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NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lecture 1

Methods of Science

OzgurUnal

NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lesson objectives:

Define science

Identify the steps scientists often use to solve problems

Determine dependent variables, independent variables and constants in an experiment.

ScientificMethod

Science is a processthatusesobservationandinvestigationtogainknowledgeabouttheevents in nature.

Observation:Useoursenses

Investigation:Includesobserving, experimenting, modelling

Investigationsfollow a general pattern: ScientificMethod

ScientificMethod

ScientificQuestions

Hypothesis: Educatedguess, testableanswers

Experiment: A wayto test yourhypothesis

Collect data

Analyze data

Draw conclusions

- Experimentsincludevariables:
- Dependentvariables
- Independentvariables
- Constants

ScientificMethod

- Ifthethickness of thecoating is smaller, theseedsgerminatefaster.

Question: Howdoesthethickness of theseedcoataffectthegermination rate of theseeds?

Hypothesis?

- Design an experimenttotestyourhypothesis:
- A seedwithscratchedcoat
- A seedwith a hole in thecoat (nicked)
- A seedwith an unscratchedcoat

ScientificMethod

Coatingthickness

Germination rate

Temperature, amount of sunlight, wateretc.

Identifyvariables:

Independentvariable:

Dependentvariable:

Constant:

- Control: Theseedwith normal coating is usedtocomparethegrowthrates.

ScientificMethod

Performtheexperiment, collectandrecordyour data:

- Drawconclusions: ??

- Shareyourresults: Communicate

ScientificMethod

A theory is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers.

A theory is broader, moredetailedand can givetestablepredictions.

- A law is a concise but general statementabouthownaturebehaves. (e.g F=m*a)
- Forless general statements, weusethetermprinciple. (e.g. Archimedes’ Principle)

ScientificMethod

Doesmicrowavepopcorn pop betterwhen it has beenfrozen?

Construct a hypothesis

Design an experiment to determine whether microwave popcorn pops better when it has been frozen.

Fortomorrow!

NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lecture 2

Standards of Measurements

OzgurUnal

Standards of Measurements

A standardis an exactquantitythatpeopleagreetousetocomparemeasurements.

Themeasurement of anyquantity is maderelativeto a particularstandardorunit.

Thelength of an object is 2.3 meaningless

Ifpeople do not usecommonunits, confusionsareinevitable.

SI

SI, InternationalSystem of Units, is widelyused in theworld.

SI, is based on multiples of ten.

- Englishsystem is alsousedbymany.
- Importanttospecifyunitstoavoidevencatastrophes!
- Seethehandout.

SI

A baseunitmust be defined in terms of a standard.

SI has 7 baseunits.

- Allotherunitsarederivedfrombaseunits. Forexample: unit of speed (m/s), unit of energy (Joule)

ConvertingBetween SI Units

A conversionfactor is a ratiothat is equaltooneand is usedtochangeoneunittoanother.

Forexample, thereare 1,000 mL in 1 L.

1,000 mL = 1 L

or1,000mL / 1L = 1

Toconvertone litre tomillilitre, usethisconversionfactor.

Accuracy vs Precision

Accuracy: Compareshowcloseyourmeasurementsaretotherealoracceptedvalue

Precision: Describeshowcloselymeasurementsaretoeachotherandhowcarefullymeasurementsweremade.