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The mandible. ramus of mandible. angle of mandible. Body of mandible. It’s the bone of lower jaw. It’s the most inferior structure in the skull anterior view. It consists of: the body of mandible anteriorly. the ramus of mandible posteriorly.
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ramus of mandible
angle of mandible
Body of mandible
It’s the bone of lower jaw.
It’s the most inferior structure in the skull anterior view.
the body of mandibleanteriorly.
the ramus of mandibleposteriorly.
These meet posteriorly at theangle of mandible.
Themental protuberance is a projection at middline
where the two sides of the mandible meet.
On each side mental foramenis visible, passing through it
mental nerve & vessels.
There is also oblique ridge for muscle attachment
On lateral view the superior part of the ramus extends
upwards to form a condylar and coronoid process.
Thecondylar process is involved in articulation of the
mandible with the temporal bone.
The coronoid process is the point of attachment for the
Fossa for submandibular
Fossa for sublingual
On medial surface of mandible body:
Submandibular fossa for submandibular S. gland
Sublingual fossafor sublingual S. gland
Mylohyoid ridge for mylohyoid muscle attachment.
The seven cervical vertebrae form the
bony framework of the neck.
Typical Cervical vertebrae are characterized by:
Bifid smallspinous processes.
Transverseprocesses that contain a foramen (foramen
Large triangular vertebral foramen.
Superior articular processes facing backward & upward.
Inferiorarticular processes facing forward & downward.
Together the foramina transversarium form a
longitudinal passage on each side of
the cervical spine for vertebral blood
vessels (artery and veins) passing
between the base of the neck and
the cranial cavity.
Atypical Cervical vertebrae :
The upper two cervical vertebrae (CI and CII) are modified
for moving the head.
The first cervical vrtebra (atlas):
It hasneither body or spinous process .
It hasanterior arch, posterior arch &a lateral mass on
Each lateral mass has articular surfaces on its upper &
Atlas articulating with Axis
Theatlasartigulates superiorly with skull occipital condyles
& inferiorly with the axis.
The second cervical vrtebra (axis):
It hasodontoid process (dens) which projects upward
from the superior surface of body.
The seventh cervical vrtebrahas long & not bifid spine