Mse 415 product design lecture 9
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MSE-415: Product Design Lecture #9. Chapter 9 Product Architecture. Lecture Objectives:. Discuss midterm result Discuss presentation results Lecture on Product Architecture Lecture on Design for Manufacturing. Product Architecture.

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MSE-415: Product Design Lecture #9

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Mse 415 product design lecture 9

MSE-415: Product DesignLecture #9

Chapter 9

Product Architecture


Lecture objectives

Lecture Objectives:

  • Discuss midterm result

  • Discuss presentation results

  • Lecture on Product Architecture

  • Lecture on Design for Manufacturing


Product architecture

Product Architecture

  • Product architecture is the assignment of the functional elements of a product to the physical building blocks of the product.


Product architecture1

Product Architecture

The way the functions of the product are implemented through the use of chunks defines its architecture.

Modular Architecture

Chunks implement one or a few function elements

Interactions between chunks are well defined and fundamentalto the primary functions of the product.

A

D

C

B

Process

Design changes are relatively easy.


Product architecture2

Product Architecture

The way the functions of the product are implemented through the use of chunks defines its architecture.

Integral Architecture

Functional elements are implemented using more than one chunk.Single Chunk implements several functions.

Interactions between chunks are ill defined and may be incidentalto the primary functions of the product.

C

A – B

D

Process

Design changes are more complex.


Example coffee maker

Store

Water

Heat

Water

Heat

Coffee

Store

Grounds

Mix Coffee

and Water

Store

Coffee

Shut-off

Heater

Grind

Beans

Example: Coffee Maker

Overall

Function

Brew

Coffee

Electricity

Water

Supporting

Sub-Functions

Ground

Coffee

Coffee

Coffee

Beans

Auxiliary

Functions


How to create a function structure

How to Create a Function Structure

1.Formulate the overall product function

2.Split up overall function into sub-functions

3.Determine simplified functions structure

4.Identify material, energy, and information/signal flows

5.Add secondary/auxiliary functions and flows


Morphological matrix

Morphological Matrix

  • Search for solution principles to fulfill sub-functions

    • Identify as many solutions for each sub-function and auxiliary functions as possible

  • Combine solutions to embody physical concepts

    • Use morphological matrix to identify combinations of solutions

    • Each combination of solutions will fulfill overall function

  • Use expertise and heuristics to eliminate infeasible solution combinations


Morphological matrix for coffee maker

Store

Coffee

· · ·

· · ·

· · ·

S11

S12

S1j

S1m

Mix Coffee

and Water

Filter

Osmosis

Dissolve

Ionize

· · ·

· · ·

Stir

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

Heat

Coffee

Brew

Coffee

Heat

Water

· · ·

· · ·

· · ·

Si1

Si2

Sij

Sim

·

·

·

·

·

·

Store

Water

Store

Grounds

· · ·

· · ·

· · ·

Sn1

Sn2

Snj

Snm

Morphological Matrix for Coffee Maker


Modularity defined

Modularity Defined

  • After we brainstorm solutions for each sub-function, we combine them to create the product architecture.

  • As part of this process, we seek to identify modules.

  • Modularity is defined as:

    • a one-to-one correspondence between functional elements and physical structures

    • unintended interactions between modules are minimized (i.e., component interfaces are de-coupled).

  • The opposite of modularity is referred to as integral.


Product architecture definition

Product Architecture Definition

  • Recall that a product architecture is:

    • the arrangement of functionalelements

    • the mapping of functionalelements to physical components

    • the specification of the interfaces among physical components

  • A modular architecture is:

    • One physical component per function; de-coupled interfaces

  • An integral architecture is:

    • Coupled interfaces; multiple functions per physical component


Types of modularity slot

Types of Modularity: Slot

  • In a slot architecture, each module

    has a different interface with the

    overall system.

  • Why different interfaces?

    • So that various components cannot be interchanged

  • Examples:

    • SCSI, Ethernet, and parallel ports on laptop


Types of modularity bus

Types of Modularity: Bus

  • In a bus architecture, there is a

    common bus to which modules

    connect via the same interface.

  • What are the advantages of this type of modularity?

