slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Fundamentals of Computer Processing

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 31

Fundamentals of Computer Processing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on

Fundamentals of Computer Processing. Computer Sizes. Mainframes -- the first Supercomputers -- the largest Minicomputers -- the first effort to achieve reduced size Microcomputers -- made possible by microprocessor PC -- used by one person, or by a few people in the same area

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Fundamentals of Computer Processing' - africa


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1
Fundamentals

of

Computer Processing

computer sizes
Computer Sizes
  • Mainframes -- the first
  • Supercomputers -- the largest
  • Minicomputers -- the first effort to achieve reduced size
  • Microcomputers -- made possible by microprocessor

PC -- used by one person, or by a few people in the same area

Workstations, lap tops, notebooks, and palmtops

the computer schematic
The Computer Schematic
  • Processor = Control unit + ALU
  • The computer is a closed-loop system
slide4

The

Computer

Schematic

Central Processing Unit

(CPU)

Control Unit

Primary

Storage Unit

Output

Information

Input Data

Arithmetic and

Logic Unit

Secondary

Storage

Unit

computer history
Computer History
  • Prior to 1950s
  • Keydriven machines
    • (some were called bookkeeping machines)
  • Punched card machines
computer history continued
Computer History (continued)
  • 1951 -- first commercial computer (a UNIVAC I) installed at the Census Burea
  • 1954 -- first computer installed in a business (another UNIVAC I at GE)
  • Early 1970s -- minicomputers
  • Late 1970s -- microcomputers (TRS-80, Commodore PET)
  • 1982 -- IBM PC
primary storage
Primary Storage

Evolution in storage media:

  • Magnetic drums
  • Magnetic cores
  • Integrated circuits (1964)
bits and bytes kb mb
Bits and Bytes (KB, MB)
  • RAM and ROM
  • Cache memory
  • One kilobyte (1KB) is 210 bytes (1,024)
  • One megabyte (1MB) is 220 bytes (1,048,576)
input devices
Input Devices
  • Keyboard
  • Ergonomic considerations (human engineering, human factor considerations)
  • QWERTY keyboard vs. Dvorak keyboard
pointing devices
Pointing Devices
  • Mouse
  • Trackball
  • Touch screen
  • Light pen
  • Remote control device
source data automation sda
Source Data Automation (SDA)
  • Input bottleneck
  • Optical character recognition (OCR) is big in retailing
    • Supermarket scanners
    • Point of sale (POS) terminals
  • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) was big for banks starting in the late 1950s
technologies used for pos terminals
Technologies used for POS Terminals
  • Mark readers
  • Barcode readers
  • Character readers
  • Handprint readers
speech recognition
Speech Recognition
  • Speaker dependent
  • Speaker independent
output devices
Output Devices
  • Displayed
    • CRT, VDT
    • Flat-panel
  • Printed
    • Speed
    • Quality
  • Speech (audio response unit)
    • digitized or playback
slide15

Means of

Producing

Computer

Output

Displayed

Output

Devices

Printers

ABC123

Computer

Speech

Output

Devices

Plotters

Microfilm

printers
Printers

Impact

Nonimpact

Line

Character

Page

Ink

jet

Laser

Dot

matrix

Daisy

wheel

output devices continued
Output Devices (continued)
  • Plotters
    • Flatbed
    • Drum
  • Microform
    • Microfilm (roll)
    • Microfiche (sheet)
  • Tabular versus graphical versus narrative
software
Software
  • Input and output devices communicate directly with the manager and are considered to have a direct role
  • Source data automation devices play an indirect role
  • Two main types of software -- system and application
system software
System Software
  • Three main types:
    • operating system
    • translators
    • utilities
operating system
Operating System
  • Basic functions
    • Schedule jobs
    • Manage hardware and software resources
    • Maintain system security
    • Provide for multiprogramming
    • Handle interrupts
    • Maintain usage records
language translators software generations
Language TranslatorsSoftware Generations
  • First -- machine language
  • Second -- assemblers
  • Third -- compilers and interpreters
    • Procedure-oriented language
    • Problem-oriented language
  • Fourth -- natural language (4GL)
  • Nonprocedural
  • Types of 4GLs (example: FOCUS)
slide22

The Program is Translated Before the Data is Processed

Source

Program

1

Translate

2

Object

Program

Input

Data

Output

slide23

Fourth-generation Languages Offer Unique Combinations of

Power and User Friendliness

Report

writers

Much

Very

high-level languages

Modeling languages

Database Query Language

DSS

power

Application

generators

Graph

generators

Little

Friendly

Unfriendly

User friendliness

slide24

FOCUS Instructions to Prepare a Report

DEFINE FILE SALES

REGION/A12=DECODE REGION(NE ‘NORTH EAST’

SE ‘SOUTH EAST’ MW ‘MID WEST’

MA ‘MID-ATLANTIC’);

END

TABLE FILE SALES

HEADING CENTER

“PRODUCT UNIT SALES ANALYSIS </1”

SUM UNITS AND ROW-TOTAL AND COLUMN-TOTAL

ACROSS REGION

BY PRODNUM AS ‘PRODUCT NUMBER’

END

application software
Application Software
  • Custom programming versus prewritten packages
  • Four categories of prewritten packages

1. General business

2. Industry-specific

3. Organizational productivity

GDSS, E-mail, project management, forecasting, stat packages

application software continued
Application Software (continued)

4. Personal productivity (or application development software)

  • Word processing
  • Spreadsheets
  • Graphics
  • desktop publishing, etc.

Direct versus indirect roles of software

application software1
Application Software

C B I S

Software

Type

DP

MIS

DSS

OA

ES

General Business

Industry-specific

Organizational

productivity

Personal

productivity

user friendliness
User Friendliness
  • Guided dialog
    • Menus
    • Form-filling
  • Context sensitive help
    • Help screen or help messages
  • Graphic user interface (GUI)
    • Icons, buttons, toolbars, and others
error control
Error Control
  • Error prevention
    • Protected format
  • Error detection
    • Edit routines
  • Error correction
    • Edit commands
multimedia
Multimedia
  • Combines different forms of computer output, allows richer communication
  • Began in late 1980s
  • Multimedia in business
    • accounting information systems (documedia)
    • MIS and DSS via graphs, three-dimensional graphics and animation
    • office automation; workgroup computing, desktop video
    • knowledge-based systems
slide31

The Multimedia System Development Process

Communications

Professionals

Information Specialists

User

Step 1

Define the problem

Step 2

Design the concept

Step 3

Design the content

Step 4

Write the script

Step 5

Design the graphics

Step 6

Produce the system

Step 7

Conduct user tests

Use the system

Step 8

Step 9

Maintain the system

ad