Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory
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Implementation of CAP in Hong Kong Observatory. TONG Yu- fai Scientific Officer Hong Kong Observatory Hong Kong, China. Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) Implementation Workshop WMO Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 23 – 24 April 2013. Presentation Outline.

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Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Implementation of CAP in Hong Kong Observatory

TONG Yu-fai

Scientific Officer

Hong Kong Observatory

Hong Kong, China

Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) Implementation Workshop

WMO Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 23 – 24 April 2013


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Presentation Outline

  • Weather Warnings Service in Hong Kong

  • Delivery of Warning Warnings in XML Format

  • CAP Implementation for Local Warnings

  • CAP Implementation for TC Warnings for Shipping

  • Next Steps


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Hong Kong Observatory (HKO)

  • A government department of Hong Kong

  • Responsible for forecasting weather and issuing warnings on weather-related hazards in HK

  • Monitor and assess radiation levels in HK, and provide geophysical services


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Weather Warnings in Hong Kong

Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) is the alerting authority in Hong Kong to issue the following weather warnings:

  • Special Announcement on Flooding

  • Tropical Cyclone Warning Signals (number-coded)

  • Landslip warning

  • Strong Monsoon Signal

  • Fire Danger Warning

  • Rainstorm Warning Signals

  • (colour-coded)

  • Very Hot Weather Warning

  • Cold Weather Warning

  • Thunderstorm Warning

  • Frost Warning


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Dissemination of Weather Warnings

Internet Website

http://www.weather.gov.hk

http://www.hko.gov.hk

eXtensible Markup

Language (XML)

Mobile applications

Telephone enquiry system

Public

Social Network

Twitter/Weibo

Mass media (newspaper, radio

and television)

SMS

Delivery via diverse and multiple means to communicate weather information of different volumes and degrees of details


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Delivery of Warning Messages in XML format

  • Currently, HKO disseminates weather warning messages in its own XML-based format to users with the needs of system automation, facilitating exchange of weather warnings between machines.

  • Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) is a XML-based data format for exchanging warning messages.

Why do HKO need to deliver weather warnings in CAP - another XML-based format?


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Presentation Outline

  • Weather Warnings Service in Hong Kong

  • Delivery of Warning Warnings in XML Format

  • CAP Implementation for Local Warnings

  • CAP Implementation for TC Warnings for Shipping

  • Next Steps


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

HKO’s XML data service

  • Provision of weather bulletins (including warnings ) in XML since 2003

  • A website was set up to allow users to retrieve the XML bulletins over the Internet


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

HKO’s XML data service

Transport operators

Media

Service Industry

Utilities

Weather Info

in XML

Government users

Telecom

  • Wide spectrum of users

  • Effective means to deliver up-to-the-minute weather reports/forecasts and warning electronically


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Limitations of the HKO’s XML Service for Delivery of Weather Warnings

“Proprietary” XML Schema

  • The schema specifying the HKO’s XML bulletins is proprietary, not adopted from any open data standard

  • No open library support. Users have to develop their tools to retrieve the HKO’s XML bulletins and ingest them into their systems.

  • Could not contain reference to additional information in the form of a digital asset

  • No geographic information. Messages target to all people in HK even though the incident affects only a specific area.


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Limitations of the HKO’s XML Service for Delivery of Weather Warnings

Multiple messages on same incident

For certain weather warnings, multiple XML bulletins referring to the same incident are issued to users, but containing different aspects of the information about the incident.

TC signal bulletin (which TC signal is issued?)

TC bulletin (TC analysis info)

Tropical Cyclone Warning Signal

TC warning announcement (event description & actions to be taken)

Multiple messages for same event may cause user confusion and incur extra effort on users to incorporate the XML bulletins into their information systems.


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Presentation Outline

  • Weather Warnings Service in Hong Kong

  • Delivery of Warning Warnings in XML Format

  • CAP Implementation for Local Warnings

  • CAP Implementation for TC Warnings for Shipping

  • Next Steps


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Why do HKO need to deliver weather warnings in CAP?

CAP is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings. It has advantages over the HKO’s XML data service:


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Implementation of CAP for

Local Weather Warnings

CAP

Combine messages of same event into a single CAP message

Example: TC warning signal

TC warning bulletin (which TC signal is issued?)

TC analysis & forecast track information

Tropical Cyclone Warning Signal

TC warning announcement (event description & actions to be taken)

Combine them into a signal CAP message

These messages are originally coded in 3 different XML bulletins


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Implementation of CAP for

Local Weather Warnings

Combine messages of same event into a single CAP message

Example: TC warning signal

CAP message for TC warning

TC warning bulletin (which TC signal is issued?)

