Session 1 the human element people process environment
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Session 1 The Human Element – People, Process & Environment. Chris Collins March 26, 2007. Supplier Surveillance & Oversight Buyer Expedite Premium Freight Purchase Order Revisions. SUPPLIERS. Surveillance & Oversight ICAT, NAR, JMST, M-SERB Internal Audit

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Session 1 The Human Element – People, Process & Environment

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Session 1 the human element people process environment

Session 1The Human Element – People, Process & Environment

Chris Collins

March 26, 2007


Session 1 the human element people process environment

  • Supplier Surveillance & Oversight

  • Buyer Expedite

  • Premium Freight

  • Purchase Order Revisions

SUPPLIERS

  • Surveillance & Oversight

  • ICAT, NAR, JMST, M-SERB

  • Internal Audit

  • Findings, Recommendations, CARs

  • Source Inspection

  • Receiving Inspection

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

PROCUREMENT

  • Lost Parts

  • Premium Freight

RQMT FROM CUSTOMER

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN ENGINEERING

PRODUCT ENGINEERING

TOOL ENG / FABRICATION

DELIVER TO CUSTOMER

FABRICATION

ASSEMBLY

  • Handform

  • Work Arounds

  • Out of Station

  • Jig Locks

  • Engineering Error Corrections

  • Change Management

  • Manual Order Release

  • Scrap / Rework / Repair

    • Withhold Tags

    • Dispositions

    • Tool Reworks

    • Orders Closing Short / Split Orders

    • Emergent Work (“Blue Streak”)

    • Startovers (Obvious Scrap & Lost Parts)

    • Software Discrepancy Reports

  • Obsolete Inventory

  • Buffer Inventory (JIC, MIT)

  • Cyclic Inventory & Associated Adjustments

  • Overtime

  • Checkers

  • Configuration Verification

  • Tool Tryout & QA Inspection

  • Tool & Tape Tryout & QA Inspection

  • Tool Tryout & QA Inspection

  • Customer Squawks & Complaints

  • Engineering Liaison

  • Planning Liaison

  • Tooling Liaison

  • Warranty Claims

  • Expedite

  • Expedite

  • Expedite

  • Expedite

KEY:

  • = Cost of Quality / Cost of Poor Quality

    ACRONYMS

    ICAT = Independent Corrective Action Team

    JIC = Just In Case

    JMST = Joint Management Surveillance Team

    MIT = Much In Time

    M-SERB = Mfg-Senior Executive Review Board

    NAR = Non Advocate Review

    QA = Quality Assurance

  • Investigate (Corrective Action, Material Review Board, Stock Checks)

Cost of Poor Quality

Traditional Aerospace Design & Manufacturing Process


Session 1 the human element people process environment

CUSTOMER INFORMATION & NEEDS

INFORMATION

SUPPLIER

SERVICE

INSPECTION

DELIVERY

PRODUCTION

DESIGN

EVALUATION

RESEAFRCH & DEVELOPMENT

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND/OR COMPLAINTS

MARKET ANALYSIS

PLANNING & SPECIFICATIONS

VERIFICATION WITH CUSTOMER

PRODUCT UTILIZATION

FINAL SPECIFICATIONS

Building Quality In Over The Product Life Cycle

Quality in Information & Planning

Quality in Design

Quality in Production or Work Processes

Quality in Use by Customer


Points to ponder

Points to Ponder…

  • COPQ = 15% – 40% of Sales

    • If $2.5B in Revenue then COPQ is actually costing you $375M to $1B

  • Human error is responsible for 35% - 70% of accidents, incidents and non-conformances

Is This an Area Worth Your Attention?


The human element people process environment work design

The Human Element – People, Process & EnvironmentWork Design

Chris Collins

March 26, 2007


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Eng changes

Request for changes

Traditional State – High Level

Mfg Eng

Quality

Eng

Make

Planning

Tooling

Mfg

Design

Eng Release

Tech

RFQ

PR

PO

IPT

R&M

Weight

Buy

Logistics

Cost

Assy

  • ~ 65% of Changes take place in the first 12 mos.

  • ~ 68% of all changes (over the life of a drawing) are to correct errors or to respond to request from Operations/SCM


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Each Eng change requires a very costly process to “digest” it thru the system

Desired State – High Level

Eng changes

Mfg Eng

Quality

Eng

Make

Mfg

Planning

Tooling

Design

Eng Release

Tech

RFQ

PR

PO

IPT

R&M

Weight

Buy

Logistics

Cost

Request for changes

Assy

Reduce Changes After Engineering Release


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Yes

CBOM MRP

13

Eng to Rqmts

Assign Mfg Effectivity

Log EO

Eng Change Control

6

1

Process thru Engineering Database

Eng. Database

2

Repro-duction

Distribute

(EO Pkgs)

No

No

3

N/A Rel?

(b)

RNC? (a)

Yes

Process RNC

PBOM MRP

Confirm MBOM Feed

Change Control

Create RNC

Each Eng change has to go through some or all of these steps!!!

