Theories models in outdoor education
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Theories & Models in Outdoor Education. EnEd 5165. Sometimes a tree grows too fast. It grows ahead of its roots. You need to allow time for the roots to take hold. (Anonymous saying about “life”). Occam’s Razor.

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Theories & Models in Outdoor Education

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Theories & Models in Outdoor Education

EnEd 5165


Sometimes a tree grows too fast.

It grows ahead of its roots.

You need to allow time for the roots to take hold.

(Anonymous saying about “life”)


Occam’s Razor

  • ”when you have two competing theories that make exactly the same predictions, the simpler one is the better.”(sic) or,

  • "Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.” (14th century)


Foundations of Outdoor Education

•Experiential Education

•Environmental Education

•Adventure Education

Which follow the parent disciplines of

•Education and Physical Education

• Psychology

Philosophy


Paradigm

Construct

Concept

Facts


Experiential Education

Experiential education is a process through which the learner constructs knowledge, skill, and value from direct experiences (AEE, 11/3/94)


Experiential Learning Requisites (Dewey, 1938)

  • SimpleNOT Easy

  • Highly Planned NOT Spontaneous

  • Meaningful NOTMeaning-less (exp. For sake of exp.)

  • Authentic NOT Contrived

  • Rooted in Empiricism NOT Laissez faire

  • Constructs from Personal Meaning


  • Individual MORE THAN Group

  • StructuredNOT Phenomenological

  • Requires Judgment of Instructor NOT Unguided

  • Understanding Cause & Effect requires REFLECTION


Essential Elements of Experiential Education (Terwilliger, 1995)

  • RELEVANCE: of the experience to the learner

  • PROGRESSIVE: experiences build on past knowledge & experiences

  • AUTHENTIC: outcomes are concrete with real consequences COMBINED WITH THE OUTWARD BOUND MODEL:

  • CHALLENGING: important to stay w/in potential ability

  • REFLECTION: ”processing” helps to shift from extrinsic to intrinsic benefits


Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.


Outdoor Education

“Outdoor Education is the blending of both adventure and environmental approaches into a program of activities or experiences. Through exposure to the outdoor setting, individuals learn about their relationship with the natural environment, relationships between the various concepts of natural ecosystems, and personal relationships with others and with their inner self.” (Priest, 1986)


Definition of Outdoor Education (Priest, S. 1986. p. 13)

“Outdoor education:

  • is a method for learning;

  • is experiential;

  • takes primarily in the outdoors;

  • requires uses of all senses and domains;

  • is based upon interdisciplinary curriculum matter;

  • And is a matter of relationships involving people and natural resources. The metaphorical model of a tree describes two approaches to outdoor education. Adventure education relates to interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships. Environmental education concentrates on ecosystemic and ekistic relationships.”


Definition of Outdoor Education (Priest, S. 1987)

Priest, S. (1986). Journal of Experiential Education. 17.3. p 15.


A model of environmental education in the U.K.

Palmer. J. (1998). Environmental Education in the 21st Century: Theory, Practice, & Promise. Rutledge. p. 272


Definition of Environmental Education

“Environmental education is aimed at approaching a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its associated problems, aware of how to solve those problems, and motivated to work toward their solution.” (Stapp, B., et.al., (1969). Journal of Environmental Education. 1,1. p. 34.)


Definitions of Environmental Education

  • Environmental education is learnng that produces an environmentally responsible citizenry (Hine, Hungerford & Tomera, 1987)


“Environmental education is the process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts in order to develop skill and attitudes necessary to understand and appreciate the inter-relatedness among man, his culture, and his bio-physical surroundings. Environmental education also entails practice in decision-making and seelf-formulation of a code of behavior about issues concerning environmental quality.” (International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) & United Nations Education and Cultural Organization (UNESC)) in Palmer. (1998). P 7.)


Approaches to Environmental Education(Scott & Gough, 1993)

  • Nature Appreciation

  • Wilderness Preservation

  • Earth Salvation

  • Environmental Issues Resolution

  • Species Protection

  • Environmental Ethics

  • Science Education outside


What is Sustainability? 

  • Brundtlund Commission Report, Our Common Future (1987)

    • “Sustainable Development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

  • Sustainability Education:

    Putting the concept into

    practice for citizens.


Start where the student is atNOTWhere you want them to be (Ausubel, 1975; Constructivism)


“What is best taught outdoors, should there be taught” (L.B. Sharpe, 1949)


A GREENPRINT FOR MINNESOTA(MOEE,1993) MINNESOTA’S GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION:

  • TO UNDERSTAND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS;

  • TO UNDERSTAND THE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR AND THE ENVIRONMENT;


  • TO BE ABLE TO ANALYZE, DEVELOP, AND USE PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS TO UNDERSTAND THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS OF INDIVIDUALS, INSTITUTIONS, AND NATIONS REGARDING ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES;

  • TO BE ABLE TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES BEFORE DECIDING ON ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION;

  • TO UNDERSTAND THE POTENTIAL COMPLEMENTARY NATURE OF MULTIPLE USES OF THE ENVIRONMENT;

  • TO PROVIDE EXPERIENCES TO ASSIST CITIZENS TO INCREASE THEIR SENSITIVITY AND STEWARDSHIP FOR THE ENVIRONMENT;

  • TO PROVIDE INFORMATION CITIZENS NEED TO MAKE INFORMED DECISIONS ABOUT ACTIONS TO TAKE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES.


