1) disruption of overseas trade networks

(2) conquest by foreigners

(3) a series of crop failures

(4) a lack of military training


Jan 20143
Jan 2014

Which technological development enabled

European navigators to determine their location

during the Age of Exploration?

(1) lateen sail (3) cross bow

(2) Astrolabe (4) caravel


Aug 20133
Aug 2013

One reason Spain sponsored the first voyage of

Columbus to the west was to

(1) find a more direct trade route to Asia

(2) obtain military technology

(3) make contact with the Empire of Benin

(4) trade in established ports in the Americas


Jan 20144
Jan 2014

The Encounter occurred as a result of European

explorers crossing the

(1) Atlantic Ocean

(2) Sahara Desert

(3) Andes Mountains

(4) Mediterranean Sea


Dbq june 2013
DBQ - June 2013

Technological advancements such as the combined use of the bow and the

stirrup by the Mongols, the use of the caravel by the Spanish, and the use of

the railroad in India have affected how certain civilizations and societies have

interacted with each other. Changes have resulted from these interactions.

Task:

Select two technological advancements mentioned in the historical context and for each

• Explain how this technological advancement affected the interactions of a

specific civilization or society with another group

• Discuss changes that resulted from these interactions


  • Treaty of Tordesillawill establish a line of demarcation between Spanish & Portuguese claims of New World


Major explorers
Major Explorers

  • Columbus (1492) from Spain to Caribbean, hired by Isabel and Ferdinand (had done Reconquistaof Spain – kicked out Muslims, Jews and Protestants)

  • Da Gama – Portuguese – south of Africa to India

  • Magellan – circumnavigated globe

  • Zheng-He – Ming dynasty from China to Africa

  • Cortes (Aztecs) and Pizarro (Inca) - conquistadors


Results of exploration
Results of Exploration

  • Columbian Exchange – food stuff and diseases exchanged between New World and Europe/Africa/Asia

  • Triangular Trade – manufactured goods (guns) from Europe to Africa, African slaves to Caribbean for sugar plantations (Middle Passage) then molasses to Europe

  • Encomienda – plantations using forced Native American labor

  • African Diaspora – African slaves transported to Brazil and Caribbean

  • Native American population declined due to disease and overwork – native culture lost



  • The Spanish will establish themselves as head of the colonial government. (viceroys)

  • Native Americans although a majority of population had no say in government.

  • Long-lasting class resentment based on race/ethnicity

  • Eventually will lead to revolutions to overthrow Spanish


Jan 2011
Jan 2011 colonial government

Which title best completes the partial outline

below?

I. ________________________________

A. Sugar, tobacco, and cotton to Europe

B. Textiles, rum, and manufactured goods to Africa

C. Enslaved Africans to the Americas

(1) Trade Within the Hanseatic League

(2) Elements of Triangular Trade

(3) Factors of Industrialization

(4) Results of the Congress of Vienna


Jan 20111
Jan 2011 colonial government

• Vasco da Gama discovered an all-water route from Europe to India.

• Ferdinand Magellan’s crew circumnavigated the globe.

• Isaac Newton defined the forces of gravity.

These events relate most directly to

(1) revised understandings of natural surroundings

(2) questioning the benefits of the mercantile system

(3) increased suspicion between different religions

(4) development of new manufacturing techniques


Aug 20112
Aug 2011 colonial government


Aug 20113
Aug 2011 colonial government

The inhumane policies of the Reconquista,

pogroms, and the Holocaust were all results of

(1) civil disobedience and passive resistance

(2) acculturation and assimilation

(3) war guilt and reparations

(4) intolerance and prejudice


June 20132
June 2013 colonial government

The Columbian exchange is most closely

associated with the beginnings of

(1) mercantilism (3) mass production

(2) humanism (4) scientific socialism


Jan 20123
Jan 2012 colonial government

One way in which the Atlantic slave trade and the Jewish diaspora are similar is that both

(1) forced people to migrate

(2) encouraged the growth of secularism

(3) created conditions leading to the Encounter

(4) resulted from the fall of Constantinople


Jan 20134
Jan 2013 colonial government

In the 1500s, European attempts to establish colonies in Africa were hindered by

(1) the abolition of the slave trade

(2) the cooperative efforts of Christian and Islamic missionaries

(3) a variety of geographic obstacles in Africa

(4) a widespread unified resistance by African tribal leaders


Jan 20112
Jan 2011 colonial government

Which statement accurately reflects population

changes that occurred as a result of the Age of

Exploration?

