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Linux Administration Part 1 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 3. Linux Administration Part 1. Overview. This presentation covers : User Interface Administration Files System and Services Management. User Interface Administration. Log In Procedures . Users can log on to a Linux operating system using the Command-Line Interface (CLI).

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Linux Administration Part 1

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Linux administration part 1

Chapter 3

Linux Administration

Part 1


Overview

Overview

This presentation covers :

  • User Interface Administration

  • Files System and Services Management


User interface administration

User Interface Administration


Log in procedures

Log In Procedures

  • Users can log on to a Linux operating system using the Command-Line Interface (CLI).

  • The Linux CLI provides the user with successive text only prompts to enter a user name and password.

  • No additional domain information is required.


Gui interface

GUI Interface

  • "X Window" allows Linux to operate similar to the other GUIs.

  • A typical X Window interface will look somewhat familiar to a Windows user.

  • Linux users can completely customize their X Window interface to meet their specific needs.


Cli interface

CLI Interface

  • The Linux command-line interface (CLI) allows the user to interact with the system in the same manner as the Windows command prompt.

  • Users should try entering basic commands.

  • Do not attempt to randomly guess commands, since such careless activity could have impacts on the system.


Cli interface1

CLI Interface

  • The man command displays online manual pages for any of the hundreds of Linux commands.

  • A listing of all the Linux commands with a brief description of what they do can be obtained by entering man intro at the command line.

  • A man page can be displayed on the man command itself by typing man man.


Cli interface2

CLI Interface

  • A number of different headings or informational areas are in a typical man page.

  • All commands will have at least a name, a synopsis, and a description.

  • A common Linux command is cd, which allows users to change directories.


Cli interface3

CLI Interface

  • The ls command can be issued with the [options] and the [files] list to display the contents of a specific directory.

  • When the ls command is issued without these options the contents of the current directory will be listed.

  • Also more than one filename can be given so that the ls command will list the contents of multiple directories.


The linux shells

The Linux Shells

  • The Linux shells operate as a command interpreter.

  • The command interpreter from the MS-DOS environment is similar.

  • It combines the interactive features that make the C shell popular with the easier to use shell programming syntax of the Bourne shell.

  • The Born Again Shell is referred to as the bash shell and is used for many ’UNIX-like’ systems.


Files system and services management

Files System and Services Management


Files and directories

Files and Directoriesالملفات والمجلدات

DIRECTORY

Linux uses a hierarchical file system

نظام الملفات المتدرج (الشجري)

SUB-DIRECTORY1

SUB-DIRECTORY2

  • Directories contain sub-directories

  • Directories and sub-directories hold files

FILE

FILE

DATA

DATA


Directory hierarchy

Directory Hierarchy

ROOT DIRECTORY

/

TMP

BIN

SBIN

BOOT

ROOT

DEV

ETC

USR

HOME

PROC

MOUNT

Amal

Muna

Maha

Nada

Pictures

Videos

Downloads

Books


Directory hierarchy cont

Directory Hierarchy (Cont…)

/tmp

/root

/usr

/proc

/var

/bin

/lib

/sbin

/dev

/boot

/etc

/mnt

/home

ROOT


Creating sharing directories

Creating/Sharing Directories

  • Creating files and directories in Linux is a matter of knowing the proper commands and how to use them.

  • Some of the commands use the same syntax for both files and directories, while others are different.


Using the find and grep commands

Using the Find and Grep Commands

  • The find command is used to locate one or more files assuming that you know their approximate filenames.

  • The find command lets you specify filters, and run commands on the contents of entire directory trees.

  • The grep command allows you to search for a pattern in a list of files.

  • The way to search for a string with the grep command is to put the words you are searching for together in single quotes.


Overview1

Overview

This presentation covers :

  • User Accounts and Group Accounts

  • Files System configuration files

  • Benefits of Networking

  • Daemons


User accounts and group accounts

User Accounts and Group Accounts


User and group accounts in a linux environment

User and Group Accounts in a Linux Environment

  • User accounts in a Linux system allow several people to be logged into the system at the same time or at different times without interfering with each other.

  • The term user and account are sometimes used interchangeably.

  • There are several important terms that will need to be learned.


User and group accounts in a linux environment1

User and Group Accounts in a Linux Environment

  • The Linux operating system is both a multiuser and multitasking system.

  • The most important user account is the Superuser account; also referred to as the root account.

  • This account is used by the system administrator to perform any administrative tasks on a Linux system.

  • The Superuser account can be used in several ways:

    • root login

    • Su

    • Sudo

    • SUID root files


Adding and removing user accounts

Adding and Removing User Accounts

  • The root user creates other Linux users with the useraddcommand.

  • When this command is entered at the prompt, Linux performs many simultaneous tasks to create the user account, such as creating a home directory and assigning default permissions.

  • Flags and parameters exist for the useraddcommand and can be found by viewing its man page.


Creating a new user

Creating a new user

  • Use the useraddcommand

  • Use the passwdcommand to set password

  • Try it… logon as root

[[email protected]]# useradd amal

[[email protected]]# passwd amal

Changing password for user amal

New UNIX password:

Retype new UNIX password:

passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully

[[email protected]]#


Managing user accounts

Managing User Accounts

  • The process of disabling an account requires a bit more effort.

  • The system administrator must edit the file that stores all user information on the system and manually disable the user's password.

  • User passwords are stored in a central file known as the ‘shadow’ file, which is located in the /etc directory.

  • This file can be edited with a text editor like vi Editor.


Creating groups and adding users to groups

Creating Groups and Adding users to Groups

  • Every group on a Linux system can have anywhere from no members to as many members as there are user accounts on the systems.

  • Group membership is controlled by the /etc/group file.

  • To change to a different group after logging into the system use the newgrp command.

  • The syntax for this command is newgrp <group name> for example: newgrp engineering.

  • The gpasswd command can be used to modify existing groups.


  • Login