Latvian seacoast. Seacoast. Seacoast is a part of the mainland; coastline is the outline when seen from the sea or from the seacoast. It is formed by the remains of an old sea during the postglacial progression of the Baltic basin.
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Depending on the stage of the progression of the shore processes there are following types of the coast:
Accumulation coastAbrasive coast
1. The first terrestrial habitat is the sea's beach itself or the beach. The beach is a narrow line of the mainland, surrounded by the waves. Beach is affected by the waves, winds and coastal currents all the time.
2. Most of the Latvian beaches are sandy beaches. Their total length is about 240 kilometers.
3. Gritty and pebble beach is composed of gravel or pebbles, or both. Like sandy beaches, they both can be the habitat for vegetation and those without vegetation.
4.A stony beach has many rubbles. Low and wet coastal beaches occur often among boulders. Perennial plants’ group consists of high coastal grasses - Common Reed, blue bulrush, seashore angustifolium and cattail.
Dunes are wind flown sand hills. Dunes began to form when the wind moved through the sand and there was an obstruction.
Dunes are divided into primary and secondary dunes. Primary dunes are the dunes the closest to the sea, usually on the seaside alongsideto the beach.
Embryonic dunes areof the very first stage of a dune evolution process. They are small, roughly 10-50 cm high sandy formations.
Foredunes or white dunes are next on embryonic dune line. It’s the subject of active sand movement and flooding.
Between the white dunes and forests lies in an unusual habitat of the gray dunes. It's rather stable - the sand movement has stopped or is little.
Green algae(Chlorophyta) - represents a whole variety of both microscopic and macroscopic green algae. Multi-cellular algae often found that close to shore, where they grow on rocks, wood poles or at the sea floor.
Bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) is a typical specie of seaweed, which is common in the Baltic Sea coastal waters. It is brown, perennial algae that grow on average 1 to 6 meters deep on a hard, rocky ground.
Rosemary-leaved willow (Salix rosmarinifolia) (1) is a natural seaside plant. It has small, green or grayish leaves, small, yellow or reddish willow branches.
Daphne willow (Salix daphnoides)(2) is not a wild plant; it was planted in the dunes, to secure them. Typical features of the branches with large inflorescence willow branches.
Sand pink (Dianthus arenatius subsp. arenarius) is a plant that consists of low blue-green flowers, which rises from the stem. Flowers scattered singly or raceme, fragrant, white to pale pink.
Sea sandwort (Honckenyapeploides) (1) is a perennial, green plant. Sea sandwort occurs only in a narrowband areas of a seacoast, because it requires moving sand, which is constantly being blown by the wind. They are essential for dune formation.
Goosefoots and Oraches(Chenopodium spp. and Atriplex spp.) (2) ) are difficult to distinguish genera with many species. They are exposed by waves and are affected by wind exposure. Chenopodium large beach area indicates pollution by nitrates.
Sea – rocket (Cakilebaltica) (1) is a blue, gnarled plant. Found in a narrowband areas of a seacoast.
Common kidneyvetch(Anthyllis sp.) (2) is greenish plant. The flowers are yellow. The stem is simple or more often branched. The leaves are glabrous or with scattered hairs on the upper face and silky hairs on the underside.
European beach grass (Ammophilaarenaria) (1) forms a distinct look with prolong flowers. It grows nearby the sea.
Lyme – grass (Leymusarenarius) (2) ) can be found farther from the sea – in the sand. The plant has distinctive bluish color, big ears.
Rattle grasshopper (Psophus stridulatus) (1) is a noisy flying locust. It occurs in dry places - in gray dunes, usually near the forest.
Myrmeleon formicarius (Myrmeleon formicarius) (2) ) is a large, rafters like an insect. It occurs in foreruns, gray dunes.
Dune tiger beetle (Cicindela maritime) (1) is a bright, shiny metallic beetle. Found on the beach and fore dunes.
Seven – spot ladybird (Coccinellaseptempunctata) (2) is one of the most common Latvian Mariss species. It is a predator, feeds on aphids, which can be found on the grass.
Sand digger wasp (Ammophilasabulosa) (1) It is common in warm, well-lit sun, sandy places. Active in sunny weather, often can be seen on flowers, population feeds on nectar.
Grey sand ant (Formica cinerea) (1) can be found on the beach, white-sand dunes and greyish dunes. Colony is built of sand forming deep underground nests.
Natterjack (Bufocalamita) is active at night, when hunting on the sandy plains. During the daytime hides in a hiding place. An inhabitant of the dunes, lives on insects, especially ants, spiders, worms.
Common shelduck(Tadornatadorna) (1) mainly nests in the Gulf of Riga coast; nests are built in caves or under different buildings.
Common goldeneye (Bucephalaclangula) (2) usually nests in trees' cavities or cages along rivers or lakes. Along the coast, it is the most prevalent during migration.
Common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) (1) is a goose-sized bird. In coastal areas present in the greater numbers in spring and autumn. Migrant bird in winters can be encountered in Western Europe.
Herring gull (Larus argentatus) (2) this sea bird occurs throughout the year. New gulls differ from the old ones, because they are brown speckled.
Great black – backed gull (Larus marinus) (1) is the most common gull specie in Latvia. Found at the edge of the sea all year, nesting in the coastal zone and on the rocks.
Sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis) (2) can be found on the seashore in the spring and summer on the other side. The specie can be observed on the seacoast rocks, in breakwaters. North Africa, southern Europe.
Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) (1) is the largest and the most common seal of the Latvian coast. Seals are generally grey with darker patches.
Ringled seal (Phoca hispida) (2) is not common for Latvia. It has a dark coat of fur with lighter irregular ring-shaped spots.
Sand pink Goosefoots, Oraches Meadows pasqueflower
Sea pea Linaria loeselii
1. Dry trees on the beach(1) reducesthe shocks from waves against the shore; they also serve as a home to many animal species.
2. Springs and pools(2) on the beach are very rare phenomena, most often it escapes at the foot of cliffs. They promote the plants’ presence, as well as the emergence of various aquatic species.
3. Mouths of rivers from the coast create diversity. Outfall near the river formed a wet beach, hosting moisture loving plants. Birds are often concentrated around the mouth of the river, because there's a broader range of food choices.
ENGURE SECONDARY SCHOOL
YEAR 10, 2012