Theories & Models in Outdoor Education. EnEd 5165. Sometimes a tree grows too fast. It grows ahead of its roots. You need to allow time for the roots to take hold. (Anonymous saying about “life”). Occam’s Razor.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Theories & Models in Outdoor Education
Sometimes a tree grows too fast.
It grows ahead of its roots.
You need to allow time for the roots to take hold.
(Anonymous saying about “life”)
Foundations of Outdoor Education
Which follow the parent disciplines of
•Education and Physical Education
Experiential education is a process through which the learner constructs knowledge, skill, and value from direct experiences (AEE, 11/3/94)
Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.
“Outdoor Education is the blending of both adventure and environmental approaches into a program of activities or experiences. Through exposure to the outdoor setting, individuals learn about their relationship with the natural environment, relationships between the various concepts of natural ecosystems, and personal relationships with others and with their inner self.” (Priest, 1986)
Priest, S. (1986). Journal of Experiential Education. 17.3. p 15.
A model of environmental education in the U.K.
Palmer. J. (1998). Environmental Education in the 21st Century: Theory, Practice, & Promise. Rutledge. p. 272
Definition of Environmental Education
“Environmental education is aimed at approaching a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its associated problems, aware of how to solve those problems, and motivated to work toward their solution.” (Stapp, B., et.al., (1969). Journal of Environmental Education. 1,1. p. 34.)
“Environmental education is the process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts in order to develop skill and attitudes necessary to understand and appreciate the inter-relatedness among man, his culture, and his bio-physical surroundings. Environmental education also entails practice in decision-making and seelf-formulation of a code of behavior about issues concerning environmental quality.” (International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) & United Nations Education and Cultural Organization (UNESC)) in Palmer. (1998). P 7.)
What is Sustainability?
Putting the concept into
practice for citizens.
Start where the student is atNOTWhere you want them to be (Ausubel, 1975; Constructivism)
“What is best taught outdoors, should there be taught” (L.B. Sharpe, 1949)
Interpretation Association Australia.
“Through Interpretation, Understanding
Through Understanding, Appreciation
Through Appreciation, Protection”
Beck and Cable, 1998,
Interpretation for the 21st Century
Interpersonal GrowthorEducational Skills
A Model of
Link to First Nations Learning Model
Multiple Intelligences(Gardener, 1983)
Multiple Intelligence (Gardner, H.,1983)
What is the outcome of in-service training?
In-service can deal with these:
Knowledge of Action Strategies
Knowledge of Issues
Responsible Environmental Behavior
Intention to Act?
Locus of Control
Model of Responsible Behavior
(Hines, et al., 1986)
Leppänen, J., 2012
The Multi-disciplinary (Infusion) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)
The Inter-disciplinary (Insertion or Mono-disciplinary) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)
I. The Learner
Motivated - State of readiness
II. Unique Physical Environment
The use of a novel environment to promote self awareness/ self growth
III. Unique Social Environment
Placing people with different backgrounds and abilities together to work toward a common goal creates an interdependence.
IV. Presentation of a Characteristic Set of Problems which Facilitate Mastery (Dissonance. Festinger, L.)
A. Prescriptive & Organized
Every activity has a risk of some sort
Involves emotional, mental, and physical components.
V. Adaptive Dissonance, Mastery, and Attendant Reconstruction
(Anxiety, Mastery, and Reconstruction)
Golins, G., Walsh, V. (1975)
Unforeseen beneficial circumstances
Incorrect decision making
loss of control
Unforeseen detrimental circumstances
Correct decision making
Influencing Factors on the Outcome of a Risk Activity
can be debilitating
•Learning new coping
•Powerful, can use
•Very useful but
Attitude toward the behavior
Perceived behavioral control