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The Perfect Tense. The perfect tense. In Latin the perfect tense is used to indicate a completed action in the past time. The perfect tense. It is translated “______ ed ”; “did ________”; or “has/have _______ed.”. The perfect tense. There are 4 ways to form the perfect tense.

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The Perfect Tense

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The perfect tense

The Perfect Tense

The perfect tense1

The perfect tense

  • In Latin the perfect tense is used to indicate a completed action in the past time.

The perfect tense2

The perfect tense

  • It is translated “______ed”; “did ________”; or “has/have _______ed.”

The perfect tense3

The perfect tense

  • There are 4 ways to form the perfect tense.

The perfect tense4

The perfect tense

  • The first and the most common is the “vsux” rule.

The perfect tense5

The perfect tense

  • With the “vsux” rule, the letter v, s, u, or x is essentially added to the present stem. For example,

The perfect tense6

The perfect tense

  • Portat=>portavit

  • He carries => He carried

The perfect tense7

The perfect tense

  • Iubet => iussit

  • He orders => he ordered

  • Note the assimilation of the b and the s:

  • Iub + sit => iussit

The perfect tense8

The perfect tense

  • Tacet => tacuit

  • He is silent => he has been silent

The perfect tense9

The perfect tense

  • Ducit => duxit

  • He leads => he led

The perfect tense10

The perfect tense

  • The next way to form the perfect tense is by vowel change (“ablaut”). For example,

The perfect tense11

The perfect tense

  • Advenit => advēnit

  • He arrives => he has arrived

  • Facit => fēcit

  • He makes => he did make

The perfect tense12

The perfect tense

  • The third way is “no change.” i.e., the present and perfect tenses will look exactly alike. Only the context can tell you whether the verb is present of perfect tense. For example,

The perfect tense13

The perfect tense

  • Inquit => inquit

  • She says => she said

  • Respondit => respondit

  • She replies => she replied

The perfect tense14

The perfect tense

  • The final way to form the perfect tense is by reduplication (i.e. part of the present stem will be duplicated). For example,

The perfect tense15

The perfect tense

  • Currit =>cucurrit

  • He runs => he ran

  • Cadit => Cecidit

  • He falls => he fell

The perfect tense16

The perfect tense

  • The endings for the perfect tense are different from the present tense endings too.

  • The 3rd person singular is –it.

  • The 3rd person plural is –erunt.

  • We’ll learn the other endings later.

The perfect tense17

The perfect tense

  • Perfectisumus!

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