Interpretation

  • “An educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects, by firsthand experience, and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information.” (Tilden, 1957, p. 8)


What is Interp??

  • An informal education process

  • “A process of communicating ideas and feelings which help people to understand more about themselves and the environment.”

    Interpretation Association Australia.


The Goal of Interpretation

“Through Interpretation, Understanding

Through Understanding, Appreciation

Through Appreciation, Protection”


The Interpretive Spectrum

Stewardship

Appreciation

Understanding

Reflection

Curiosity

Interpretive Opportunity


Six Principles of Interpretation (Freeman Tilden, 1957, p9)

  • If it doesn’t relate, it is sterile

  • Information is not interpretation. (Rather, it is revelation based upon information.)

  • Interpretation is an art. (Any art is teachable)

  • The chief aim is provocation (not instruction)

  • It should present a whole.

  • It should be age appropriate (not a “dilution” of adult material.)


Beck and Cable’s 15 Principles of Interpretation

  • To spark an interest, interpreters must relate the subject to the lives of visitors

  • The purpose of interpretation goes beyond providing information to reveal deeper meaning and truth

  • The interpretive presentation – as a work of art – should be designed as a story that informs, entertains and enlightens.

  • The purpose of the interpretive story is to inspire and provoke people to broaden their horizons

  • Interpretation should present a complete theme or thesis and address the whole person.


Beck and Cable’s Principles

  • Interpretation for children, teenagers and seniors – when these comprise uniform groups – should follow fundamentally different approaches.

  • Every place has a history. Interpreters can bring the past alive to make the present more enjoyable and the future more meaningful.

  • High technology can reveal the world in exciting new ways. However, incorporating this technology into the interpretive program must be done with foresight and care.

  • Interpreters must concern themselves with the quantity and quality (selection and accuracy) of information presented. Focused well-researched interpretation will be more powerful than a longer discourse.


Beck and Cable’s Principles

  • Before applying the arts in interpretation, the interpreter must be familiar with basic communication techniques. Quality interpretation depends on the interpreter’s knowledge and skills, which should be developed continually.

  • Interpretive writing should address what readers would like to know, with the authority and wisdom and the humility and care that comes with it.

  • The overall interpretive program must be capable of attracting support – financial, volunteer, political, administrative – whatever support is needed for the program to flourish.

  • Interpretation should instil in people the ability, and the desire, to sense the beauty in their surroundings – to provide spiritual uplift and to encourage resource preservation.


Beck and Cable’s Principles

  • Interpreters can promote optimal experiences through intentional and thoughtful program and facility design.

  • Passion is the essential ingredient for powerful and effective interpretation – passion for the resource and for those people who come to be inspired by the same.

Beck and Cable, 1998,

Interpretation for the 21st Century


Essential Elements of Constructivism(Terwilliger, 1995)

  • PRECONCEPTIONS MATTER

  • RELEVANCE(PERSONAL MEANING)

  • CONCEPTUAL LEARNING(V. FACTUAL)

  • COGNITIVE DISSONANCE(FOLLOWED BY RESTRUCTURE:FREEZE-THAW-REFREEZE)

  • SUPPORTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT (PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY: MASLOW)

  • ABILITY TO GENERATE, CREATE, PRODUCE, EXHIBIT, DEMONSTRATE


Adventure Education

  • A variety of self-initiated activities utilizing an interaction with the natural environment, that contain elements of real or apparent danger, in which the outcome, while uncertain, can be influenced by the participant and the circumstance.” (Ewert, 1989, p.6)


Developmental Stages of Environmental Literacy

  • Survival

  • Skills’ Acquisition

  • Relationships with the land and its inhabitants

  • Metaphysical feeling “connected” to the place; A feeling of harmony


Learning Stages in Teaching Environmental Literacy

  • SENSORY AWARENESS

  • SKILLS’ DEVELOPMENT & TRAINING

  • RELATIONSHIPS (ECOLOGICAL)

  • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AWARENESS

  • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ACTION


Direct Experience

*EnvironmentalEducation

(Formal)

*Interpretation

(Non-formal)

EcologicalRelationships

Ecotourism/Nature-Based Tourism

Interpersonal GrowthorEducational Skills

PhysicalSkills

Adventure Education

A Model of

Outdoor

Education


Learning Theory

  • Constructivism (Wals, 1987)

  • Concept Mapping (Novak, 1977; Bosquet, 1981)

  • Personal Meaning (Ausubel, 1963)

  • Brain Based (Whole Brain) Learning (Hart, 1983)

  • Native American Learning Styles (Reyes, 1989)

  • Cooperative Learning (Johnson & Johnson)


