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GALE: The GRAPPLE Adaptive Learning Environment. Paul De Bra Eindhoven University of Technology. Main GALE Functionality. Concept access  user model updates determine adaptive layout retrieve and adapt a “page” (xml file) conditional inclusion of fragments/objects

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Gale the grapple adaptive learning environment

GALE:The GRAPPLE Adaptive Learning Environment

Paul De Bra

Eindhoven University of Technology

GRAPPLE Public Event




Main gale functionality
Main GALE Functionality

  • Concept access 

    • user model updates

    • determine adaptive layout

    • retrieve and adapt a “page” (xml file)

      • conditional inclusion of fragments/objects

      • adapt destination+presentation of links

    • generate additional parts: header, footer, accordion menu, …

GRAPPLE Public Event




Creating adaptive courses
Creating Adaptive Courses

  • Creating conceptual adaptation models

    • using authoring tools

    • understanding prerequisites

  • Creating content (pages) for GALE

    • using templates and layout definitions

    • user model operations within pages

  • Setting up the GRAPPLE infrastructure

    • combining an LMS with GALE

    • exchanging user model information

GRAPPLE Public Event


Authoring pages separately
Authoring Pages Separately

GRAPPLE Public Event


Template based authoring
Template-Based Authoring

GRAPPLE Public Event


The gale course model
The GALE course model

  • A course consists of concepts and relationships

  • A concept has

    • properties: value given by the author

    • attributes:

      • value determined by adaptation rules;

      • properties, includes data type, persistence, …

      • event code: what to do when the value changes

    • a resource (selector): a URL or an expression to determine a URL

    • event code: what to do when the concept is accessed

GRAPPLE Public Event


Gale code
GALE Code

  • An author need not use any GALE code (adaptation rules and expressions)

  • An author can use GALE code to make a course more adaptive (than without code)

    • conditions for inclusion of fragments

    • insert value of a property or attribute in the page

    • complex stuff like generate lists of links

GRAPPLE Public Event


Conditional inclusion of fragments
Conditional Inclusion of Fragments

  • Example from the course “hypermedia structures and systems” taught at the TU/e:

    • Before reading about Xanadu the URL page shows:

      …In Xanadu (a fully distributed hypertext system, developed by Ted Nelson at Brown University, from 1965 on) there was only one protocol, so that part could be missing.…

    • After reading about Xanadu this becomes:

      …In Xanaduthere was only one protocol, so that part could be missing.…

GRAPPLE Public Event


Conditional inclusion of fragments1
Conditional Inclusion of Fragments

  • Use the GALE <if>, <then>, <else> tags

  • Write a GALE expression

    …In <gale:ahref=“xanadu”>Xanadu</gale:a><gale:ifexpr=“${xanadu#knowledge}&lt;90”><gale:then>(a fully distributed hypertext system, developed by Ted Nelson at Brown University, from 1965 on)</gale:then></gale:if>there was only one protocol, so that part could be missing.…

GRAPPLE Public Event


Gale shorthand code
GALE Shorthand Code

  • URI syntax, # for attributes, ? for properties

  • ${…} for expressions, #{…} for assignments

    • ${#suitability}

    • ${#image?title}

    • ${->(parent)?type}

    • #{->(parent)#visited, ${->(parent)#visited}+1};

    • "page".equals(${->(parent)?type})

    • #{gale://gale.tue.nl/personal#history, gale.conceptUri()};

GRAPPLE Public Event


Including course user info
Including Course/User Info

GRAPPLE Public Event


Including course user info1
Including Course/User Info

  • Show the user’s name:<gale:variablename="gale://gale.tue.nl/personal#name" />

  • Include info generated by a plug-in:<gale:count method="done”uri="gale://gale.tue.nl/cam/MilkyWay />

  • Show title of current concept:<gale:variableexpr="${?title}"/>

  • Include the image with URL from “image” property:<img width=“300”><gale:attr-variable name="src”expr="${?image}"/></img>

GRAPPLE Public Event


Complex page constructs
Complex Page Constructs

  • We consider one example: generting a list of links:

GRAPPLE Public Event


Complex page constructs1
Complex Page Constructs

  • The <for> tag generates bits of xhtml from a list of objects:<ul> <gale:forvar="concept" expr="${&lt;-(isMoonOf)}”><li><gale:a> <gale:variableexpr="${%concept?title}"/> <gale:attr-variable name="href”expr="&quot;%concept&quot;"/> </gale:a> </li> </gale:for></ul>

GRAPPLE Public Event


Link adaptation in gale
Link Adaptation in GALE

  • Standard schema:

    • links are good, neutral or bad;

    • link classes are used by a CSS stylesheet to create the presentation color scheme

  • Implementation:

    • default: gale://gale.tue.nl/config/link#classexpr

    • #link.classepr attribute of the current concept

    • (${#suitability}?(${#visited}>0?\"neutral\":\"good\"):\"bad\")

  • Icons can be configured as well

GRAPPLE Public Event


Adaptive link destinations
Adaptive Link Destinations

  • Several pages for one concept

    • create several resources;

    • define an expression for each resource

      • Url: gale:/tutorial/readme.xhtmlProperty (name): exprValue: ${#visited}==1

      • Url: gale:/tutorial/welcome.xhtmlProperty (name): exprValue: true

         (${#visited)==1 ? ”gale:/tutorial/readme.xhtml” : "gale:/tutorial/welcome.xhtml")

GRAPPLE Public Event


Adaptive layout in gale
Adaptive Layout in GALE

  • A course has a layout with different frames or “cells” (header, menu, footer, page)

  • Default layout is defined ingale://gale.tue.nl/config/presentation#layout

    <struct cols="250px;*”> <view name="static-tree-view" /> <struct rows="60px;*;40px”> <view name="file-view" file="gale:/header.xhtml" / <content /> <p><hr />Next suggested concept to study: <view name="next-view" /></p> </struct></struct>

GRAPPLE Public Event


Complex layout example
“Complex” Layout Example

  • The “hypermedia” course has adaptive layout:(escaping not done to make it easier to read)(${gale://wwwis.win.tue.nl/2ID65/introductorypart#done} ? ("page".equals(${?type}) ? “<struct cols="20%;*”> <view name="static-tree-view"/> <content/> </struct>” : “” ) : “” )</default>

  • If introductorypart is done then there is a non-trivial layout for pages, else there is no layout.

GRAPPLE Public Event


Extensibility in gale
Extensibility in GALE

  • Add modules to handle different XML tags

  • Add processors to handle different formats (other than XML)

  • Create your own views

  • Add plug-ins (generate fragments or pages)

  • Change code language (expression syntax)

  • Add login managers

  • Add more Domain services (compile from other formats besides CAM)

GRAPPLE Public Event


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