Argumentation
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ARGUMENTATION. Giving Your Ideas Power. When I say “argument,” what do you think?. Do you see two people shouting or even screaming at one another trying to browbeat the other into submission?. Well…that is not exactly what is meant by the term argumentation.

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ARGUMENTATION

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Argumentation

ARGUMENTATION

Giving Your Ideas Power


When i say argument what do you think

When I say “argument,” what do you think?

  • Do you see two people shouting or even screaming at one another trying to browbeat the other into submission?


Well that is not exactly what is meant by the term argumentation

Well…that is not exactly what is meant by the term argumentation.

So then, what do we mean by the term argumentation?


An argument

An argument…

  • States a specific position and provides supporting points for that position

  • Makes a main claim and provides supporting evidence to prove that claim

  • Draws a conclusion and gives specifics reasons for that conclusion


Notice that an argument must have two parts

Specific

Position

Main Claim

Conclusion

Supporting

Points

Supporting Evidence

Reasons

Notice that an argument must have two parts


Visually an argument looks like this

Visually, an argument looks like this

Conclusion

Reasons


Remember arguments have two distinct parts

Remember arguments have two distinct parts.

THIS BECAUSE OF THAT

Those supporting points

That supporting evidence

Those reasons

This specific position

This main claim

This conclusion

BECAUSE OF


Now let s practice

Now Let’s Practice…..

Remember we are identifying the parts of the argument.

Whether we agree or disagree with the position does not matter.

Evaluating the validity of arguments will come later.


Example 1

Example #1

Fast food restaurants should be allowed in schools because students have the right to decide what happens in and to their bodies.

This Because of That

Students have the right to decide what happens to their bodies.

Fast food should be allowed.

Because of


Example 2

Example #2

Smoking should be banned because it is harmful to everyone’s health.

This Because of That

Smoking should be banned.

It is harmful to everyone’s health.

Because of


Strategies for spotting conclusions

Strategies for spotting conclusions…

  • Know where to look for conclusions.

  • Conclusions usually appear in one of two places:

    • Introductory Paragraphs

    • Concluding Paragraphs


Look for indicator words that signal a conclusion

Look for indicator words that signal a conclusion

  • Therefore

  • Thus

  • Hence

  • So

  • In conclusion

  • As a result

  • In short

  • The point is


Example 3

Example #3

Nuclear power plants are hazardous to human life and the environment. Thus, these plants should no longer be built.

This Because of That

Nuclear power plants should no longer be built.

Nuclear power plants are hazardous to human life and the environment.

Because of


If no conclusion or main claim is stated

If no conclusion or main claim is stated…

construct the conclusion by finding the main question that the essay answers.

Ask yourself: What is this writer trying to prove or show?


Strategies for spotting reasons

Strategies for spotting reasons

  • Know where to look for reasons.

  • Reasons usually appear in the body of an essay.

  • Reasons may include facts, surveys, statistics, value judgments, and general opinions.


Look for indicator words that signal a reasons

Look for indicator words that signal a reasons

  • Because

  • Since

  • On account of

  • For

  • In view of the fact that

  • For the reason that


If reasons seem unclear to you

If reasons seem unclear to you

  • Find the conclusion first.

  • Then ask yourself, “Why?”

  • Any sentence in the essay that tells why a writer believes his conclusion to be true will be a reason.

  • This strategy will help you focus

    in on the writer’s reasons.


Example 4

Example #4

On account of his poor grades and in view of the fact that he has not saved his own money, Jim should not be allowed to go on the spring break trip.

This Because of That

Jim should not be allowed to go on the spring break trip.

  • He has made poor grades.

  • He has not saved his own money.

Because of


Now that we have looked at simple arguments let s look further

Now that we have looked at simple arguments, let’s look further.

  • Basic argumentative statements can be linked with others to form complex argumentative structures.

  • Thus a scaffold of reasons and conclusions is built that can deal with complex issues.


Mini arguments

Mini-arguments

  • Sometimes the conclusion of one argument becomes the reason for another argument.

  • This is how the scaffold is formed, as one argument supports the next argument.


Look at this example

Look at this example…

John shouldn’t run for treasurer.

He doesn’t know how to handle money.

Just yesterday he deposited money into the wrong account.


Now you try

Now you try…

We shouldn’t buy that new building set for Jimmy because he hasn’t learned to take care of the toys he already has. Just yesterday, he shoved all his toys into the closet or kicked them under the bed. Besides, I don’t think he’s old enough yet for that set. The box says it’s for 8 to 10 year olds, and Jimmy is only 4.

Conclusion

Reason #2

Reason #1

Mini-argument

Mini-argument

Mini-argument

Mini-argument


Argumentation

We shouldn’t buy that new building set for Jimmy.

He is not old enough for this set.

He hasn’t learned to take care of his toys.

He shoved toys into the closet.

He kicked toys under the bed.

The box says 8 to 10 year olds.

Jimmy is only 4.


Now that you are skilled let s try one with a mini argument

Now that you are skilled, let’s try one with a mini-argument…

Your scaffold will look like this:

Make this scaffold on the back of your exercise sheet.


Argumentation

Smoking is bad for your health. Heart disease and lung disease occur at higher rates for those who smoke when compared to those who don’t smoke. Cancer is another threat as well. Also, smoking can be unpleasant socially. Your clothes have that stale smoke odor and unfortunately so does your breath. Many people just don’t want to spend much time around smokers. Lastly, smoking costs too much. Cigarettes aren’t cheap, and then you have the cost of whitening treatments for your stained teeth. As such, Mom, I really think you should quit smoking.


Solution

Solution:

Mom should quit smoking.

Bad for your health

Unpleasant socially

Expensive

Cigarettes aren’t cheap.

Odor on clothes

Heart Disease

Bad breath

Cost of whitening treatments.

Lung Disease

People don’t want to be around you

Cancer


Now that you understand how arguments are structured

Now that you understand how arguments are structured…

Pick a topic for your business letter and organize your arguments.

* Remember to use effective logical and emotional persuasive techniques!!!!!!!


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