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NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE. Lecture 1 Methods of Science Ozgur Unal. NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE. Lesson objectives: Define science Identify the steps scientists often use to solve problems Determine dependent variables, independent variables and constants in an experiment. Scientific Method.

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NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lecture 1

Methods of Science

OzgurUnal


NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lesson objectives:

Define science

Identify the steps scientists often use to solve problems

Determine dependent variables, independent variables and constants in an experiment.


ScientificMethod

Science is a processthatusesobservationandinvestigationtogainknowledgeabouttheevents in nature.

Observation:Useoursenses

Investigation:Includesobserving, experimenting, modelling

Investigationsfollow a general pattern: ScientificMethod


ScientificMethod

ScientificQuestions

Hypothesis: Educatedguess, testableanswers

Experiment: A wayto test yourhypothesis

Collect data

Analyze data

Draw conclusions

  • Experimentsincludevariables:

    • Dependentvariables

    • Independentvariables

    • Constants


ScientificMethod

  • Ifthethickness of thecoating is smaller, theseedsgerminatefaster.

Question: Howdoesthethickness of theseedcoataffectthegermination rate of theseeds?

Hypothesis?

  • Design an experimenttotestyourhypothesis:

    • A seedwithscratchedcoat

    • A seedwith a hole in thecoat (nicked)

    • A seedwith an unscratchedcoat


ScientificMethod

Coatingthickness

Germination rate

Temperature, amount of sunlight, wateretc.

Identifyvariables:

Independentvariable:

Dependentvariable:

Constant:

  • Control: Theseedwith normal coating is usedtocomparethegrowthrates.


ScientificMethod

Performtheexperiment, collectandrecordyour data:

  • Drawconclusions: ??

  • Shareyourresults: Communicate


ScientificMethod

A theory is an explanation of a set of related observations or events based upon hypotheses and verified multiple times by detached groups of researchers.

A theory is broader, moredetailedand can givetestablepredictions.

  • A law is a concise but general statementabouthownaturebehaves. (e.g F=m*a)

  • Forless general statements, weusethetermprinciple. (e.g. Archimedes’ Principle)


ScientificMethod

Doesmicrowavepopcorn pop betterwhen it has beenfrozen?

Construct a hypothesis

Design an experiment to determine whether microwave popcorn pops better when it has been frozen.

Fortomorrow!


NIS – PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Lecture 2

Standards of Measurements

OzgurUnal


Standards of Measurements

A standardis an exactquantitythatpeopleagreetousetocomparemeasurements.

Themeasurement of anyquantity is maderelativeto a particularstandardorunit.

Thelength of an object is 2.3  meaningless

Ifpeople do not usecommonunits, confusionsareinevitable.


SI

SI, InternationalSystem of Units, is widelyused in theworld.

SI, is based on multiples of ten.

  • Englishsystem is alsousedbymany.

  • Importanttospecifyunitstoavoidevencatastrophes!

  • Seethehandout.


SI

A baseunitmust be defined in terms of a standard.

SI has 7 baseunits.

  • Allotherunitsarederivedfrombaseunits. Forexample: unit of speed (m/s), unit of energy (Joule)


ConvertingBetween SI Units

A conversionfactor is a ratiothat is equaltooneand is usedtochangeoneunittoanother.

Forexample, thereare 1,000 mL in 1 L.

1,000 mL = 1 L

or1,000mL / 1L = 1

Toconvertone litre tomillilitre, usethisconversionfactor.


Accuracy vs Precision

Accuracy: Compareshowcloseyourmeasurementsaretotherealoracceptedvalue

Precision: Describeshowcloselymeasurementsaretoeachotherandhowcarefullymeasurementsweremade.


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