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President Franklin D. Roosevelt is commonly thought of as a liberal and President Herbert Hoover as a conservative. To what extent are these characterizations valid ?. DOCUMENT A. Candidate Herbert Hoover - New York – October 22, 1928

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President Franklin D. Roosevelt is commonly thought of as a liberal and President Herbert Hoover as a conservative.

To what extent are these characterizations valid ?

document a
DOCUMENTA
  • Candidate Herbert Hoover - New York – October 22, 1928
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
document a1
DOCUMENTA
  • Candidate Herbert Hoover ; New York – October 22, 1928
  • Rugged Individualism” Speech
  • In the midst of “Republican Prosperity”
  • He says he is TRUE liberal =
    • Government’s role is to insure:
      • equality of opportunity
      • NOT equality of condition
1924 presidential campaign
1924 Presidential campaign
  • THE CANDIDATES
    • Republicans = Calvin Coolidge
    • Democrats = John Davis
  • Calvin Coolidge wins
  • THE LESSONS
    • Most Americans
      • supported the laissez-faire policies of the Republican Administration because they believed those policies resulted in the prosperity enjoyed in the 20s
    • Some Americans
      • Disagreed with Republican policies & gave support to a third party
1924 presidential campaign1
1924 Presidential campaign
  • Robert La Follette ran as third party candidate
    • Senator & former governor of Wisconsin
    • Nominated by the newly formed Progressive Party
      • Attracted large numbers of farmers and workers
    • Won 4,800,000 votes out of 29,000,000 cast
      • Impressive for a third party candidate
  • Historic role & impact of third parties
    • Not to win (usually)
    • Get the attention of the two major parties
1928 presidential campaign
1928 Presidential campaign

A. A CAMPAIGN OF PERSONALITIES

1. R – Herbert Hoover

2. D – Alfred E. Smith

3. The parties differed little on issues so the focus was on the personalities of the candidates ( one of the dirtiest campaigns in US History )

Slogan used by Republicans against Smith :

Rum , Romanism and Ruin

1928 presidential campaign1
1928 Presidential campaign

B. THE CANDIDATES

1. Hoover

a. presidential image

b. born in Iowa small town

c. worked his way up (Stanford , engineer,)

1928 presidential campaign herbert hoover
1928 Presidential campaign Herbert Hoover
  • BOTH parties considered nominating Hoover for the presidency in 1920
    • After he had spent several years during the WWI working for a Democratic president – Wilson
      • Food Administrator during WWI
    • Secretary of Commerce under Republican presidents Harding & Coolidge
1928 presidential campaign herbert hoover1
1928 Presidential campaign Herbert Hoover
  • Represented the progressive wing of the Republican Party
    • Wanted to woo back the liberal (progressive ) Republicans lost to the Progressive Party in 1924 Presidential election
  • More concerned with separating himself from conservative Republicans than liberal Democrats
  • Prided himself in being above party politics
  • Sincerely acted on the growing popular belief that democracy was compatible with an active government
1928 presidential campaign herbert hoover2
1928 Presidential campaign Herbert Hoover
  • “Rugged Individualism” Speech – 1928
  • In the midst of “Republican Prosperity”
  • He says he is TRUE liberal =
    • Government’s role is to insure:
      • equality of opportunity
      • NOT equality of condition
1928 presidential campaign2
1928 Presidential campaign

C. RESULTS OF THE ELECTION

1. Republicans won overwhelming victory

2. even “Solid South” was cracked

Republicans won FL, NC, TN, TX, VA

3. Electoral vote 444 to 87

4. Popular vote 21 million to 15 million

5. Socialist Candidate – Norman Thomas

1924 presidential campaign turn to presidential info sheets
1924 Presidential campaign TURN TO PRESIDENTIAL INFO SHEETS
  • THE CANDIDATES
    • Republicans = Calvin Coolidge
    • Democrats = John Davis
  • Calvin Coolidge wins
  • THE LESSONS
    • Most Americans
      • supported the laissez-faire policies of the Republican Administration because they believed those policies resulted in the prosperity enjoyed in the 20s
    • Some Americans
      • Disagreed with Republican policies & gave support to a third party
1924 presidential campaign2
1924 Presidential campaign
  • Robert La Follette ran as third party candidate
    • Senator & former governor of Wisconsin
    • Nominated by the newly formed Progressive Party
      • Attracted large numbers of farmers and workers
    • Won 4,800,000 votes out of 29,000,000 cast
      • Impressive for a third party candidate
  • Historic role & impact of third parties
    • Not to win (usually)
    • Get the attention of the two major parties
1928 presidential campaign3
1928 Presidential campaign

A. A CAMPAIGN OF PERSONALITIES

1. R – Herbert Hoover

2. D – Alfred E. Smith

3. The parties differed little on issues so the focus was on the personalities of the candidates ( one of the dirtiest campaigns in US History )

