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# NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE. Lecture 1 Methods of Science Ozgur Unal. NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE. Lesson objectives: Define science Identify the steps scientists often use to solve problems Determine dependent variables, independent variables and constants in an experiment. Scientific Method.

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### NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lecture 1

Methods of Science

OzgurUnal

### NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lesson objectives:

Define science

Identify the steps scientists often use to solve problems

Determine dependent variables, independent variables and constants in an experiment.

### ScientificMethod

Science is a processthatusesobservationandinvestigationtogainknowledgeabouttheevents in nature.

Observation:Useoursenses

Investigation:Includesobserving, experimenting, modelling

### ScientificMethod

ScientificQuestions

Experiment: A wayto test yourhypothesis

Collect data

Analyze data

Draw conclusions

• Experimentsincludevariables:

• Dependentvariables

• Independentvariables

• Constants

### ScientificMethod

• Ifthethickness of thecoating is smaller, theseedsgerminatefaster.

Question: Howdoesthethickness of theseedcoataffectthegermination rate of theseeds?

Hypothesis?

• Design an experimenttotestyourhypothesis:

• A seedwithscratchedcoat

• A seedwith a hole in thecoat (nicked)

• A seedwith an unscratchedcoat

### ScientificMethod

Coatingthickness

Germination rate

Temperature, amount of sunlight, wateretc.

Identifyvariables:

Independentvariable:

Dependentvariable:

Constant:

• Control: Theseedwith normal coating is usedtocomparethegrowthrates.

### ScientificMethod

• Drawconclusions: ??

• Shareyourresults: Communicate

### ScientificMethod

A theory is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers.

A theory is broader, moredetailedand can givetestablepredictions.

• A law is a concise but general statementabouthownaturebehaves. (e.g F=m*a)

• Forless general statements, weusethetermprinciple. (e.g. Archimedes’ Principle)

### ScientificMethod

Doesmicrowavepopcorn pop betterwhen it has beenfrozen?

Construct a hypothesis

Design an experiment to determine whether microwave popcorn pops better when it has been frozen.

Fortomorrow!

### NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lecture 2

Standards of Measurements

OzgurUnal

### Standards of Measurements

A standardis an exactquantitythatpeopleagreetousetocomparemeasurements.

Themeasurement of anyquantity is maderelativeto a particularstandardorunit.

Thelength of an object is 2.3  meaningless

Ifpeople do not usecommonunits, confusionsareinevitable.

### SI

SI, InternationalSystem of Units, is widelyused in theworld.

SI, is based on multiples of ten.

• Englishsystem is alsousedbymany.

• Importanttospecifyunitstoavoidevencatastrophes!

• Seethehandout.

### SI

A baseunitmust be defined in terms of a standard.

SI has 7 baseunits.

• Allotherunitsarederivedfrombaseunits. Forexample: unit of speed (m/s), unit of energy (Joule)

### ConvertingBetween SI Units

A conversionfactor is a ratiothat is equaltooneand is usedtochangeoneunittoanother.

Forexample, thereare 1,000 mL in 1 L.

1,000 mL = 1 L

or 1,000mL / 1L = 1

Toconvertone litre tomillilitre, usethisconversionfactor.

### Accuracy vs Precision

Accuracy: Compareshowcloseyourmeasurementsaretotherealoracceptedvalue