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Filling Electron Orbitals. Orbitals are the area in space where electrons are found Each individual orbital holds 2 electrons There are four main shapes which hold a different number of electrons. Shapes of Orbitals. The four shapes are s , p , d , and f. Shapes of the Orbitals.

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Filling electron orbitals
Filling Electron Orbitals

  • Orbitals are the area in space where electrons are found

    • Each individual orbital holds 2 electrons

  • There are four main shapes which hold a different number of electrons


Shapes of orbitals
Shapes of Orbitals

  • The four shapes are s, p, d, and f


Shapes of the orbitals
Shapes of the Orbitals

  • Each shape holds a different number of orbitals

    • s has 1 orbital, p has 3 orbitals, and d has 5 orbitals

    • www.ptable.com


Energy levels
Energy Levels

  • Each period is a new energy level

    • Like an elevator, electrons cannot exist between energy levels!


General rules
General Rules

  • Aufbau Principle – Electrons fill lowest energy level first

    • Analogy: Lazy Tenant Rule


General rules1
General Rules

  • Pauli Exclusion Principle – Electrons must have opposite spin (up/down) when in the same orbital

  • Analogy: Yin and Yang Rule


General rules2
General Rules

  • Hund’s Rule – Electrons in equal energy orbits fill orbitals with parallel spin

    • Analogy: Empty Bus Seat Rule


Orbital notation
Orbital Notation

  • Specific order for filling electrons – based on periodic table

  • Examples

    • Beryllium

    • Oxygen


Orbital notation1
Orbital Notation

  • Examples

    • O2-

    • Titanium


Electron configuration
Electron Configuration

  • Examples

    • Silicon

    • Selenium

    • Manganese


Shorthand electron config
Shorthand Electron Config

  • Shorter version of writing electron configurations

    • Noble Gas Core – inner core of electrons not involved in chemical bonding


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