Gale the grapple adaptive learning environment
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GALE: The GRAPPLE Adaptive Learning Environment. Paul De Bra Eindhoven University of Technology. Main GALE Functionality. Concept access  user model updates determine adaptive layout retrieve and adapt a “page” (xml file) conditional inclusion of fragments/objects

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GALE: The GRAPPLE Adaptive Learning Environment

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Gale the grapple adaptive learning environment

GALE:The GRAPPLE Adaptive Learning Environment

Paul De Bra

Eindhoven University of Technology

GRAPPLE Public Event


Gale the grapple adaptive learning environment

GRAPPLE Public Event


Gale the grapple adaptive learning environment

GRAPPLE Public Event


Main gale functionality

Main GALE Functionality

  • Concept access 

    • user model updates

    • determine adaptive layout

    • retrieve and adapt a “page” (xml file)

      • conditional inclusion of fragments/objects

      • adapt destination+presentation of links

    • generate additional parts: header, footer, accordion menu, …

GRAPPLE Public Event


Gale the grapple adaptive learning environment

GRAPPLE Public Event


Gale the grapple adaptive learning environment

GRAPPLE Public Event


Creating adaptive courses

Creating Adaptive Courses

  • Creating conceptual adaptation models

    • using authoring tools

    • understanding prerequisites

  • Creating content (pages) for GALE

    • using templates and layout definitions

    • user model operations within pages

  • Setting up the GRAPPLE infrastructure

    • combining an LMS with GALE

    • exchanging user model information

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Authoring pages separately

Authoring Pages Separately

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Template based authoring

Template-Based Authoring

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The gale course model

The GALE course model

  • A course consists of concepts and relationships

  • A concept has

    • properties: value given by the author

    • attributes:

      • value determined by adaptation rules;

      • properties, includes data type, persistence, …

      • event code: what to do when the value changes

    • a resource (selector): a URL or an expression to determine a URL

    • event code: what to do when the concept is accessed

GRAPPLE Public Event


Gale code

GALE Code

  • An author need not use any GALE code (adaptation rules and expressions)

  • An author can use GALE code to make a course more adaptive (than without code)

    • conditions for inclusion of fragments

    • insert value of a property or attribute in the page

    • complex stuff like generate lists of links

GRAPPLE Public Event


Conditional inclusion of fragments

Conditional Inclusion of Fragments

  • Example from the course “hypermedia structures and systems” taught at the TU/e:

    • Before reading about Xanadu the URL page shows:

      …In Xanadu (a fully distributed hypertext system, developed by Ted Nelson at Brown University, from 1965 on) there was only one protocol, so that part could be missing.…

    • After reading about Xanadu this becomes:

      …In Xanaduthere was only one protocol, so that part could be missing.…

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Conditional inclusion of fragments1

Conditional Inclusion of Fragments

  • Use the GALE <if>, <then>, <else> tags

  • Write a GALE expression

    …In <gale:ahref=“xanadu”>Xanadu</gale:a><gale:ifexpr=“${xanadu#knowledge}&lt;90”><gale:then>(a fully distributed hypertext system, developed by Ted Nelson at Brown University, from 1965 on)</gale:then></gale:if>there was only one protocol, so that part could be missing.…

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Gale shorthand code

GALE Shorthand Code

  • URI syntax, # for attributes, ? for properties

  • ${…} for expressions, #{…} for assignments

    • ${#suitability}

    • ${#image?title}

    • ${->(parent)?type}

    • #{->(parent)#visited, ${->(parent)#visited}+1};

    • "page".equals(${->(parent)?type})

    • #{gale://gale.tue.nl/personal#history, gale.conceptUri()};

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Including course user info

Including Course/User Info

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Including course user info1

Including Course/User Info

  • Show the user’s name:<gale:variablename="gale://gale.tue.nl/personal#name" />

  • Include info generated by a plug-in:<gale:count method="done”uri="gale://gale.tue.nl/cam/MilkyWay />

  • Show title of current concept:<gale:variableexpr="${?title}"/>

  • Include the image with URL from “image” property:<img width=“300”><gale:attr-variable name="src”expr="${?image}"/></img>

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Complex page constructs

Complex Page Constructs

  • We consider one example: generting a list of links:

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Complex page constructs1

Complex Page Constructs

  • The <for> tag generates bits of xhtml from a list of objects:<ul> <gale:forvar="concept" expr="${&lt;-(isMoonOf)}”><li><gale:a> <gale:variableexpr="${%concept?title}"/> <gale:attr-variable name="href”expr="&quot;%concept&quot;"/> </gale:a> </li> </gale:for></ul>

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Link adaptation in gale

Link Adaptation in GALE

  • Standard schema:

    • links are good, neutral or bad;

    • link classes are used by a CSS stylesheet to create the presentation color scheme

  • Implementation:

    • default: gale://gale.tue.nl/config/link#classexpr

    • #link.classepr attribute of the current concept

    • (${#suitability}?(${#visited}>0?\"neutral\":\"good\"):\"bad\")

  • Icons can be configured as well

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Adaptive link destinations

Adaptive Link Destinations

  • Several pages for one concept

    • create several resources;

    • define an expression for each resource

      • Url: gale:/tutorial/readme.xhtmlProperty (name): exprValue: ${#visited}==1

      • Url: gale:/tutorial/welcome.xhtmlProperty (name): exprValue: true

         (${#visited)==1 ? ”gale:/tutorial/readme.xhtml” : "gale:/tutorial/welcome.xhtml")

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Adaptive layout in gale

Adaptive Layout in GALE

  • A course has a layout with different frames or “cells” (header, menu, footer, page)

  • Default layout is defined ingale://gale.tue.nl/config/presentation#layout

    <struct cols="250px;*”> <view name="static-tree-view" /> <struct rows="60px;*;40px”> <view name="file-view" file="gale:/header.xhtml" / <content /> <p><hr />Next suggested concept to study: <view name="next-view" /></p> </struct></struct>

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Complex layout example

“Complex” Layout Example

  • The “hypermedia” course has adaptive layout:(escaping not done to make it easier to read)(${gale://wwwis.win.tue.nl/2ID65/introductorypart#done} ? ("page".equals(${?type}) ? “<struct cols="20%;*”> <view name="static-tree-view"/> <content/> </struct>” : “” ) : “” )</default>

  • If introductorypart is done then there is a non-trivial layout for pages, else there is no layout.

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Extensibility in gale

Extensibility in GALE

  • Add modules to handle different XML tags

  • Add processors to handle different formats (other than XML)

  • Create your own views

  • Add plug-ins (generate fragments or pages)

  • Change code language (expression syntax)

  • Add login managers

  • Add more Domain services (compile from other formats besides CAM)

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