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Section 4 The Church and Society

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Chapter 15 Medieval Europe. Section 4 The Church and Society. I. Religion and Society (pgs. 544-552). The Catholic Church played an important role in Medieval Europe and used its powers to uphold its teachings.

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i religion and society pgs 544 552
I. Religion and Society (pgs. 544-552)
  • The Catholic Church played an important role in Medieval Europe and used its powers to uphold its teachings.
  • Between 1050 and 1150, more monasteries were built and new religious groups were started.
new religious orders
New Religious Orders
  • The Cistercian (sihs-thur-shuhn) order of monks was founded in 1098.
  • The most famous Cistercian monk was Bernard of Clairvaux(klar-voh).
  • Clairvaux helped promote the Second Crusade and defended the poor against the rich.

In the 1200s, several new religious orders were created.

  • The men in these orders were called friars – comes from the Latin word “brother.”
  • Friars were different from monks in that they traveled around preaching.
  • They could not own property or personal wealth and lived by begging.

Francis of Assisi founded the first order of friars in 1209 who became known as Franciscans.

  • A Spanish priest named Dominic de Guzman founded another group of friars called Dominicans.
the role of religion
The Role of Religion
  • In medieval Europe, daily life revolved around the Catholic Church.
  • MASS – Catholic worship services (Sundays/holy days)
  • SACRAMENTS – rituals done in church (communion)
  • SAINTS – holy men and women who had died (Mary)
  • RELICS – bones/personal belongings of Saints (power/healing)
what was the inquisition
What Was the Inquisition?
  • The Catholic Church was very powerful in medieval times and wanted everyone to accept the Church’s teachings.
  • Heresy (hehr-uh-see) is having religious beliefs that conflict with Church teachings.
  • To combat heresy, the pope established a court called the Inquisition (ihn-kwuh-zih-shuhn).

People brought before the Inquisition were urged to confess their heresy and ask for forgiveness.

  • Those who confessed were punished and allowed to go back to the Church.
  • Those who did not were considered guilty and tortured and turned over to political leaders , who could execute them.
how were the jews treated
How Were the Jews Treated?
  • Many Europeans hated Jews for:

1) Refusing to become Christians

2) Being moneylenders who charged interest, which was considered a sin.

  • Hatred of Jews is known as anti-Semitism (she-muh-tih-zuhm)
  • Christian mobs killed thousands of Jews and many were forced out of their homes.

II. Medieval


medieval art and architecture
Medieval Art and Architecture
  • Architecture in the Middle Ages reflected the importance of religion.
  • People built large churches, called cathedrals.
  • Two popular architectural styles of that time are:
  • 1) Romanesque – rectangular buildings with long, rounded roofs, huge pillars, and thick walls
  • 2) Gothic – ribbed vaults, pointed arches, flying buttresses, large stained glass windows.
the first universities
The First Universities
  • Oxford University in Oxford, England was founded in 1231 and was one of the first universities established in Europe.
  • Universities were also opened in Bologna (buh*loh*nyuh), Italy and Paris, France.
who was thomas aquinas
Who Was Thomas Aquinas?
  • Thomas Aquinas (uh*kwy*nuhs) was a Dominican friar who began a new way of thinking and studying theology called scholasticism (skuh*las*tuh*sih*zuhm).
  • Scholasticism combined Church teachings with reason and the teachings of Aristotle.
  • Aquinas also emphasized the idea of natural law.
  • He claimed that natural law gave people certain rights that the government should not take away:

1) right to live

2) right to learn

3) right to worship

4) right to reproduce

medieval literature
Medieval Literature
  • During the Middle Ages, people generally spoke and wrote in Latin.
  • In addition, each region developed its own vernacular (vuhr*na*kyuh*luhr), or everyday language.
  • During the 1100s, new literature was written in vernacular:
  • 1) troubadour (troo*buh*dohr) poetry – love poems, often about a knight and lady
  • 2) heroic epic – stories of brave knights fighting for kings/lords