(1) Most Latin American populations became more culturally diverse.

(2) One third of Europe’s population died due to exposure to diseases from the Americas.

(3) The introduction of goods from the Americas caused a decline in Asian populations.

(4) Native Americans migrated to Africa causing increases in African populations.


June 20113
June 2011 colonial government


Jan 20113
Jan 2011 colonial government

One effect of the encomienda system in Latin

America was that it

(1) eliminated the use of guilds

(2) promoted isolationism

(3) exploited indigenous peoples

(4) reduced Spanish influence


Aug 20105
Aug 2010 colonial government

The use of the terms Encounter and Columbian

exchange represents attempts to describe the

(1) nature of cultural interactions

(2) establishment of land grants

(3) results of scientific innovations

(4) origins of divine right theory

The Middle Passage is best defined as

(1) a route through the Swiss Alps

(2) a narrow body of water connecting two larger

bodies of water

(3) the forced journey of enslaved Africans to the

Americas

(4) the expulsion of Muslims from Spain


June 20104
June 2010 colonial government


Aug 20124
Aug 2012 colonial government


Jan 20145
Jan 2014 colonial government

In colonial Spanish America, which system was

developed by the Spanish to support plantation

agriculture?

(1) barter (3) domestic

(2) encomienda (4) guild


Aug 20134
Aug 2013 colonial government

Which country is responsible for the extensive

colonial use of the encomienda labor system?

(1) England (3) the Netherlands

(2) France (4) Spain


Jan 20104
Jan 2010 colonial government

The social class system in Latin America during

the 16th and 17th centuries reflects the

(1) dominance of Spanish-born nobility

(2) emerging equality between classes

(3) influence of mestizo economic power

(4) increasing social mobility of Native American

Indians


Jan 20105
Jan 2010 colonial government

“. . . (It) brought the potato, the pineapple, the turkey, dahlias, sunflowers, magnolias, maize, chilliesand chocolate across the Atlantic. On the other hand, tens of millions died in the pandemics of the 16th century, victims of smallpox, measles and the other diseases brought by Europeans (and don’t forget that the African slave trade was begun by the Europeans, to replace the work force they had decimated).”. . . — Michael Wood, BBC History (adapted)

Which historical development is being described in this quotation?

(1) establishment of the line of Demarcation

(2) creation of the Hanseatic League

(3) Columbian exchange

(4) Glorious Revolution


Jan 20124
Jan 2012 colonial government

What was a result of the efforts of Prince Henry of Portugal, Christopher Columbus, and Ferdinand Magellan?

(1) The importance of Mediterranean trade routes was established.

(2) The modern concept of universal human rights was promoted.

(3) The European view of the physical world was transformed.

(4) An understanding of the benefits of cultural diversity was encouraged.

The Spanish encomienda system in the Americas resulted in

(1) the strengthening of indigenous cultures

(2) political independence for the colonies

(3) the exploitation of natives

(4) religious freedom for the majority of peasants

Which region’s colonial class structure included peninsulares, creoles, and mestizos?

(1) western Europe (3) East Asia

(2) sub-Saharan Africa (4) Latin America


Aug 20125
Aug 2012 colonial government

The encomienda system, the latifundia form of

land ownership, and the office of viceroy are all

closely associated with

(1) Spanish rule in Latin America

(2) pre-Columbian practices of Native Americans

(3) attempts to halt the drug trade in South America

(4) reduction of trade barriers in the Western Hemisphere


Dbq jan 2013
DBQ – Jan 2013 colonial government

Historical Context:

Throughout history, the need and desire for certain products has led to long-lasting effects on people, societies, and regions. Some of these products include salt, sugar, and cotton.

Task:

Choose two products mentioned in the historical context and for each

• Explain why people needed or desired this product

• Discuss how this product influenced a people, a society, and/or a region


Absolutism
Absolutism colonial government

  • Rule by divine right

  • Machiavelli – The Prince

    • said rulers should rule by fear not love

  • Louis XIV – France, “Sun King” – built Palace of Versailles, “l’etatc’estmoi” – revoked Edict of Nantes, never allowed Estates General

  • Ferdinand/Isabella of Spain – Reconquista – kicked out Jews and Moors (Muslims) out of Spain, patronized Columbus’ exploration, later Phillip II – responsible for Armada

  • Peter the Great – Russia – forced nobles to shave beards, westernize and modernize, built St. Petersburg to get “warm water port” on Baltic Sea – used serf labor, Catherine the Great “enlightened despot”


June 20105
June 2010 colonial government

What was a key characteristic of an absolute

monarchy in the 16th and 17th centuries?