Constructivist Teaching Sequence(Driver & Oldham, 1986)

  • Orientation (motivation)

  • Elicitation (awareness)

  • Restructuring (conflict, alternatives)

  • Application(consolidation, reinforcement)

  • Review = reflection (learn about learning)


Native American Learning(Reyes, 1989)(Multi-Cultural (Banks & Banks))

  • Use family instructional techniques: Demonstration & imitation

  • Let children learn from children

  • Teach through stories and legends

  • Utilize visual skills (observation, visual discrimination, and spatial configuration)

  • Employ active learning strategies

  • Advance holistic intuitive learning (process information from whole to part to understand unity in the large situation)


Indian Learning Styles(Banks, J. & Banks, C. (1995). Handbook of research on multicultural education. Macmillon. Pp 490-491.

  • Field dependent/independent learning styles are unreliable, espec. group specific.

  • Yet, the research literature overview concludes similarly to Native American, Hispanic & African American that these groups tend to be field dependent in their learning styles.


Indian Learning Styles (summary)

  • Prefer visual, spatial, and perceptual information rather than verbal.

  • Learn privately rather than in public.

  • Use mental images to remember and understand words and concepts rather than word associations.

  • Watch and then do rather than employ trial and error.


Link to First Nations Learning Model

http://www.ccl-cca.ca/ccl/Reports/Redefining SuccessInAboriginalLearning/RedefiningSuccessModelsFirstNations.html 


Multiple Intelligences(Gardener, 1983)

  • Verbal-linguistic

  • Logical-mathematical

  • Visual-spatial

  • Body-kinesthetic

  • Interpersonal (build relationships)

  • Intrapersonal (look inward)

  • Naturalist


Multiple Intelligence (Gardner, H.,1983)


  • Have well-formed spatial ability.

  • Learn best from non-verbal mechanisms.

  • Learn experientially & in natural settings

  • Have a generalist orientation, interest in people & things

  • Value conciseness of speech, slightly varied intonation, & limited vocal range.

  • Prefer small-group work.

  • Favor wholistic presentations and visual representations.


What is the outcome of in-service training?

In-service can deal with these:

Action Skills

Situational Factors

Knowledge of Action Strategies

Knowledge of Issues

Responsible Environmental Behavior

Intention to Act?

Attitudes

Personality Factors

Locus of Control

Personal Responsibility

Model of Responsible Behavior

(Hines, et al., 1986)


Illustration of the models of theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991)

Leppänen, J., 2012


Vocational Studies

Physical Education

Life Sciences

EE

Mathematics

Earth Sciences

Social Studies

Arts, Humanities

Communications

The Multi-disciplinary (Infusion) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)


Vocational Studies

Physical Education

Life Sciences

EE

Mathematics

Earth Sciences

Social Studies

Arts, Humanities

Communications

The Inter-disciplinary (Insertion or Mono-disciplinary) Model (Hungerford & Peyton, 1981)


The Outward Bound Process

I. The Learner

Motivated - State of readiness

II. Unique Physical Environment

The use of a novel environment to promote self awareness/ self growth


III. Unique Social Environment

Placing people with different backgrounds and abilities together to work toward a common goal creates an interdependence.

IV. Presentation of a Characteristic Set of Problems which Facilitate Mastery (Dissonance. Festinger, L.)


A. Prescriptive & Organized

B. Progressive

C. Concrete

D. Manageable

E. Consequential

Every activity has a risk of some sort

F. Holistic

Involves emotional, mental, and physical components.


V. Adaptive Dissonance, Mastery, and Attendant Reconstruction

(Anxiety, Mastery, and Reconstruction)

VI. Summary

Golins, G., Walsh, V. (1975)


The Outdoor Adventure Pursuits Mix

PEOPLE

•MOTIVATIONS

•SKILLS

•SOCIAL ORIENTATION

•PREFERENCE

OPPORTUNITIES

•SETTINGS

•PROGRAMS

•SUPPORT FACTORS

•ACTIVITIES

REWARDS

•Psychological

•SOCIOLOGICAL

•EDUCATIONAL

•PHYSICAL


Unforeseen beneficial circumstances

Incorrect decision making

Outcome

Personal inability's

Proper training

greater control

loss of control

Poor training

Personal abilities

Unforeseen detrimental circumstances

Correct decision making

Influencing Factors on the Outcome of a Risk Activity


FEAR MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES

Technique

Definition

Comments

•Systematic

desensitization

•Flooding

•Modeling

•Rehearsal

•Gradual exposure

to source

•Useful, time-consuming

•Prolonged exposure

to fear

•Often inappropriate,

can be debilitating

•Learning new coping

methods

•Powerful, can use

instructor behavior

•Very useful but

requires preplanning

and time

•Practicing different

adaptive behaviors


Attitude-Behavior Model (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)

Beliefs

about

activity

Attitude

about

activity

Intentions

toward

activity

Behavior

with

activity


Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, I. 1991)

Attitude toward the behavior

Behavior

Intention

Subjective norm

Perceived behavioral control


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