11

13a

14

9

To MBOM-Pre

Release EO

Prepare BOM for MBOM

BOM in MBOM

Data Release

8

To MBOM-Post

4

12

See separate process map for PPAS

Process EO

Prepare Planning

Prepare Pre-Plan

Planning

To CAP

5

10

15

MRP

Eng – Data Release – Chg Control – Matl Mgmt - MRP


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Typical Eng Changes After Drawing Release

More than 65% of Eng changes take place within first 12 months

Concurrent Engineering Process WILL Dramatically Reduce These Changes


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Design Weakness

Analysis of EO Reasons Codes

Concurrent Engineering Can Impact 68% of Total Changes


Session 1 the human element people process environment

INITIAL DESIGN

Traditional Post Release

Problems -

CHANGES!!!

GAIN

Program Cost and Schedule

With and Without CONCURRENT ENGINEERING

Program Cost

Time

Expected

Performance with CONCURRENT ENGINEERING


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Eng Release

(Engineering Database)

Eng Release

(Engineering Database)

Planning

Tool Design

SCM

Quality

Plan

Other

The CONCURRENT ENGINEERING

Process

Traditional Process

High Level Map From Eng to Final Assy

MBOM

Fab & Assy

Eng

Procure

MRP


Session 1 the human element people process environment

*

*Requests for Changes

MBOM

MRP

RQMTS

Planning

*

PTIs

Planning

ODS

Tool Travelers

Tool Design

Tool Designs

*

Customer Support

Tool Make

Tools

Quality

Quality Plan

*

Procurement

*

RFQ

Supplier Selection

Parts Delivered

*

PO

*

Fab & Assy

*

Changes

Time

Traditional Process

(Applies to the vast majority of parts we design and build/buy)

Engineering Database

RELEASE

IPT

Design

Designer, Stress, Materials, Weights, R&M, Logistics, Cost, Producibility

EBOM

3D Model

Dwg

Specs

Rest of the discussion assumes that these disciplines will continue to support the IPTs

(Deliverables)

E.O. Analysis

Eng. To RQMT

Plng & Crew Load

Engineering Changes after Release


Session 1 the human element people process environment

CAN BE MINIMIZED

More time up front

C/T Gain

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Process

DESIGN LOCK

(Was Engineering Database Rel)

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING RELEASE

*

(Deliverables)

*Requests for Changes

Design

Designer, Stress, Materials, Weights, R&M, Logistics, Cost, Producibility

MBOM

EBOM

3D Model

Dwg

Specs

Rel EO/EPRs

MRP

RQMTS

Planning

*

PTIs

Planning

ODS

Tool Travelers

Tool Design

Customer Support

Tool Designs

*

Tool Make

Tools

Quality

Quality Plan

*

Procurement

*

Supplier Selection

Parts Delivered

PO

RFQ

*

*

Fab & Assy

*

Changes

Time


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Changes between Design Lock &

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Release

DESIGN LOCK

There will be changes between Design Lock and CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Release but they will be managed in the IPT environment and not through Engineering Database and MBOM

(Was Engineering Database Rel)

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING RELEASE

Design

MBOM

EBOM

3D Model

Dwg

Specs

Rel EO/EPRs

EBOM

3D Model

Dwg

Specs

MRP

RQMTS

Planning

PTIs

Tool Travelers

Planning

ODS

Tool Design

Tool List

Tool Designs

Tool Make

Tools

Quality

Quality History

Quality Plan

Procurement

Supplier Selection

Parts Delivered

PO

RFQ

Fab & Assy

SAVE $ and CYCLE TIME

Time


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Bottom line with CONCURRENT ENGINEERING…

  • Significant reduction in Changes after Engineering Database Release

  • Benefit to the Program:

    • Reduced overall Cycle Time

    • Reduced Cost

True Concurrency in New Product Development


Session 1 the human element people process environment

How will CONCURRENT ENGINEERING work?


Session 1 the human element people process environment

GATE 0

GATE A

GATE B

3D Definition

Phase A

2D Definition

Phase B

Start of Detail Design

Detail Design

Gate 3

Gate 4

GATE C

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Package Preparation

Phase C

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Release

3D Lock

Design Lock

Concurrent Engineering Process Domain


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Gate A

Gate B

Gate C

3D Lock

Design Lock

CE Release

  • Design is ready for Engineering Database release

  • Planning is complete

  • Tool Design (except NC) is complete

  • Tool Make – well underway

  • Supplier selection is complete for Buy parts

  • Inspection Plans are complete

  • 3D design is complete and is ready for start of 2D drawing and Tool Design

  • Preliminary Mfg Plan is complete (Make/Buy decision is made)

  • Tool Travelers issued to start Tool Design effort

  • Long lead Tooling materials on order

  • Long lead starting materials and vendor parts for the design on EPRs

  • Quantity and need dates defined for Buy Parts

  • Document all changes after Gate A

  • Design is complete – drawing is signed off per our normal review and approval procedures released as Parts List Only drawing in Engineering Database