(1) centralized governmental authority

(2) increased political rights for peasants and serfs

(3) freedom of religion

(4) a system of checks and balances


Aug 20106
Aug 2010 colonial government

A main goal of the monarchs of Europe during

the Age of Absolutism was to

(1) establish legislative bodies

(2) centralize political power

(3) improve the quality of life for the peasant class

(4) expand the role of the Catholic Church


Aug 20114
Aug 2011 colonial government

In The Prince, Machiavelli advises rulers to

(1) seek the approval of the people

(2) establish and maintain power

(3) promote openness in government

(4) learn and follow the commandments of the church


Jan 20135
Jan 2013 colonial government

One way in which the reigns of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great are similar is that both Leaders

(1) promoted the emancipation of serfs

(2) strengthened the role of the Duma and centralized royal power

(3) shared their power with the Russian Orthodox Church

(4) pursued a policy of westernization and expansion


Aug 20135
Aug 2013 colonial government

• Supported reforms

• Believed in natural rights and religious toleration

• Viewed themselves as servants of their state

In the 18th century, European leaders that fit

these characteristics were best known as

(1) theocratic monarchs

(2) enlightened despots

(3) totalitarian dictators

(4) prime ministers


Jan 20136
Jan 2013 colonial government

In The Prince, Niccolò Machiavelli was most

concerned with

(1) the use of political power

(2) the expansion of church authority

(3) government regulation of the economy

(4) equality and justice for all


June 20133
June 2013 colonial government

Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince as a guide

to success in

(1) family life

(2) politics

(3) economic undertakings

(4) scholarship


Jan 20106
Jan 2010 colonial government

A DEO REX, A REGE LEX —“the king is from

God, and law is from the king.”

— James I

This quotation best reflects the concept of

(1) constitutional monarchy

(2) separation of powers

(3) equal representation

(4) divine right rule


Jan 20146
Jan 2014 colonial government

What happened in Russia as a result of actions

taken by Peter the Great?

(1) Russia was weakened by French invasions.

(2) Catholicism was adopted as the state religion.

(3) The Duma was reformed and the serfs were freed.

(4) Russia borrowed Western ideas and expanded

its territories.


Jan 20147
Jan 2014 colonial government

One way in which the caste system in traditional

India and the Estates system of pre-revolutionary

France are similar is that

(1) occupations were attained by merit

(2) social mobility was very limited

(3) status was determined by education

(4) impact on the daily lives of people was minimal


Aug 20136
Aug 2013 colonial government

One reason the Russian Empire was difficult to

unite was that it

(1) had many diverse ethnic groups

(2) possessed limited natural resources

(3) served as a crossroads for trade

(4) lacked a navy


Jan 20148
Jan 2014 colonial government

Base your answer to question 45 on the statement

below and on your knowledge of social studies.

… I conclude, then, returning to being feared and

loved, that since men love at their convenience

and fear at the convenience of the prince, a wise

prince should found himself on what is his, not on

what is someone else’s; he should only contrive to

avoid hatred, as was said

.

This statement is taken from the written work of

(1) John Locke (3) Adam Smith

(2) Niccolò Machiavelli (4) Ignatius Loyola


Dbq june 2012
DBQ – June 2012 colonial government

Historical Context:

Throughout history, autocratic leaders have exercised authority over their countries and the lives of their people. The actions of autocratic leaders have both helped and hurt their countries and their peoples. Examples of such leaders include Emperor Shi Huangdi, Czar Peter the Great, and King Louis XIV.

