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Impact of Mexico City on Regional Air Quality. Louisa Emmons Jean-François Lamarque NCAR/ACD. Chem-Climate WG White Paper. Hemispheric pollution to regional air quality: An issue of resolution Louisa Emmons, Lyatt Jaegle, Loretta Mickley

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Impact of mexico city on regional air quality

Impact of Mexico City on Regional Air Quality

Louisa Emmons

Jean-François Lamarque

NCAR/ACD


Chem climate wg white paper
Chem-Climate WG White Paper

Hemispheric pollution to regional air quality: An issue of resolution

Louisa Emmons, Lyatt Jaegle, Loretta Mickley

Scientific advances to be accomplished within this project

1) Improved understanding of feedbacks between climate change and air pollution: effects of changing temperatures/precipitation/water vapor on chemistry, effects of changing emissions (biogenic NOx and VOC, lightning NOx, biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions), effects of changing meteorology (synoptic and hemispheric scales, stratosphere-troposphere exchange).

2) Improved understanding of feedbacks between climate change and export of pollution to the global atmosphere: will a warmer climate lead to more efficient export of pollution? How will it affect the long-range transport of pollution?

3) Improved understanding of the horizontal resolution needed to accurately predict the influences of future climate change on regional air quality and vice versa, through the use of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in conjunction with CAM.

4) Exploration of the possibility of downscaling global simulations for analysis of regional air quality.


Milagro
MILAGRO

March 2006

Comprehensive set of measurements from city to regional scales

INTEX-B - NASA - DC-8 based in Houston

MIRAGE-Mex - NSF - C-130 based in Veracruz; ground measurements

MAX-Mex - DOE - G1

MCMA - Molina Center - surface and mobile lab


Model simulations
Model Simulations

Meteorology: NCEP/GFS analyses (42 levels)

Emissions:

anthropogenic: POET-2000 and Mexico NEI (1999)

biomass burning: GFED-2 and C. Wiedinmyer’s N.America calculations (MODIS daily fire counts)

MOZART-4

T42 (2.8°)

T85 (1.4°)

T170 (0.7°)

CAM-Chem

0.47°x0.63°


Model evaluation comparison to c 130 measurements all flights binned by altitude
Model EvaluationComparison to C-130 measurements - all flights binned by altitude

Finer resolution generally matches observations better

Mexico City points


Model evaluation comparison to surface measurements t1
Model EvaluationComparison to surface measurements (T1)

O3 [ppbv]

CO [ppbv]

Acetone [ppbv]


Ozone from mexico city march 2006
Ozone from Mexico City - March 2006

NO emissions from Mexico City are “tagged” to quantify O3 production

Average over March 2006, surface to 400 hPa

T85 has higher concentrations over Mexico City, but not larger regional impact

NO emissions

POET emissions inventory


March 19 strong outflow event
March 19 strong outflow event

T85 - higher O3 throughout plume than T42

CAM-Chem - higher O3 over city but weaker plume

C-130 data will be used to evaluate

2.8°

1.4°

0.5°


Radiative forcing of mexico city emissions

Shortwave flux at the surface

24-hour average

W/m2

Radiative forcing of Mexico City emissions

CAM-Chem, 0.47x0.63 resolution, driven by NCEP-GFS winds


Cam chem dart in support of arctas
CAM-Chem/DART in support of ARCTAS

Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS)

NASA aircraft campaign coincident with NOAA and DOE experiments

Part of POLARCAT/IPY

April - Fairbanks - Arctic haze, surface halogen chemistry

July - near Edmonton - Boreal wildfires

  • Chemical Forecasts

    • EnKF Data Assimilation: met obs, MOPITT CO, MODIS AOD

    • Then free-running forecasts (5 days) for flight planning

  • Post-campaign Analysis

    • Evaluate and improve CAM-Chem

    • Interpret aircraft and satellite observations


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