  • Examples:

    • Modem and Internet cards on laptop; CD and disk drive


Types of modularity sectional

Types of Modularity: Sectional

  • In a sectional architecture, all interfaces are the same type but there is no single element to which modules attach.

  • What are advantages and disadvantages of a sectional approach?

  • Examples:

    • Legos

Using a sectional architecture, the assembly is built up by connecting the modules to each other via identical interfaces.


Selecting architecture

Selecting Architecture

Decisions about how to divide the product into chunks and about how much modularity to impose on the architecture are tightly linkedto several issues of importance:

  • Product Change

  • Product Variety

  • Component Standardization

  • Product Performance

  • Manufacturability

  • Product Development Management


Selecting architecture1

Selecting Architecture

Product Change

Architecture defines how the product can be changed.

Modular = changes to be made to few isolated functional elements

Integral = changes may influence many functional elements

Reasons for Change:

UpgradeAdd-onsAdaptation

WearConsumptionFlexibility of Use

Reuse


Selecting architecture2

Selecting Architecture

Product Variety

Variety refers to the range of product models the firm can producewithin a particular time period in response to market demand.

Modular = Easier variation without adding tremendous complexityto the manufacturing system.

Integral = Variation of product can add complexity to the manufacturingsystem.

B1

A

B2

A – B – C - D

C

D


Selecting architecture3

Selecting Architecture

Component Standardization

Component standardization is the use of the same component or chunk in multiple products.

Modular = Chunks can be manufactured in higher volumes savingthe organization money.

Integral = Chunks are specialized resulting in lower manufacturingvolumes.


Selecting architecture4

Selecting Architecture

Product Performance

Product performance is how well a product implements its intendedfunctions such as:

Speed – Efficiency – Life – Accuracy - Noise

Integral Architecture facilitates optimization of characteristics drivenby size, shape, and mass of a product such as:

Acceleration – Energy Consumption – Aerodynamics Drag

Redundancy can be eliminated


Selecting architecture5

Selecting Architecture

Manufacturability

Involves Design for Manufacturing (DFM). One important conceptof DFM involves minimization of the number of parts in the design.

Discussed in more detail in Chapter 11.


Selecting architecture6

Selecting Architecture

Product Development Management

Detail design of each chunk is usually assigned to a relativelysmall group within a firm or to an outside supplier.

Modular – The group assigned to design a chunk deals with known,and relatively limited, functional interactions with other chunks.

Integral – Detail design will require close coordination with other groups.


Establishing the architecture

Establishing the Architecture

4-Step Structured Method

  • Create a schematic of the product.

  • Cluster the elements of the schematic.

  • Create a rough geometric layout.

  • Identify the fundamental and incidental interactions.


Creating a module based product family

Creating a Module-Based Product Family

1.Decompose products into their representative functions

2.Develop modules with one-to-one (or many-to-one) correspondence with functions

3.Group common functional modules into a common product platform

}

Product

Platform

Common

Functions

4.Standardize interfaces to facilitate addition, removal, and substitution of modules

Specific

Function 1

Specific

Function 2

Specific

Function k

{

Product

Family

Derivative

Product 1

Derivative

Product 2

Derivative

Product k


Example braun family of coffee makers

Adjustable

Heater

Water

Filter

Auto Shut-

off, Clock

Basic

Model

Thermos

Karafe

Frothing

Attachment

KF130

KF145

KF170

KF180

KF185

KF190

Example: Braun Family of Coffee Makers

Electricity

Common

Function

Brew

Coffee

Store

Water

Heat

Water

Heat

Coffee

Water

Ground

Coffee

Store

Grounds

Mix Coffee

and Water

Store

Coffee

Coffee


Developing modular architectures

Developing Modular Architectures

  • What are some rules of thumb you, might follow to develop a modular product architecture?


Establishing the architecture1

Establishing the Architecture

Cluster the Elements of the Schematic

  • Geometric integration/precisionElements that must be close together are logically groupedin one chunk.

  • Function sharing

    • When a single physical component can implement severalfunctional elements of the product the elements shouldbe clustered together.

  • Capabilities of vendors

    • The elements that a vendor has capability in should begrouped together.