  • Outside Datasheets are complete

  • MBOM is complete

  • Tool Design (except NC) is well underway

  • Tool Make underway as Tool Designs are completed

  • RFQ is ready to go out to the Suppliers (MRP signal to follow after Engineering Database-MBOM-MRP feed)

  • Document all changes after Gate B

Proposed Concurrent Engineering Process


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Definition of a CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Package

  • Vast majority of issues that generate engineering changes will have already been addressed by the time CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Package is released

  • Will result in dramatically fewer engineering changes after the release of CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Package

  • Within a few days (admin time) of CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Package release, we will be ready to make parts and/or issue POs on Buy parts

  • Engineering Design is complete

    • All long lead materials and standard hardware have been ordered

  • Planning is complete

  • Tool Design is complete (was started at Gate A) and Tool Make well underway

  • Supplier selection is complete

  • Inspection Plans are complete


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Questions & Answers

Feedback

Was this Value-Added?


Critical key characteristics process architecture chris collins

Critical / Key Characteristics- Process Architecture Chris Collins

Developed a FMEA based process and application software which effectively identifies critical and key features of a part or assembly


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Situation

Analogy

What are the important features on your automobile?

Brakes?

Engine & drive system?

Color?

Size?

Some features are obviously more important than others. Would you want them to be given special attention?

Why are they important to you?

Safety?

Function / Performance?

Status?

How do you determine which features are important?


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Situation Impact

Now, apply this to aerospace and defense products with tens of thousands of parts, multiple applications, and over a million features.

What is the likelihood that we will have consistent interpretation if left to personal experience and judgment?

Contour

Hardness

Hole Location

Radius

Thickness

  • Thousands of wasted man-hours due to:

    • Scrap & Rework

    • Over-processing

Without a robust process to consistently identify the critical features, there are many opportunities for costly mistakes


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Process Solution

Solution: A FMEA based process structured to control the level of assessment and the rating criteria necessary to identify Critical & Key Characteristics

Control Level of Analysis

Right Question

Boundaries

Right Focus

Right Wording

Method

Result

Control Rating Criteria

Right Level

Right Sequence

Right Criteria

Right Phrasing

The strategic phrasing and sequencing of the questions (and response options) allows assessors to properly classifying the feature


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Application Requirement

Project Risk assessment

Change Management

Design Requirements

User

Acceptance

  • Limit to Top "x" failures

  • Flow Chart (Decision Matrix)

  • Change Process for KC / KP

  • Detail Process Map in DIs

  • Decision Matrix - Cross Function / Area Applicable language / terms

  • System Level Analysis

  • Decision Matrix by categories (Systems, assemblies, detail

  • Gate "A" DBB Deliverable

  • Gate "C" DBB for KPs

  • Gate "B" DBB for KCs

  • Command Media

  • Single Form

  • Sign-off Document

  • Single Source Record Retention

  • Documented Analysis

  • Retrievable Repository

  • Robust RPN

  • On Demand / Self Paced computer based training

  • Formal; Class Room Training

  • Lessons Learned Database

  • Downstream Accountability

  • Documented as part of Concurrent Engineering Process

  • Electronic Communication System

  • Training at Rollout (IPT Level)

  • Manpower Algorithm

  • Feedback from Process Users

The process was too complicated to deploy through roadmaps and procedures. We needed a tour guide (interactive facilitator) to walk the assessors through the process.

Training

The design process identified the need for an application solution


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Process Capability

  • Results from Prototyping

  • Reproducibility is better than previous process

  • Average Evaluation Time < 2% of design

Overwhelming response from prototyping participants –

Significant improvement in quality of analysis and current method

X

Design Scorecard

  • CTSs

    Satisfied

N/A

N/A

Technical Solution and Cultural Acceptance were Both Satisfied


Session 1 the human element people process environment

Summary

Measure

of

Success

Customer

/ Business

Requirements

Conceptual

Design

Preliminary

Design

DFSS

Detail

Design

Process

Validation

Prototype

Transition

Communication Sub-Team Approach

Advocates

Smooth

Result

Business Need

Federal Law

Voice

Of

Customer

Best Practices

Requirements

& CTSs

“Know your Audience”

Thought Process

Terminology

End User

“Assessors”

Feedback

Lessons

Learned

VOC drove the process

  • CTSs

Voice

Of

Process

Focused

Controlled

FMEA

Demonstrated

Process

Capability

3 o DPMO

Reproducibility

x

Affinity / Kano

QxA =

E

  • Cultural

    Acceptance

FOV

Enhancements

Metrics

Control

Application

Tool

Deployment

Incorporate VOC/VOP

Process

Targeted

FMEA

Inductive User

Approach

Replication

Solution

Applica

-tion

Meets Customer Requirements and Exceeds User Expectations


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