The mandible
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It’s the bone of lower jaw. It’s the most inferior structure in the skull anterior view. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The mandible. ramus of mandible. angle of mandible. Body of mandible. It’s the bone of lower jaw. It’s the most inferior structure in the skull anterior view. It consists of: the body of mandible anteriorly. the ramus of mandible posteriorly.

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The mandible

ramus of mandible

angle of mandible

Body of mandible

It’s the bone of lower jaw.

It’s the most inferior structure in the skull anterior view.

Itconsists of:

the body of mandibleanteriorly.

the ramus of mandibleposteriorly.

These meet posteriorly at theangle of mandible.

The mandible

Mental foramen

Oblique ridge

Themental protuberance is a projection at middline

where the two sides of the mandible meet.

On each side mental foramenis visible, passing through it

mental nerve & vessels.

There is also oblique ridge for muscle attachment

The mandible

Coronoid process

Condylar process

On lateral view the superior part of the ramus extends

upwards to form a condylar and coronoid process.

Thecondylar process is involved in articulation of the

mandible with the temporal bone.

The coronoid process is the point of attachment for the

temporalis muscle

The mandible



Fossa for submandibular


Fossa for sublingual


On medial surface of mandible body:

Submandibular fossa for submandibular S. gland

Sublingual fossafor sublingual S. gland

Mylohyoid ridge for mylohyoid muscle attachment.

Cervical vertebrae

The seven cervical vertebrae form the

bony framework of the neck.


Cervical vrtebrae

Typical Cervical vertebrae are characterized by:

Small bodies.

Bifid smallspinous processes.

Transverseprocesses that contain a foramen (foramen


Large triangular vertebral foramen.

Superior articular processes facing backward & upward.

Inferiorarticular processes facing forward & downward.

Cervical vrtebrae

Together the foramina transversarium form a

longitudinal passage on each side of

the cervical spine for vertebral blood

vessels (artery and veins) passing

between the base of the neck and

the cranial cavity.

Cervical vrtebrae

Atypical Cervical vertebrae :

The upper two cervical vertebrae (CI and CII) are modified

for moving the head.

The first cervical vrtebra (atlas):

It hasneither body or spinous process .

It hasanterior arch, posterior arch &a lateral mass on

each side.

Each lateral mass has articular surfaces on its upper &

lower aspects.

Cervical vrtebrae

Atlas articulating with Axis

Theatlasartigulates superiorly with skull occipital condyles

& inferiorly with the axis.

The second cervical vrtebra (axis):

It hasodontoid process (dens) which projects upward

from the superior surface of body.

The seventh cervical vrtebrahas long & not bifid spine