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The Perfect Tense. The perfect tense. In Latin the perfect tense is used to indicate a completed action in the past time. The perfect tense. It is translated “______ ed ”; “did ________”; or “has/have _______ed.”. The perfect tense. There are 4 ways to form the perfect tense.

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The perfect tense1
The perfect tense

  • In Latin the perfect tense is used to indicate a completed action in the past time.


The perfect tense2
The perfect tense

  • It is translated “______ed”; “did ________”; or “has/have _______ed.”


The perfect tense3
The perfect tense

  • There are 4 ways to form the perfect tense.


The perfect tense4
The perfect tense

  • The first and the most common is the “vsux” rule.


The perfect tense5
The perfect tense

  • With the “vsux” rule, the letter v, s, u, or x is essentially added to the present stem. For example,


The perfect tense6
The perfect tense

  • Portat => portavit

  • He carries => He carried


The perfect tense7
The perfect tense

  • Iubet => iussit

  • He orders => he ordered

  • Note the assimilation of the b and the s:

  • Iub + sit => iussit


The perfect tense8
The perfect tense

  • Tacet => tacuit

  • He is silent => he has been silent


The perfect tense9
The perfect tense

  • Ducit => duxit

  • He leads => he led


The perfect tense10
The perfect tense

  • The next way to form the perfect tense is by vowel change (“ablaut”). For example,


The perfect tense11
The perfect tense

  • Advenit => advēnit

  • He arrives => he has arrived

  • Facit => fēcit

  • He makes => he did make


The perfect tense12
The perfect tense

  • The third way is “no change.” i.e., the present and perfect tenses will look exactly alike. Only the context can tell you whether the verb is present of perfect tense. For example,


The perfect tense13
The perfect tense

  • Inquit => inquit

  • She says => she said

  • Respondit => respondit

  • She replies => she replied


The perfect tense14
The perfect tense

  • The final way to form the perfect tense is by reduplication (i.e. part of the present stem will be duplicated). For example,


The perfect tense15
The perfect tense

  • Currit =>cucurrit

  • He runs => he ran

  • Cadit => Cecidit

  • He falls => he fell


The perfect tense16
The perfect tense

  • The endings for the perfect tense are different from the present tense endings too.

  • The 3rd person singular is –it.

  • The 3rd person plural is –erunt.

  • We’ll learn the other endings later.


The perfect tense17
The perfect tense

  • Perfectisumus!


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