India and pakistan since independence
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INDIA AND PAKISTAN SINCE INDEPENDENCE. PARTITION. NEHRU. FIVE YEAR PLANS SOCIALIST ECONOMY NEUTRAL IN COLD WAR INDIA is a DEMOCRACY Prime minister 1948-1966, when he died. Nehru (1947)>>. Indian Politics. <<Indira Gandhi (1966-77, 80-84). Rajiv Gandhi>> (1984-89). >> Singh (2004-now).

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Nehru
NEHRU

  • FIVE YEAR PLANS

  • SOCIALIST ECONOMY

  • NEUTRAL IN COLD WAR

  • INDIA is a DEMOCRACY

  • Prime minister 1948-1966, when he died


Indian politics

Nehru (1947)>>

Indian Politics

<<Indira Gandhi (1966-77, 80-84)

Rajiv Gandhi>> (1984-89)

>> Singh (2004-now)


Pakistan
PAKISTAN

  • Originally 2 territories, 1,000 miles apart, speaking 2 unrelated languages

  • West Pakistan Dominated

  • West Pakistan had fertile land in the Indus River system


Creation of bangladesh
CREATION OF BANGLADESH

  • East Pakistan was not well protected and has less representation in National Assembly even though they had more people

  • In 1970s, West Pakistani President Yahya Khan cracked down on politicians in East Pakistan.

  • Over 2,500 E. Pakistanis were killed under “martial law”, (more like terrorism by the state)

  • East Pakistan seceded and became independent with help from India.


Bangladesh
BANGLADESH

  • Soon after independence, Bangladesh was hit with massive floods and famine


Pakistan s ethnic groups
Pakistan’s Ethnic groups

  • Punjabi: majority ethnic group that dominates politics and army

  • Pashtun: mountain region on the border of Afghanistan; government has little control over them; fierce protectors of their land & guests

  • Sindi: mostly rural, it is dominated by feudal families, like the Bhuttos

  • Baluch: sparsely settled; heroin smuggling is high; very poor


Political history
POLITICAL HISTORY

  • Pakistan has alternated between elected democracy and military dictatorship

  • Shown at left: Benazir Bhutto; Below: Asif Ali Zardari


Pakistan politics

Jinnah (1947)>>

Pakistan Politics

<<Zulfikar Bhutto (1973-77)

Benazir Bhutto>> (1988-90, 93-96)

Sharif (1990-93, 97-99)

Zardari (now)

<< Musharraf (1999-2008)


PAKISTANI INTELLIGENCE SECRETLY AIDED THE TALIBAN IN AFGHANISTAN, AND IN TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA FROM KASHMIR


Madrasas
MADRASAS AFGHANISTAN, AND IN TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA FROM KASHMIR


Northwest frontier
NORTHWEST FRONTIER AFGHANISTAN, AND IN TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA FROM KASHMIR

Little govt. control over armed semi-nomadic tribes

Osama thought to have hidden here at times…instead he was right out in the open!


The islamic bomb
THE “ISLAMIC BOMB” AFGHANISTAN, AND IN TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA FROM KASHMIR

  • Pakistan detonated its first nuclear device in 1998. (India had its 1st in 1974)

  • Shares technology with “ROGUE STATES” LIKE LIBYA, NORTH KOREA, MAYBE OTHERS (Abdul Qadeer Khan)


Nuclear crisis
NUCLEAR CRISIS AFGHANISTAN, AND IN TERROR ATTACKS ON INDIA FROM KASHMIR


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