<headline>TC No. 3 is issued at XX:XX HKT</headline>

TC warning announcement (event description & actions to be taken)

<description>…</description>

<instruction>…</instruction>

<parameter>

[analysis/forecast positions & intensities]

</parameter>

TC analysis & forecast track information


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Challenge of Applying CAP for

Weather Warnings in HK

Certain CAP elements could not be directly determined by HKO’s warning messages


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Option 1

  • Develop rules to assign values of CAP <severity> for each type of weather warnings.

Rainstorm Warning Signals

CAP <severity>:

Extreme,

Severe,

Moderate, Minor

?

30 mm/hr

50 mm/hr

70 mm/hr

  • As HK people already get used of the number- and colour-coded warning systems, the selection of CAP <severity> values must match their perception on the severity of local weather warnings.

  • The warning types (e.g. amber/red/black for rainstorms ) will be coded in the <eventCode> element.


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Option 2

  • Extend the value domain of the CAP <severity> element to include the HKO’s number- & colour-coded warning systems

  • However, it would NOT conform to the XML Schema of CAP!


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Presentation Outline

  • Weather Warnings Service in Hong Kong

  • Delivery of Warning Warnings in XML Format

  • CAP Implementation for Local Warnings

  • CAP Implementation for TC Warnings for Shipping

  • Next Steps


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Tropical Cyclone Warning for Shipping

by Hong Kong Observatory

  • Tropical cyclone over the South China Sea could pose a threat to mariners and ships at sea over the region

  • HKO issues TC warning to ships when a tropical cyclone is located with the area 10o to 30o N and 105o to 125o E

HK

Target users: mariners/ships over the warning area

TC Warning Area of Hong Kong


Implementation of cap in hong kong observatory

Tropical Cyclone Warning for Shipping

by Hong Kong Observatory

  • Contain information about TC analysis and position/intensity forecast up to 72-hour ahead

  • Update every 3 hours

  • Broadcast to ships via NAVTEX (a radio frequency broadcast system)


Tc shipping warning event focusing

TC Shipping Warning: Event focusing

Affected Area

  • TC warning for shipping are focusing on the event, moving from one place to another

  • For TC shipping warning, defining an area for sending alert is not as straight-forward as other warnings

T+48 hrs

T+24 hrs

T+0


Issues need to be rectified in adopting cap for tc shipping warning

Issues need to be rectified in adopting CAP for TC shipping warning

  • Define what kind of alert to be delivered for the CAP message of the TC shipping warning.

  • Decide how to determine the alert area of the CAP message to better meet the needs of the recipients.

  • Decide whether and how to break message into individual CAP alerts for different areas that will be affected at different forecast periods, e.g. 0<T<=24; 24<T<=48, etc.

  • Design rules for assigning values to elements urgency, severity and certainty

  • Decide on how forecast track could be encoded and in what format


Provide alert notification for the presence of tc of a particular strength

Provide alert / notification for the presence of TC of a particular strength

  • Break the TC shipping warning into different time intervals, e.g. 0-24, 24-48, 48-72, etc.

  • Alert area would be the polygon bounding the initial and final positions of the TC including the uncertainty circles

  • Provide alerts for the strongest intensity

  • Forecast track could be encoded in other XML format, e.g. CXML, KML, etc. and attach to the CAP in the <resource> element


Provide alert notification for the presence of tc of a particular strength1

Provide alert / notification for the presence of TC of a particular strength

Area B

Area A

T+48 hrs

T+24 hrs

T+0

CAP (0<T<=24)

Urgency:

Immediate

Target Area: A

CAP (24<T<=48)

Urgency:

Expected

Target Area: B


Next steps

Next Steps …

  • Develop rules and automatic system to convert all local warnings & TC advisories into CAP format

  • Set up a dedicate website to publish the CAP warnings and feeds

  • Develop public outreach and promulgate users (media, public utilities, transport operators, government users, etc) to make use of CAP in their information systems


Thank you

Thank You


Benefits of applying cap for tc advisories

Benefits of Applying CAPfor TC Advisories

  • CAP is a standard for delivering alerts and notifications

  • WMO endorsed standard

  • Messages could be delivered timely for disaster prevention and mitigation

  • CAP supports geographic information. Messages could be delivered to people who need them, and only those who need them

  • In adopting the CAP standard, multiple alert system could be activated with single input

  • With a standard, it benefits users because applications, e.g. WMO Severe Weather Information Centre (SWIC), could be developed to meet individual needs.


Characteristics of cap

Characteristics of CAP

  • Ideal for sending alert / notification of hazards for people at some particular area / location

  • Convey messages of urgency, severity and certainty

  • Prompt action of recipients (in <instruction> element)


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