Task:

Select two leaders mentioned in the historical context and for each

• Describe actions taken by the leader that show this individual was an autocrat

• Discuss the extent to which this leader’s use of autocratic power helped and/or hurt his country or his people


Limited monarchy in england
Limited Monarchy in England colonial government

  • Magna Carta – 1215

  • Parliament – 1295 (House of Lords and House of Commoners), controlled taxation

  • English Bill of Rights – 1688 – created after the Glorious Revolution by William and Mary


June 20106
June 2010 colonial government

The signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 and the

Glorious Revolution in 1688 were key events in

English history because they resulted in

(1) creating alliances with France

(2) defeating Protestant nobles

(3) limiting the power of the monarchy

(4) annexing territory


Aug 20107
Aug 2010 colonial government

The Puritan Revolution and the Glorious

Revolution are both closely associated with the

(1) expansion of Papal authority in Rome

(2) beginning of the Reconquista in Spain

(3) calling of the Congress of Vienna

(4) rise of parliamentary democracy in England


Jan 20114
Jan 2011 colonial government

The Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the

English Bill of Rights led the English government

to develop a political system in which

(1) rulers were responsible to the people

(2) religious authorities controlled the lawmaking process

(3) the power of the monarch came from God

(4) the individual was denied a trial by jury


Aug 20115
Aug 2011 colonial government

What was a major effect of the Magna Cartaand the English Bill of Rights on Great Britain?

(1) The power of the monarch was limited.

(2) Ireland revolted against the monarchy.

(3) Parliament was abolished.

(4) A renewed interest in Greek and Roman

culture developed.


Jan 20125
Jan 2012 colonial government

Oliver Cromwell led the Puritan Revolution in

England in response to the

(1) passage of the Bill of Rights

(2) autocratic rule of the king

(3) implementation of mercantilism

(4) defeat of the Spanish Armada


June 20124
June 2012 colonial government

In England, the key principles of the Magna

Carta were fundamental to the development and growth of

(1) democracy (3) absolutism

(2) theocracy (4) communism


Aug 20126
Aug 2012 colonial government

One similarity between the Magna Carta and the English Bill of Rights is that both documents

(1) set up a two-party political system

(2) placed limits on the power of the monarch

(3) established the right to inherit the throne

(4) guaranteed equal rights for all citizens


Jan 20137
Jan 2013 colonial government

Which institution became stronger and limited

the monarchy in order to end absolutism in

England?

(1) banks (3) universities

(2) Parliament (4) Anglican Church


Aug 20137
Aug 2013 colonial government

The primary purpose of the Magna Carta (1215)

was to

(1) limit the power of King John

(2) install Oliver Cromwell as dictator

(3) justify the Glorious Revolution

(4) charter the British East India Company


Jan 20149
Jan 2014 colonial government


Enlightenment
Enlightenment colonial government

  • Philosophical movement that says rulers rule not by divine right but by consent of the people. – used reason and logic

  • Locke – Two Treaties on Government – believed in natural rights and democracy

  • Montesquieu – 3 branches of government

  • Rousseau and Hobbes – Social Contract

  • Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations – laissez-faire economics (government should not intervene in economics)


June 20107
June 2010 colonial government

Many Enlightenment philosophers used reason to

(1) reinforce traditional beliefs

(2) strengthen religious authority

(3) reveal natural laws

(4) encourage censorship


Jan 20115
Jan 2011 colonial government

Enlightenment thinkers encouraged the

improvement of society through the

(1) teachings of the church

(2) use of reason

(3) development of absolutism

(4) establishment of a rigid social hierarchy


Aug 20108
Aug 2010 colonial government

Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke both

agreed that a government should be based on the

(1) separation of nationalities

(2) religious values of the people

(3) equal distribution of wealth

(4) consent of the governed


Aug 20116
Aug 2011 colonial government

Speaker A: I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it.

Speaker B: Government has no other end, but the preservation of property.

Speaker C: Man is born free, and everywhere he is in shackles.

Which historical period is best represented in the ideas expressed by these speakers?

(1) Enlightenment (3) Age of Exploration

(2) Counter Reformation (4) Early Middle Ages

Which historical figure expressed ideas that are most similar to those of Speaker B?

(1) Thomas Malthus

(2) John Locke

(3) Peter the Great

(4) Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet


June 20114
June 2011 colonial government

Which idea is correctly paired with a document

that supports it?

(1) colonialism — The Prince

(2) militarism — Sadler Report

(3) capitalism — Wealth of Nations

(4) monotheism — The Communist Manifesto


June 20115
June 2011 colonial government

The English Bill of Rights and the political

philosophy of John Locke both support the idea

of a

(1) coalition government

(2) fascist dictatorship

(3) Marxist dictatorship

(4) limited government


Jan 20126
Jan 2012 colonial government


Jan 20138
Jan 2013 colonial government

Which idea is central to John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government?

(1) A government’s power comes from the consent of the people.