  • Similarity of design or production technology

    • When two or more functional elements are likely to be implemented usingthe same design/production technology, then incorporating these intothe same chunk may allow for more economical design.


Establishing the architecture2

Establishing the Architecture

Cluster the Elements of the Schematic

  • 5.Localization of ChangeWhen you anticipate a lot of change in some element it makes senseto isolate the element in one chunk.

  • 6.Accommodating Variety

    • Elements should be grouped together to enable the firm to vary the productin ways that will have value for the customers.

  • 7.Enabling Standardization

    • If a set of elements will be useful in other products, they should be clusteredtogether into a single chunk.

  • 8.Portability of interfaces

    • Functions that must be close to one another to work properly should be clustered into one chunk.


Establishing the architecture3

Establishing the Architecture

Cluster the Elements of the Schematic

Flow of forces/energy

Enclosure

Flow of material

EnclosePrinter

PrintCartridge

Flow of signals/data

User Interface

AcceptUserInputs

DisplayStatus

PositionCartridgeIn X-axis

StructuralSupport

Power Cord

Chassis

SupplyDCPower

Control Printer

PositionCartridgeIn Y-axis

StoreOutput

CommandPrinter

Comm.With Host

“Pick”Paper

StoreBlankPaper

Driver Software

PrintMechanism

ConnecttoHost

Logic Board

Paper Tray


Establishing the architecture4

Establishing the Architecture

Create a Rough Geometric Layout

Creating a geometric layout forces the team to consider whetherthe geometric interfaces among the chunks are feasible.

Logic Board

User Interface

Print Cartridge

Paper Tray

Print Mechanism


Establishing the architecture5

Establishing the Architecture

Identify the Fundamental and Incidental Interactions

Fundamental: Identified in the schematic.

Incidental: Shown in an incidental interaction graph.

Enclosure

User InterfaceBoard

Thermal Distortion

Styling

Print Mechanism

Paper Tray

Host DriverSoftware

Logic Board

Vibration

RF Interface

Power CordBrick

Chassis

Thermal DistortionRF Shielding


Platform planning

Platform Planning

The collection of assets shared by various products to meet various

markets is called the product platform.

  • There are market advantages to have several distinct versions of a product.

  • There are design/manufacturing advantages to have when versionsshare many components.

But how do you determine the trade-off?


Platform planning1

Platform Planning

Differentiation Plan

Commonality Plan


Platform planning2

Platform Planning

Differentiation Plan

Explicitly represents the ways in which multiple versions of a productwill be different from the perspective of the customer and the market.


Platform planning3

Platform Planning

Commonality Plan

Explicitly represents the ways in which multiple versions of a productwill be the same physically.


Platform planning4

Platform Planning

Managing the Trade-off

  • Platform planning decisions should be informed by quantitativeestimates of cost and revenue implications.

  • Iteration is beneficial.

  • The product architecture dictates the nature of the trade-off betweendifferentiation and commonality.


Mse 415 product design lecture 10

MSE-415: Product DesignLecture #10

Chapter 11

Design for Manufacturing


Lecture objectives1

Lecture Objectives:

  • Overview of the DFM process

    • Estimate manufacturing cost

    • Reduce cost of components

    • Reduce cost of assembly

    • Reduce cost of supporting production

    • Consider impact of DFM decisions on other factors


Gathering dfm information

Gathering DFM Information

  • Sketches, drawings, product specifications, and design alternatives.

  • A detailed understanding of production and assembly processes

  • Estimates of manufacturing costs, production volumes, and ramp-up timing.


Dfm method

DFM Method


1 estimate the manufacturing costs

1. Estimate the Manufacturing Costs


Manufacturing costs defined

Manufacturing Costs Defined

  • Sum of all the expenditures for the inputs of the system (i.e. purchased components, energy, raw materials, etc.) and for disposal of the wastes produced by the system


Elements of the manufacturing cost of a product

Elements of the Manufacturing Cost of a Product


Manufacturing cost of a product

Manufacturing Cost of a Product

  • Component Costs (parts of the product)

    • Parts purchased from supplier

    • Custom parts made in the manufacturer’s own plant or by suppliers according to the manufacturer’s design specifications

  • Assembly Costs (labor, equipment, & tooling)

  • Overhead Costs (all other costs)

    • Support Costs (material handling, quality assurance, purchasing, shipping, receiving, facilities, etc.)

