CSR In Higher Education: The Journey to Sustainability

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Key Milestones. 1980 World Conservation Strategy1983 UN World Commission on the Environment

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CSR In Higher Education: The Journey to Sustainability

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1. CSR In Higher Education: The Journey to Sustainability John Hirst University of Durham

2. Key Milestones 1980 World Conservation Strategy 1983 UN World Commission on the Environment & Development: The Brundtland Commission 1992 UN Rio Earth Summit: Agenda 21 Framework for Action For Sustainable Development 1993 The Toyne Report: “Environmental Responsibility: An Agenda for FHE” 1994 European University Charter for Sustainable Development (Copernicus Charter) 1997 The Kyoto Protocol 1998 UN World Declaration on Higher Education (UNESCO) 1999 Government Strategy for Sustainable Development for the UK 1999 HE21 Initiative 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development 2003 UK DfES Sustainable Development Action Plan for Education & Skills 2005 Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

3. DfES Sustainable Development Action Plan Objective 1: developing the skills, knowledge and value-base for active citizenship in creating a more sustainable society Objective 2: pursuing the highest standards of environmental management Objective 3: encouragement and support for all publicly-funded educational establishments to help them operate to the highest environmental standards

4. HEFCE Sustainable Development Strategy Institutions as sustainable organisations Sustainability in the curriculum Sustainability in society HEFCE as a sustainable organisation

5. Issues How should the sustainability strategy for the HE Sector be implemented – via an Action Plan? What approach should be adopted – a holistic, integrated approach, e.g. based on CSR? Who should “own” the strategy - sustainability board or committee? What should be the priorities for engagement? initial need to get the message across to institutions What level of resources is required? What are the organisational implications for HEFCE – to what extent sustainability can be integrated into existing activities? What is the risk to HEFCE’s reputation of failing to respond effectively?

6. Approaches Bench-marking for Sustainability – a standards based approach Curriculum design Environmental management Governance – accountability & monitoring Organisational Learning for Sustainability – a personal & organisational development approach Learning by participation in roles & responsibilities designed to promote sustainability literacy and CSR skills & competences Performance coaching – linking beliefs, values, perceptions, feelings, ways of thinking, personality type, ethics, attitudes & behaviour Integrated value-based framework promoting learning & innovation Learning culture based on values and principle-centred leadership Social capital – building meaningful, multicultural and multi-disciplinary communities and relational proximity Procedures, Tools and Systems for Sustainability – a structural approach

7. Other Influential Bodies UK Agencies Higher Education Partnership for Sustainability in Higher Education (6 guidance documents to date) www.heps.org.uk UUK/SCOP Group on Sustainability in Higher Education www.universitiesuk.ac.uk Environmental Association of Universities & Colleges (EAUC) DTI Corporate Responsibility Group www.csr.gov.uk Europe European Foundation for Quality Management www.efqm.org Dutch Committee on Sustainable Development in Higher Education www.dho21.nl US Association of University Leaders for a Sustainable Future www.center1.com/ulsf Boyer Commission

8. HEPS 5 Principles: Learning & Skills for Sustainable Development The “at the same time” rule should be applied A learner-centred approach works best Ethics & values matter Sustainability literacy should be integrated into the life of the institution Good learning practice is essential

9. Key Concerns “It is the simultaneous progression of our economic, social and environmental goals that is essential if development is to be sustainable.” “Sustainable development is about the whole sum of the parts progressing together in a mutually reinforcing way.” “A conscious effort has to be made to identify, and avoid, damaging trade-offs where, for example, a decision that is good economically is not so environmentally or socially.” (HEPS Reporting for Sustainability Guidance, 2003)

10. The need for an integrated framework “Often by analysing activities in one framework, we can find solutions in unexpected places. People rarely think about things in a joined-up way and so miss negative impacts or, indeed, positive opportunities. This is one of the reasons we have fallen into unsustainable development.” (HEPS Reporting for Sustainability Guidelines, 2003) “CSR concerns the management of an organisation’s total impact upon both its immediate stakeholders and upon the society within which it operates” (DTI/CRG Report, 2003)

11. Frameworks AISHE HEPS Reporting Tool European Corporate Sustainability Framework EFQM Framework for CSR

12. CSR “CSR is about the integrity with which a company governs itself, fulfils its mission, lives by its values, engages with its stakeholders and measures its impacts and publicly reports on its activities” (DTI/CRG Report, 2003)

13. Key Concerns “Core CSR characteristics represent behaviours that can be learned, but are difficult to be taught” (DTI/CRG Report, 2003) “Sustainable development is as much about ethics and values as it is about science and technology” (Forum for the Future, 2000) “The integration of sustainability will never lead to anything fundamentally new if the University is not prepared to incorporate it both into its academic mission and its management philosophy.” (Wals & Jickling, 2002)

14. Elements of a Sustainable Development Programme Leadership for sustainable development Ethics and values Sustainability literacy/CSR skills & competences Leadership skills An understanding of how society works (HEPS “Learning & Skills for Sustainable Development”, 2004)

15. HEPS Publications Purchasing for sustainability Travel planning for sustainability Accounting for sustainbility Learning & skills for sustainability Reporting for sustainability Communicating for sustainability

16. Big Issues Growth conflicts with sustainability – critical limits defined by “environmental space” and encouraged by “ecological tax reform” (ETR) – if the richest countries keep growing, the poorer countries can’t catch up Present patterns of consumption are unsustainable in any case Consumer affluence does not lead to happiness The needs of future generations cannot be predicted Sustainability is a global phenomenon Much of the increase in productivity has only been achieved at the cost of growth in the use of energy and resource A steady-state economy will require a completely different set of cultural values Traditional cost-benefit analysis ignores environmental and social values The very idea of inter-generational equity is contrary to utilitarianism There prove to be significant conflicts between sustainability and free-market liberalism which serves the interests of affluent consumers who favour unsustainability – concern about sustainability is dismissed as a barrier to trade Sustainability costs more in the short-term so is rejected by traditional investment appraisal methodologies that ignore social & environmental costs

17. The Sustainability Opportunity “Sustainability provides colleges and universities with an opportunity to confront their core values, their practices, their entrenched pedagogies, the way they program student learning, the way they think about resources and allocate these resources, and their relationships with the broader community” (Wals & Jickling, 2002)

18. Process-thinking for Sustainability

20. GMP CSR in HE Project 1 To examine sustainability in terms of Leadership, management & governance in HEIs Student learning experiences – human & social capital Impact on sustainable development Influence on perceptions/reputation of universities

21. GMP CSR in HE Project 2 Deliverables Good-practice guide for leaders Resources for tutors/mentors/coaches Paper on strategic role of universities as intermediate institutions of society to influence sustainable development Evaluation of integrated SD frameworks, e.g. EFQM Framework for CSR, HEPS Reoprting Tool, AISHE Contribution to other GMP projects on Process Management, Leadership Development & Organisational Learning

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