(2) Predestination will determine who will go to heaven.

(3) Famine, disease, and conflict are natural checks on population growth.

(4) The have-nots will rise up and overthrow the government of the haves.


Aug 20127
Aug 2012 colonial government

Belief in the ideas of the Enlightenment and

discontent within the Third Estate were causes of the

(1) French Revolution

(2) Counter Reformation

(3) Industrial Revolution

(4) Spanish Reconquista


Aug 20128
Aug 2012 colonial government

Which statement represents a key idea directly

associated with John Locke’s Two Treatises of

Government?

(1) Freedom of speech should be denied.

(2) The king’s power on Earth comes from God.

(3) All people are born with the right to life, liberty, and property.

(4) Individuals acting in their own self-interest

will achieve economic success.


Aug 20138
Aug 2013 colonial government

Which writer opposed political absolutism?

(1) Niccolò Machiavelli

(2) James I

(3) Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet

(4) John Locke


June 20134
June 2013 colonial government

Which step did Catherine the Great take that is

consistent with Enlightenment ideas?

(1) ordering the burning of books

(2) strengthening the institution of serfdom

(3) expanding Russian territory into Ukraine

(4) considering a law code that would treat all

citizens equally


Aug 20139
Aug 2013 colonial government

• Supported reforms

• Believed in natural rights and religious toleration

• Viewed themselves as servants of their state

In the 18th century, European leaders that fit these characteristics were best known as

(1) theocratic monarchs

(2) enlightened despots

(3) totalitarian dictators

(4) prime ministers


Jan 201410
Jan 2014 colonial government

Why is the Enlightenment considered a turning

point in world history?

(1) The factory system was used to mass-produce Goods.

(2) Martin Luther broke away from the Roman

Catholic Church.

(3) Europeans changed their thinking about the

role of government.

(4) The Columbian exchange occurred.


Jan 201411
Jan 2014 colonial government

Theme: Human Rights—Justice

At different times in history, individuals have defended human rights using a variety of methods. Their efforts have met with varying degrees of success.

Select two individuals and for each

• Describe the historical circumstances that led the individual to defend human rights

• Describe a method the individual used to defend human rights

• Discuss the extent to which the individual’s effort was successful

Somesuggestionsyou might wish to consider include Bartolomé de las Casas, John Locke, Mary Wollstonecraft,


Thematic jan 2010
Thematic Jan 2010 colonial government

Culture and Intellectual Life

Intellectuals, philosophers, and leaders have often recorded their ideas in written works. These ideas have been used throughout history to guide societies and influence the course of national and regional development.

Task:

Select two intellectuals, philosophers, and/or leaders and

• Describe the historical circumstances surrounding this writing

• Describe a main idea found in this writing

• Discuss how this idea has influenced the development of a nation or region

You may use any intellectuals, philosophers, or leaders from your study of global history.

Some suggestions: Bartoloméde las Casas—Brief Report on the Destruction of the Indians, Martin Luther—Ninety-five Theses, John Locke—Two Treatises on Government, Olympede Gouges—The Declaration of the Rights of Woman


Thematic june 2010
Thematic – June 2010 colonial government

Change — Ideas

The ideas of individuals have had a significant influence on groups, nations,

and regions.

Task:

Select two individuals and for each

• Explain a specific idea developed by the individual

• Describe the historical circumstances that surrounded the development of

the idea

• Discuss how the idea influenced a group or a nation or a region

You may use any individual whose ideas had a significant influence from your study of global history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Confucius, NiccolòMachiavelli, Galileo Galilei, John Locke,


Native americans
Native Americans colonial government

  • Mayan– polytheistic (blood sacrifices), stepped pyramid temples, ballcourts, slash and burn farming of Yucatan, hieroglyph carvings, and calendar – shows sophisticated culture

  • Aztecs – middle of Lake Texoca – hydroponic gardens (chinampas) – made tribute states of neighboring enemies, pyramids, calendars, codex (birch-bark accordion books that show human sacrifice – Spanish will destroy). Peak under Montezuma, destroyed by Cortes

  • Inca – Andes Mts, terrace farming, Incan Trail and suspension bridges, quipu (knotted rope), destroyed by Pissarro.


June 20108
June 2010 colonial government


Jan 20107
Jan 2010 colonial government


Jan 20108
Jan 2010 colonial government

• Spain mines silver in the Americas.

