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Fundamentals of Computer Processing. Computer Sizes. Mainframes -- the first Supercomputers -- the largest Minicomputers -- the first effort to achieve reduced size Microcomputers -- made possible by microprocessor PC -- used by one person, or by a few people in the same area

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Fundamentals of Computer Processing

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Fundamentals

of

Computer Processing


Computer Sizes

  • Mainframes -- the first

  • Supercomputers -- the largest

  • Minicomputers -- the first effort to achieve reduced size

  • Microcomputers -- made possible by microprocessor

    PC -- used by one person, or by a few people in the same area

    Workstations, lap tops, notebooks, and palmtops


The Computer Schematic

  • Processor = Control unit + ALU

  • The computer is a closed-loop system


The

Computer

Schematic

Central Processing Unit

(CPU)

Control Unit

Primary

Storage Unit

Output

Information

Input Data

Arithmetic and

Logic Unit

Secondary

Storage

Unit


Computer History

  • Prior to 1950s

  • Keydriven machines

    • (some were called bookkeeping machines)

  • Punched card machines


Computer History (continued)

  • 1951 -- first commercial computer (a UNIVAC I) installed at the Census Burea

  • 1954 -- first computer installed in a business (another UNIVAC I at GE)

  • Early 1970s -- minicomputers

  • Late 1970s -- microcomputers (TRS-80, Commodore PET)

  • 1982 -- IBM PC


Primary Storage

Evolution in storage media:

  • Magnetic drums

  • Magnetic cores

  • Integrated circuits (1964)


Bits and Bytes (KB, MB)

  • RAM and ROM

  • Cache memory

  • One kilobyte (1KB) is 210 bytes (1,024)

  • One megabyte (1MB) is 220 bytes (1,048,576)


Input Devices

  • Keyboard

  • Ergonomic considerations (human engineering, human factor considerations)

  • QWERTY keyboard vs. Dvorak keyboard


Pointing Devices

  • Mouse

  • Trackball

  • Touch screen

  • Light pen

  • Remote control device


Source Data Automation (SDA)

  • Input bottleneck

  • Optical character recognition (OCR) is big in retailing

    • Supermarket scanners

    • Point of sale (POS) terminals

  • Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) was big for banks starting in the late 1950s


Technologies used for POS Terminals

  • Mark readers

  • Barcode readers

  • Character readers

  • Handprint readers


Speech Recognition

  • Speaker dependent

  • Speaker independent


Output Devices

  • Displayed

    • CRT, VDT

    • Flat-panel

  • Printed

    • Speed

    • Quality

  • Speech (audio response unit)

    • digitized or playback


Means of

Producing

Computer

Output

Displayed

Output

Devices

Printers

ABC123

Computer

Speech

Output

Devices

Plotters

Microfilm


Printers

Impact

Nonimpact

Line

Character

Page

Ink

jet

Laser

Dot

matrix

Daisy

wheel


Output Devices (continued)

  • Plotters

    • Flatbed

    • Drum

  • Microform

    • Microfilm (roll)

    • Microfiche (sheet)

  • Tabular versus graphical versus narrative


Software

  • Input and output devices communicate directly with the manager and are considered to have a direct role

  • Source data automation devices play an indirect role

  • Two main types of software -- system and application


System Software

  • Three main types:

    • operating system

    • translators

    • utilities


Operating System

  • Basic functions

    • Schedule jobs

    • Manage hardware and software resources

    • Maintain system security

    • Provide for multiprogramming

    • Handle interrupts

    • Maintain usage records


Language TranslatorsSoftware Generations

  • First -- machine language

  • Second -- assemblers

  • Third -- compilers and interpreters

    • Procedure-oriented language

    • Problem-oriented language

  • Fourth -- natural language (4GL)

  • Nonprocedural

  • Types of 4GLs (example: FOCUS)


The Program is Translated Before the Data is Processed

Source

Program

1

Translate

2

Object

Program

Input

Data

Output


Fourth-generation Languages Offer Unique Combinations of

Power and User Friendliness

Report

writers

Much

Very

high-level languages

Modeling languages

Database Query Language

DSS

power

Application

generators

Graph

generators

Little

Friendly

Unfriendly

User friendliness


FOCUS Instructions to Prepare a Report

DEFINE FILE SALES

REGION/A12=DECODE REGION(NE ‘NORTH EAST’

SE ‘SOUTH EAST’ MW ‘MID WEST’

MA ‘MID-ATLANTIC’);

END

TABLE FILE SALES

HEADING CENTER

“PRODUCT UNIT SALES ANALYSIS </1”

SUM UNITS AND ROW-TOTAL AND COLUMN-TOTAL

ACROSS REGION

BY PRODNUM AS ‘PRODUCT NUMBER’

END


Application Software

  • Custom programming versus prewritten packages

  • Four categories of prewritten packages

    1. General business

    2. Industry-specific

    3. Organizational productivity

    GDSS, E-mail, project management, forecasting, stat packages


Application Software (continued)

4. Personal productivity (or application development software)

  • Word processing

  • Spreadsheets

  • Graphics

  • desktop publishing, etc.

    Direct versus indirect roles of software


Application Software

C B I S

Software

Type

DP

MIS

DSS

OA

ES

General Business

Industry-specific

Organizational

productivity

Personal

productivity


User Friendliness

  • Guided dialog

    • Menus

    • Form-filling

  • Context sensitive help

    • Help screen or help messages

  • Graphic user interface (GUI)

    • Icons, buttons, toolbars, and others


Error Control

  • Error prevention

    • Protected format

  • Error detection

    • Edit routines

  • Error correction

    • Edit commands


Multimedia

  • Combines different forms of computer output, allows richer communication

  • Began in late 1980s

  • Multimedia in business

    • accounting information systems (documedia)

    • MIS and DSS via graphs, three-dimensional graphics and animation

    • office automation; workgroup computing, desktop video

    • knowledge-based systems


The Multimedia System Development Process

Communications

Professionals

Information Specialists

User

Step 1

Define the problem

Step 2

Design the concept

Step 3

Design the content

Step 4

Write the script

Step 5

Design the graphics

Step 6

Produce the system

Step 7

Conduct user tests

Use the system

Step 8

Step 9

Maintain the system


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