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Sustainability and Globalization. Sustainability: “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” -from the United Nations General Assembly (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.

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Sustainability and globalization
Sustainability and Globalization


Sustainability: “meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”-from the United Nations General Assembly (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.


Sustainability involves
Sustainability involves:

The Environment

  • Economics

  • Sociology

  • Politics


Why sustainability is global
Why Sustainability is Global:

The Environment is Global:

If a country tried to act sustainably…

…would Global Warming cease for that country?


Why sustainability is global1
Why Sustainability is Global:

The Environment is Global:

If only one country tried to act sustainably…

…would ocean fish supplies replenish?


Why sustainability is global2
Why Sustainability is Global:

The Economy is Global:

If a country incorporates the cost to the environment into the price of their product (thus increasing it)……

…buyers will just buy from a country with the less expensive product (thus less environmentally friendly)


Sustainability:In order to meet the needs of future generations, we need to understand how many people will be on Earth.


Sustainability and globalization population as an environmental issue
SustainabilityandGlobalization:Population as an environmental issue


Reasons population is a sustainability issue
Reasons population is a sustainability issue:

Ecological Footprint:

  • Use of resources

  • Use of land

  • Generation of waste


Ecological footprint
Ecological Footprint:

“The Ecological footprint measures the amount of biologically productive land and water that are required to produce the resources an individual, population, or activity consumes and to absorb the waste they generate…”

-from The Ecological Footprint Atlas 2009


Ecological footprint1
Ecological Footprint:

  • Currently, for the Earth to support the population of 6.79 billion people, 1.8 global hectares (gha) are available for each person.


Ecological footprint2
Ecological Footprint:

  • Currently, for the Earth to support the population of 6.79 billion people, 1.8 global hectares (gha) are available for each person.

  • As population increases, less hectares are available for each person.


Ecological footprint3
Ecological Footprint:

  • Currently, for the Earth to support the population of 6.79 billion people, 1.8 global hectares (gha) are available for each person.

  • As population increases, less hectares are available for each person.

  • Right now, each person requires an average global footprint of 2.6 global hectares (gha).


Population dynamics exponential vs linear growth
Population DynamicsExponential vs. Linear Growth


Exponential growth
Exponential Growth

Any quantity that grows or decays by a fixed percent at regular intervals

Usually by a percentage of the base population rather than by a fixed amount.

Ex: Annual growth of 1% vs. X number of people


Linear growth
Linear Growth

When growth is by a fixed amount regardless of base population.


Population growth rate
Population growth rate

  • Percent by which the population will change each year


Population growth rate1
Population growth rate

  • The percent that the population will change by each year.

  • Calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate.


Population growth rate2
Population growth rate

  • The percent that the population will change by each year.

  • Calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate.

  • For U. S. the growth rate of 0.69% doesn’t include population increases due to immigration.


Doubling time
Doubling time

  • Time period over which a population doubles

    • Example: Growth rate of 1% will result in doubling time of 70 years.


Doubling time1
Doubling time

  • For U. S., the growth rate of 0.69%results in doubling time of ~101 years. (doesn’t include immigration)

  • For world, the growth rate of 1.18% results in doubling time of 59 years.(don’t need to consider immigration)


Doubling time2
Doubling time

  • For world, the growth rate of 1.18% results in doubling time of 59 years.

  • In Pakistan, population growth rate is higher than average: 1.551%, while in Japan it is much lower: -0.077%.

  • Following a 1.18% world growth rate, in 2069, world population could be: 2 x 6.79 billion or 13.58 billion.

  • But only if the population growth rate remains constant


Doubling time3
Doubling time

  • The Growth rate is decreasing.

  • Medium UN projections suggest population will even out at about 9.6 billion ~2050.


World growth rate is expected to decline
World growth rate is expected to decline:

http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldgrgraph.php



Why is the growth rate decreasing1
Why is the growth rate decreasing?

Need to look at Fertility rates.


Total fertility rate tfr
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

  • Average number of children born to women during their reproductive years.


Total fertility rate tfr1
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

  • Average number of children born to women during their reproductive years.

  • In 2008: average global TFR was 2.6 births per woman.


Total fertility rate tfr2
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

  • Average number of children born to women during their reproductive years.

  • In 2008: average global TFR was 2.6 births per woman.

    (1.6 in developed countries; 2.8 in developing countries)


Total fertility rate tfr3
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

  • In 2008: average global TFR was 2.6 births per woman.


Total fertility rate tfr4
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

  • In 2008: average global TFR was 2.6 births per woman.

  • In 1960: average global TFR was 4.8 births per woman.


Total fertility rate tfr5
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

  • In 2008: average global TFR was 2.6 births per woman.

  • In 1960: average global TFR was 4.8 births per woman.

  • This decrease contributes the decrease in the population growth rate.


Total fertility rate tfr6
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

Corresponds to level of education of women


What is the ideal fertility rate
What is the ideal fertility rate?

  • Probably a Replacement Level fertility rate:

    • the number of children a couple must give birth to in order to replace themselves.

    • 2.1 in developed countries

    • 2.5 in developing countries


What is the ideal fertility rate1
What is the ideal fertility rate?

Probably the Replacement Fertility Rate

  • A Replacement Level fertility rate will NOT immediately stop population growth.


What is the ideal fertility rate2
What is the ideal fertility rate?

  • A Replacement Level fertility rate will NOT immediately stop population growth.

  • The “population momentum” delays the effect of the lower fertility rate.


Population momentum
Population Momentum

  • Population momentumcan affect ideal population rate

  • “Population momentum” refers to the effect of a large percent of the population being of childbearing age (or moving toward it).

  • The “population momentum” delays the effect of a lower fertility rate as current children grow up and bear their own children.

  • For a few generations, the absolute number of births will exceed deaths, even if the childbearing population reproduces at replacement rate (2.1-2.5).


Limits on population growth
Limits on Population growth

  • Resources

    • In nature, famine keeps population in check

    • Results in a “Logistic” growth curve:

Number of Individuals

Time


Limits on population growth1
Limits on Population growth

  • Blue line is at the “Carrying Capacity”

    • the maximum population the habitat can sustain without degradation.

Carrying Capacity

Number of Individuals

Time


What is earth s carrying capacity
What is Earth’s Carrying Capacity?

  • We do not know.

Carrying Capacity

Number of Individuals

Time


What is earth s carrying capacity1
What is Earth’s Carrying Capacity?

  • We do not know.

  • Can the Earth support 9.6 billion people in ~2050?

Carrying Capacity

Number of Individuals

Time


What is earth s carrying capacity2
What is Earth’s Carrying Capacity?

  • Global Footprint Network says we already use 1.4 times what the Earth can provide without degradation.

Carrying Capacity

Number of Individuals

Time


What is earth s carrying capacity3
What is Earth’s Carrying Capacity?

  • Global Footprint Network says we already use 1.4 times what the Earth can provide without degradation.

  • Others propose that technology will increase the carrying capacity.


What is earth s carrying capacity4
What is Earth’s Carrying Capacity?

  • Global Footprint Network says we already use 1.4 times what the Earth can provide without degradation.

  • Others propose that technology will increase the carrying capacity.

  • To put it another way: Some believe that it is possible to use technology to solve….


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