• The Dutch establish a colony in Southeast Asia.

• The English East India Company controls tea

plantations in India.

Which policy is most closely associated with these

events?

(1) pacifism (3) nonalignment

(2) mercantilism (4) containment


June 20109
June 2010 colonial government

Which factor most influenced the development

of diverse cultures in pre-Columbian South

America?

(1) trade agreements

(2) geographic features

(3) imported religious ideas

(4) peasant revolts


Jan 20116
Jan 2011 colonial government

One way in which the Aztec and Inca civilizations

are similar is that they both

(1) defeated the Spanish conquistadors

(2) developed advanced architectural techniques

(3) lacked strong central governments

(4) settled primarily in river valleys


Aug 20117
Aug 2011 colonial government

One way the Incas adapted their environment was by

(1) building a network of roads through the mountains

(2) growing rice as a major agricultural product

(3) establishing an encomienda system

(4) creating floating gardens


Aug 20118
Aug 2011 colonial government

. . . It recounts the life of the officials, the notaries,

the deputies, the proprietors of Indian labour, the

priests, the miners and the Spaniards who travel

from post to post along the roads and rivers of

Peru; the visitors, the judges, the Indian chiefs

and their subjects, including the very poor.

In my work I have always tried to obtain the

most truthful accounts, accepting those which

seemed to be substantial and which were

confirmed from various sources. I have only

reported those facts which several people agreed

upon as being true. . . .

— HuamánPoma, Letter to a King: A Peruvian Chief’s

Account of Life Under the Incas and Under Spanish Rule, E. P. Dutton

This author is describing the process he used in

(1) formulating a scientific theory from earlier experiments

(2) developing a historical account from primary sources

(3) comparing details of differing religions

(4) explaining the importance of obeying laws

According to this author, accounts used in making statements of fact must be

(1) brief (3) verified

(2) interesting (4) unbiased


June 20125
June 2012 colonial government

One way in which the people of the Tibetan

kingdom and the people of the Inca Empire are

similar is that they

(1) developed coastal ports

(2) adapted mountainous terrains

(3) designed ships to conduct global trade

(4) introduced camel caravans as their primary

form of transportation


June 20126
June 2012 colonial government

A study of the achievements of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures would show that they

(1) sustained dense populations through intensive agriculture

(2) engaged in an extensive exploration of the Pacific Ocean

(3) built vehicles with wheels to transport goods

(4) developed rice paper and wood-block printing


June 20127
June 2012 colonial government

… In addition, after the last battle they were afraid of the horses and guns, of our swords and crossbows and our good fighting. Above all was the great mercy of God, Who gave us the strength to keep on.… — Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Bernal DíazChronicles, Doubleday & Company

In this passage about a conflict in Mexico, whose

perspective is being expressed?

(1) Aztec warrior

(2) Spanish conquistador

(3) Portuguese explorer

(4) Inca emperor

According to this author, which factors were

influencing the outcome of the conflict?

(1) efficiency and education

(2) climate and disease

(3) tribute and tradition

(4) technology and fear


June 20135
June 2013 colonial government

• The Americas are referred to as the “New World.”

• Eastern Asia is referred to as the “Far East.”

• Southwest Asia is referred to as part of the “Middle East.”

Whose perspective is best represented by these regional place names?

(1) Chinese (3) European

(2) African (4) Indian

Which statement best describes Aztec civilization at the time of the Encounter?

(1) Small groups of nomadic clans competed for food.

(2) Various ethnic groups had representation in a legislative body.

(3) Absence of a social class structure created unsettled living conditions.

(4) Advanced agricultural practices supported large urban centers.


Jan 20139
Jan 2013 colonial government

Which situation was an immediate cause for the

collapse of the Aztec civilization?

(1) disruption of overseas trade networks

(2) conquest by foreigners

(3) a series of crop failures

(4) a lack of military training


June 20136
June 2013 colonial government

Why is Catholicism a major religion practiced in Latin America?

(1) Spain conquered and colonized much of Latin America.

(2) Disputes over international boundaries within Latin America were settled by the pope.

(3) The traditional beliefs of Africans were incorporated into the cultures of Latin America.

(4) The Church provided Latin America with a strong central government.