Slogan used by Republicans against Smith :

Rum , Romanism and Ruin

1928 presidential campaign4
1928 Presidential campaign

THE CANDIDATES

Hoover

a. presidential image

b. born in Iowa small town

c. worked his way up (Stanford , engineer,)

1928 presidential campaign herbert hoover3
1928 Presidential campaign Herbert Hoover
  • BOTH parties considered nominating Hoover for the presidency in 1920
    • After he had spent several years during the WWI working for a Democratic president – Wilson
      • Food Administrator during WWI
    • Secretary of Commerce under Republican presidents Harding & Coolidge
1928 presidential campaign herbert hoover4
1928 Presidential campaign Herbert Hoover
  • Represented the progressive wing of the Republican Party
    • Wanted to woo back the liberal (progressive ) Republicans lost to the Progressive Party in 1924 Presidential election
  • More concerned with separating himself from conservative Republicans than liberal Democrats
  • Prided himself in being above party politics
  • Sincerely acted on the growing popular belief that democracy was compatible with an active government
document b
DOCUMENT B
  • President Herbert Hoover - December 2, 1930
  • Depression well under way (over a year)
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
document b1
DOCUMENT B
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
    • “Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncement.”
  • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
      • See previous slides for OUTSIDE INFO
document b2
DOCUMENT B
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
    • Activist Hoover
      • List of public works projects spending of more than half a billion dollars
      • But he warns that “The volume of construction work in the Government is already at the maximum limit warranted by financial prudence.”
  • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
      • RFC, See previous slides for OUTSIDE INFO
document c
DOCUMENT C
  • President Herbert Hoover - February 3, 1931
  • Statement to the press
  • Confronting charges that he was not doing enough
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
document c1
DOCUMENT C
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
    • Drew the line at federal relief to individuals
    • CONSERVATIVE Hoover warns that federal spending must not “stifle” private , state and local gov efforts at recovery
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
document c2
DOCUMENT C
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
    • MORE FLEXIBLE Hoover promises that if the private, state and local efforts at recovery fail hew would ask the aid of every resource of the federal government
  • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is liberal ?
document d
Cut & paste the address below to get a better look at this cartoon

http://cdm.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ding&CISOPTR=4461&DMSCALE=25&DMWIDTH=600&DMHEIGHT=800&DMX=0&DMY=0&DMMODE=viewer&DMTEXT=depression&REC=11&DMTHUMB=0&DMROTATE=0

DOCUMENT D
document d1
1931 political cartoon

What are the symbols in the cartoon ?

DOCUMENT D
document d2
Hoover

Uncle Sam = US

Capital = name of boat (US system)

What is Hoover trying to do ?

DOCUMENTD
  • Singlehandedly trying to keep U.S. & his family and boat from being swept over the precipice = THE GREAT DEPRESSION
document d3
Who is the squabbling family? DOCUMENTD

Business, Congress,

Unemployed

Boat = Capital = US system

  • Who has already been swept over the precipice ?

Europe already swept

Under by the Depression

document d4
Who is running off with Hoover’s political clothes ?

+ or – towards Democrats ?

Support Hoover as liberal or conservative ?

DOCUMENTD
document d5
What is the OPINION of the cartoonist? (political cartoons are editorials !)DOCUMENT D

Cartoon essentially

sympathetic

to Hoover

document e
DOCUMENT E
  • Candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • October 19,1932
  • Democrats critical of Republicans
    • NOT only for not doing enough BUT also for doing too much
  • FDR contrary to what you know his actions will be in the future
    • Proposes to CUT federal spending by 25%
    • “hopes” taxes will not have to go up
  • Promises (LIKE HOOVER in Doc C) to do whatever is needed to prevent starvation
document e1
DOCUMENT E
  • Candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • October 19,1932
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover or FDR is a liberal ? (done too much = enlarged federal govt.)
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover or FDR is a conservative ? (not done enough for people)
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
document g
DOCUMENT G
  • President Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • September 29, 1936
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover or FDR is a liberal ?
    • What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a liberal ?
  • What parts of this document support the idea that Hoover or FDR is a conservative ? What RELATED OUTSIDE INFO supports the idea that Hoover is a conservative ?
1936 presidential election the 1936 referendum
1936 Presidential ElectionTHE 1936 “REFERENDUM”
  • Referendum on the FDR & the New Deal
  • opposition from the left and the right
    • The right failed to nominate a candidate
      • Republican Party chose a moderate = Alf Landon
    • The left
      • Huey Long - main leader of the left had been assassinated
      • spent more time fighting each other than FDR
1936 presidential election
1936 Presidential Election
  • FDR wins
  • New Democratic coalition
    • Urban working classes
    • Southern rural whites
    • Northern urban blacks
  • notable by the bitter class struggle between the poor and the rich
    • FDR labeled a “traitor to his class” ; “that man”
    • No support among big business
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