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The Basics of Nutrition

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Target Audience: High School & College Students. The Basics of Nutrition. By: Beth Goldenberg. Characteristics of a Nutritious Diet. 1 . Calorie Control Consuming the proper amount of calories 2. Balance Enough food from each category 3. Variety Different foods within each food group

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characteristics of a nutritious diet
Characteristics of a Nutritious Diet
  • 1. Calorie Control
    • Consuming the proper amount of calories
  • 2. Balance
    • Enough food from each category
  • 3. Variety
    • Different foods within each food group
  • 4. Moderation
    • Not over or under eating
  • 5. Adequacy
    • Consuming nutrients on regular basis
food pyramid
Food Pyramid
  • Grains
    • 3 servings from whole grains
  • Vegetables
    • Variety- look for color
  • Fruit
    • Only 1 serving should be from juice
  • Dairy
    • Consume low fat diary
  • Protein
    • Limit 1 serving from red meat
recommended serving sizes

Pasta/ Rice: ½ cup

Vegetables: ½ cup

Bread: 1 slice

Fruit: ½ cip

Juice: ¾ cup

Cold cereal: ¾ cup

Meat: 2-3 oz

Butter: 1 tsp

Recommended Serving Sizes
wording on food labels
Wording on Food Labels

So what do these words all mean?

Extra Lean: <5 grams of fat per serving

Lean: < 10 grams of fat per serving

Low Fat:< grams of fat

Good source of: 10-19% of daily value

High in Fiber: > 20% of DV

Low Sodium: < 140mg of sodium

Reduced Calories: 25% less than original

eating healthy tips
Eating Healthy Tips
  • Don’t add salt to your meals
  • Stay hydrated- drink water
  • Whole Grains
  • Smaller meals throughout the day
  • Unsaturated fats over saturated
  • Limit eating out
6 essential nutrients
6 Essential Nutrients
  • Minerals
  • Water
  • Vitamins
  • Carbs
  • Fats
  • Proteins

Starch

Sugar

Cellulose

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Primary source of energy during high intensity
  • Primary energy source for nervous system
  • Glucose = Primary Carb in our body.

Monosaccharide

Disaccharide

  • Glucose
  • Galactose
  • Fructose
  • Sucrose
  • Lactose
fiber
Fiber
  • Insoluble vs. Soluble
  • Advantages

Obesity

Heart Rate

Hypertension

Cholesterol

  • Sources
    • whole bran, vegetables
calories per gram
Calories per gram

Carbs: 4 cal/gram

Protein: 4 cal/gram

Fats: 9 cal/ gram

protein
Protein
  • Growth and repair of muscle
  • Amino Acids
    • 11 non-essential
    • 9 essential
  • RDA
    • .4 grams/ lb for average
    • .5-.8 grams/lb for athlete
slide12
Fats
  • Primary fuel at rest
  • Fat protect organs
  • Saturated Fats
    • Animal products
    • Unhealthy
  • Unsaturated Fats
    • Plant Sources
    • Healthier option
recommendations
Recommendations
  • 45% - 65% of calories from carbohydrates.
  • 20% - 35% of calories from fat.
  • 10% - 35% of calories eaten should come from protein.
vitamin a
Vitamin A
  • Sources:
    • Milk
    • Sweet potatoes
    • Carrots
  • Functions
    • Immune defenses
    • Improved vision
    • Healthier skin, hair, bones
    • Cell development
  • Deficiencies
    • Anemia
    • Blindness
vitamin b group
Vitamin B Group
  • Thiamine
  • Riboflavin
  • B6
  • B12
  • Niacin
  • B5
  • Folic Acid
  • Biotin
vitamin c
Vitamin C
  • Ascorbic Acid
  • Functions
    • Growth and repair of tissue
    • Maintenance of collagen, bones, and teeth.
  • Deficiencies
    • Scurvy
  • 90 mg/day recommended
vitamin d
Vitamin D
  • Sources
    • Sunlight
    • Fish
    • Oils
  • Functions
    • Maintain Calcium levels
    • Calcium absorption in intestines
  • Deficiencies
    • Rickets
    • Osteoporosis
vitamin e
Vitamin E
  • Source
    • Almonds
    • Wheat Germ
    • Vegetables
  • Function
    • Protects against free radical
    • Prevent against heart disease
    • Formation of the red blood cells
vitamin k
Vitamin K

Blood Clotting

Main Function

water
Water
  • 60% of body weight
  • 8-12 cups a day
  • Dark urine vs. clear
  • Function
    • Carries nutrients and wastes through body
    • Involved in metabolic processes
    • Regulation of body temp
    • Maintains blood volume
minerals
Minerals
  • Function:
    • Structure bones
    • Cell Metabolism
    • Muscle contraction
  • Major Minerals
    • > 5 grams- large amounts
  • Trace Minerals
    • <5 grams- small amounts

Calcium is the

most abundant mineral

anti oxidants
Anti- Oxidants
  • Help to prevent oxidation
  • Best fruits/ vegetables with ant-oxidants:

Blueberries

Spinach

Kale

Raspberries

Blackberries

Prunes

Raisins

further information
Further Information

For more information on nutrition, check out these helpful links!

  • Diet and Nutrition
  • My Pyramid
  • Nutrition.gov
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