Jan 201412
Jan 2014 colonial government

… In the 1930s, Sylvanus G. Morley of Harvard, probably the most celebrated Mayanist of his day, espoused [argued for] what is still the best-known theory: The Maya collapsed because they overshot the carrying capacity of their environment. They exhausted their resource base, began to die of starvation and thirst, and fled their cities en masse, leaving them as silent warnings of the perils of ecological hubris [overconfidence].…

— Charles C. Mann,

According to this passage, what was a major question Morley was trying to answer about the Mayas in the 1930s?

(1) Why did the Mayas abandon their cities?

(2) What was the structure of the Maya governments?

(3) How did religious beliefs affect the Maya economy?

(4) Which neighboring city-state conquered the Mayas?


Aug 201310
Aug 2013 colonial government

… At Tenochtitlán, the Aztecs perfected an unusual method of farming. They built huge rafts, covered them with earth, and floated them on the lake. On these chinampas, or “floating islands,” they grew enough maize and vegetables to feed their expanding population comfortably.

Eventually, roots from the tree rafts attached themselves to the bottom of the shallow lake to

become permanent foundations for buildings.…

— Lois Athey

Which conclusion is best supported by the information in this passage?

(1) The Aztecs terraced the land.

(2) Large plantations provided food for the markets.

(3) The Aztecs were limited to subsistence

farming.

(4) Environmental adaptation aided economic development.


Dbq jan 2014
DBQ – Jan 2014 colonial government

throughout history, people have changed their environments to meet their needs. These changes have had both positive and negative effects on people, societies, and

regions. Examples include the development of irrigation in ancient Egypt, the construction of chinampas by the Aztecs, and the mining of coal in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution.

Select two changes people have made to their environment mentioned in the historical context and for each

• Explain why this change to their environment was needed

• Discuss how this change affected people, a society, and/or a region


Gunpowder empires
Gunpowder Empires colonial government

  • Islamic – based on trade with lots of cultural diffusion leading to golden ages of math, science, etc.

  • Ottoman – sultans,, harem, Mehmet II took over Constantinople with cannon, Suleiman – absolute monarch w/golden age – will be cut out of trade by European exploration – will attempt to take over Mediterranean stopped by Phillip II – B. of Lepanto.

  • Safavid– shiites– modern Iran, shah

  • Moguls – TajMahal, Akbar – religious tolerance, Aurangzeb – ended sati and religious persecution of Hindus


East asia
East Asia colonial government

  • Ming – Zheng-He world explorer – wanted to expand trade but bankrupted dynasty

  • Qing – foreign Manchus, forced Chinese to wear queues. Emperor Kanxi – absolutist

  • Tokugawa Japan – Edict of Seclusion


Aug 201311
Aug 2013 colonial government

The Ming dynasty under Emperor Yonglo (Zhu di) used Zheng He’s voyages to

(1) expand trade with Africa and Southeast Asia

(2) explore North America and South America

(3) obtain a military alliance with Russia

(4) secure a border agreement with Mongolia


Jan 201413
Jan 2014 colonial government

For which achievement is Suleiman the Magnificent best known?

(1) building the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

(2) spreading Christianity into the Balkan Peninsula

(3) conquering the Russian capital of Moscow

(4) uniting the Ottoman Empire under an efficient government structure


Jan 201414
Jan 2014 colonial government

One similarity in the rule of Akbar the Great and

the rule of Elizabeth I is that both leaders

implemented policies that encouraged

(1) compulsory education

(2) military disarmament

(3) voter participation

(4) religious toleration


Aug 201312
Aug 2013 colonial government

One way in which Akbar the Great, Suleiman the

Magnificent, and Philip II are similar is that they

(1) attempted to colonize the Americas

(2) supported democratic reforms in their countries

(3) tried to make Christianity the dominant religion of Asia

(4) controlled large empires at the height of their

power


June 20137
June 2013 colonial government

Which event marked the rise in power of the

Ottoman Empire in 1453?

(1) birth of Muhammad

(2) conquest of Constantinople

(3) siege of Vienna

(4) death of Saladin


June 20138
June 2013 colonial government

The restoration of Chinese rule, the voyages of

Zheng He, and the reintroduction of civil service

examinations are all associated with the

(1) Ming dynasty (3) Songhai Empire

(2) Abbassid dynasty (4) Delhi sultanate


June 20139
June 2013 colonial government

Which form of government is associated with the reigns of Suleiman the Magnificent, Akbar the Great, and Peter the Great?