    • Indirect Allocations (not directly linked to a particular product but must be paid for to be in business)


Fixed costs vs variable costs

Fixed Costs vs. Variable Costs

  • Fixed Costs – incurred in a predetermined amount, regardless of number of units produced (i.e. setting up the factory work area or cost of an injection mold)

  • Variable Costs – incurred in direct proportion to the number of units produced (i.e. cost of raw materials)

$

Fixed

Variable

N


2 reduce the cost of components

2. Reduce the Cost of Components

  • Understand the Process Constraints and Cost Drivers

  • Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing Steps

  • Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for the Part Process

  • Standardize Components and Processes

  • Adhere to “Black Box” Component Procurement


Understand the process constraints and cost drivers

Understand the Process Constraints and Cost Drivers

Redesign costly parts with the same performance while avoiding high manufacturing costs.

Work closely with design engineers—raise awareness of difficult operations and high costs.


Redesign components to eliminate processing steps

Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing Steps

  • Reduce the number of steps of the production process

    • Will usually result in reduce costs

  • Eliminate unnecessary steps.

  • Use substitution steps, where applicable.

  • Analysis Tool – Process Flow Chart and Value Stream Mapping


Choose appropriate economics of scale

Choose Appropriate Economics of Scale

Economies of Scale – As production volume increases, manufacturing costs usually decrease.

  • Fixed costs divided among more units.

  • Variable costs are lower since the firm can use more efficient processes and equipment.

LRAC – Long Run Average Cost/Unit


Standardize components and processes

Standardize Components and Processes

  • Economies of Scale – The unit cost of a component decreases as the production volume increases.

  • Standard Components—common to more than one product

  • Analysis tools – group technology and mass customization


Adhere to black box component procurement

Adhere to “Black Box” Component Procurement

  • Black box—only give a description of what the component has to do, not how to achieve it

  • Successful black box design requires clear definitions of the functions, interfaces, and interactions of each component.

What

What

What


3 reduce the costs of assembly

3. Reduce the Costs of Assembly

  • Design for Assembly (DFA) index

    • Design for assembly (DFA) is a subset of DFM which involves minimizing the cost of assembly.

  • Integrated Parts (Advantages and Disadvantages)

  • Maximize Ease of Assembly

  • Consider Customer Assembly


Advantages of integrated parts

Advantages of Integrated Parts

  • Do not have to be assembled

  • Often less expensive to fabricate rather than the sum of each individual part

  • Allows critical geometric features to be controlled by the part fabrication process versus a similar assembly process

Disadvantages of Integrated Parts

  • Conflict with other sound approaches to minimize costs

  • Not always a wise strategy


Minimize ease of assembly

Minimize Ease of Assembly

  • Part is inserted from the top of the assembly

  • Part is self-aligning

  • Part does not need to be oriented

  • Part requires only one hand for assembly

  • Part requires no tools

  • Part is assembled in a single, linear motion

  • Part is secured immediately upon insertion


Consider customer assembly

Consider Customer Assembly

  • Customers will tolerate some assembly

  • Design product so that customers can easily and assemble correctly

  • Customers will likely ignore directions


4 reduce the costs of supporting production

4. Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production

  • Minimize Systemic Complexity (inputs, outputs, and transforming processes)

    • Use smart design decisions

  • Error Proofing (Poka Yoke)

    • Anticipate possible failure modes

    • Take appropriate corrective actions in the early stages

    • Use color coding to easily identify similar looking, but different parts


5 consider the impact of dfm decisions on other factors

5. Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on Other Factors

  • Development Time

  • Development Cost

  • Product Quality

  • External Factors

    • Component reuse

    • Life cycle costs


Next week november 14 2007 lecture 11

Next Week – November 14, 2007 (Lecture #11)

  • Homework #7 - Handout

  • Read Chapter 12 – Prototyping

  • Read Chapter 13 – Robust Design

  • Prepare for a potential quiz on:

    • Chapters 9, 11, 12, 13

    • Lectures #9, #10

    • Additional reading handout


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