(1) constitutional monarchy

(2) direct democracy

(3) theocracy

(4) absolute monarchy


Aug 20129
Aug 2012 colonial government

15 The location of the Ottoman Empire had an

impact on the

(1) trade between Europe and Asia

(2) conquest of Spain by the Muslims

(3) spread of Buddhism into Southeast Asia

(4) decline in the Atlantic slave trade

16 The rule of Akbar the Great is important because he

(1) admired legalism and emphasized oppression

(2) recognized natural laws and supported democracy

(3) accepted diversity and practiced religious toleration

(4) supported equality and outlawed the caste system


June 20128
June 2012 colonial government

Which factor most contributed to the cultural

diversity of the Ottoman Empire?

(1) legal system based on the Qur’an (Koran)

(2) central location spanning Europe, Africa, and Asia

(3) alliances with the Russians and Hapsburgs

(4) reliance on colonies in the Americas


Jan 20127
Jan 2012 colonial government

One similarity in the policies of Louis XIV and of

Suleiman the Magnificent is that both leaders

(1) expanded their empires in the Americas

(2) encouraged the growth of democracy

(3) increased the power of their central

governments

(4) abolished the bureaucracy


Aug 20119
Aug 2011 colonial government

During the Ming dynasty, why did China enjoy a

favorable balance of trade with Europe?

(1) The Ming dynasty imported numerous manufactured goods from Europe.

(2) China exported large quantities of opium to European traders.

(3) Chinese silk continued to be in high demand in Europe.

(4) The Ming dynasty paid tribute to European traders.


Aug 201110
Aug 2011 colonial government

Akbar the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent, and

Louis XIV are all rulers associated with

(1) natural rights (3) religious toleration

(2) filial piety (4) absolutism


Jan 20109
Jan 2010 colonial government

• The Ming emperor banned the building of large oceangoing ships in 1433.

• The Tokugawa shogun issued the Act of Seclusion in 1636.

One way in which these historical occurrences are

similar is that both led to increased

(1) social mobility (3) cultural diffusion

(2) globalization (4) isolation


June 20116
June 2011 colonial government

One way in which the Ming dynasty in the early

1400s and the Spanish monarchy in the late 1400s are similar is that both governments

(1) promoted religious diversity

(2) encouraged democratic reforms

(3) emphasized equal rights for women

(4) supported the expansion of overseas trade


June 20117
June 2011 colonial government

• Captured the city of Constantinople in 1453

• Benefited from rich trade along the Mediterranean Sea

• Ruled by Suleiman the Lawgiver

Which empire best fits these descriptions?

(1) Roman (3) Mongol

(2) Ottoman (4) Songhai


June 20118
June 2011 colonial government

One way in which Akbar the Great, Ivan the

Terrible, and Louis XIV are similar is that they

were all

(1) theocratic rulers (3) absolute rulers

(2) elected leaders (4) enlightened despots


Jan 20117
Jan 2011 colonial government

By closing Japanese harbors to most foreigners in the 1600s, the Tokugawa shogunate attempted to

(1) protect Japan from European influence

(2) increase Japanese agricultural production

(3) eliminate Japan’s influence on Southeast Asia

(4) destroy traditional Japanese culture


Jan 20118
Jan 2011 colonial government

The Ottomans were a strong trading empire

through the mid-1600s because they

(1) controlled access to the eastern Mediterranean Sea

(2) had the most powerful navy in the world

(3) dominated West African caravan routes

(4) conquered most of Asia


June 20119
June 2011 colonial government

• Captured the city of Constantinople in 1453

• Benefited from rich trade along the Mediterranean Sea

• Ruled by Suleiman the Lawgiver

Which empire best fits these descriptions?

(1) Roman (3) Mongol

(2) Ottoman (4) Songhai


Jan 201010
Jan 2010 colonial government

One way in which Suleiman the Magnificent and

Akbar the Great are similar is that they both

brought about periods of

(1) political stability and religious tolerance

(2) religious conquest and persecution

(3) isolationism and cultural stagnation

(4) modernization and political disunity


Dbq aug 2011
DBQ – Aug 2011 colonial government

For a variety of reasons, groups have set out to conquer other regions or people using various methods of force. These groups include the Mongols, the Spanish, and the Ottoman. Their conquests have had an impact on both the conqueror and the conquered.

Task:

Choose two groups engaged in conquest mentioned in the historical context and for each

• Explain a reason for the conquest

• Explain how the conquest was achieved

• Discuss an impact of the conquest


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